Surah Maryam Ayat 46-98

{46. He (the father) said: “Do you revile my gods, O Ibrahim If you stop not (this), I will La’arjumannak. So get away from me Maliyan.” 

47. Ibrahim said: “Peace be on you! I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily, He is unto me Hafiyyan. 

48. And I shall turn away from you and from those whom you invoke besides Allah. And I shall call upon my Lord, and I certainly hope that I shall not be unblessed in my invocation to my Lord.”}

The Reply of Ibrahim’s Father

Allah, the Exalted, informs of the reply of Ibrahim’s father to his son, Ibrahim, in reference to what he was calling him to. He said, “Do you revile my gods, O Ibrahim?” This means, “If you do not want to worship them (the idols) and you are not pleased with them, then at least stop cursing, abusing, and reviling them. For verily, if you do not cease, I will punish you, curse you and revile you.” This is the meaning of his statement; “La’arjumannaka.” Ibn Abbas, As-Suddi, Ibn Jurayj, Ad-Dahhak and others said this. (At-Tabari 18:205)

Concerning His statement, “So get away from me Maliyan.” Mujahid, Ikrimah, Said bin Jubayr and Mujahid bin Ishaq all said, “Maliyan means forever.” (At-Tabari 18:205) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “For a long time.” (At-Tabari 18:205) As-Suddi said, “So get away from me safely Maliyan.” “This means forever.” (At-Tabari 18:206) Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-Awfi both reported that Ibn Abbas said, “So get away from me safely Maliyan.” “This means to go away in peace and safety before you are afflicted with a punishment from me.” Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Atiyah Al-Jadali, Malik and others said the same. This is also the view preferred by Ibn Jarir.

The Reply of Allah’s Friend (Khalil)

With this, Ibrahim said to his father, “Peace be on you!” This is as Allah said concerning the description of the believers, “and when the foolish address them (with bad words) they say, “Salaman” peace.” (25:63) Allah also says, “And when they hear Al-Laghw (false speech), they withdraw from it and say: “To us our deeds, and to you your deeds. Peace be to you. We seek not (the way of) the ignorant.” (28:55) The meaning of Ibrahim’s statement to his father, “Peace be on you!” “You will not receive any insult or harm from me.” This is due to the respect and honor of fatherhood. “I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you.” meaning “But, I will ask Allah to guide you and forgive you for your sin.” “Verily, He is unto me Hafiyya.” Ibn Abbas and others said that Hafiyyan means, “Kind.” (At-Tabari 18:207) Meaning, “since He guided me to worship Him and direct my religious devotion to Him alone.” As-Suddi said, “Al-Hafi is One Who is concerned with his (Ibrahim’s) affair.” Thus, Ibrahim sought forgiveness for his father for a very long time, even after he migrated to Ash-Sham. He continued to seek forgiveness for him even after building the Sacred Masjid (in Makkah) and after the birth of his two sons, Ismail and Ishaq. This can be seen in his statement, “Our Lord! Forgive me and my parents, and (all) the believers on the Day when the reckoning will be established.” (14:41)

From this tradition, during the beginning stages of Islam, the Muslims used to seek forgiveness for their relatives and their family members who were polytheists. They did this following the way of Ibrahim, the Khalil (Friend) of Allah, until Allah revealed, “Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allah.” (60:4)

Until Allah’s statement, “Except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: “Verily, I will ask forgiveness (from Allah) for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah.” (60:4) meaning, except for this statement, so do not follow it. Then Allah explains that Ibrahim abandoned this statement and retracted it. Allah, the Exalted, says, “It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah’s forgiveness for the idolators.” (9:113) Until Allah’s statement, “And Ibrahim’s invoking for his father’s forgiveness was only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he is an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah, [See the Tafsir of Surat At-Tawbah 9:114] forbearing.” (9:114)

Concerning Allah’s statement, “And I shall turn away from you and from those whom you invoke besides Allah. And I shall call upon my Lord,” This means, “And I worship my Lord alone, associating no partners with Him.” I certainly hope that I shall not be unblessed in my invocation to my Lord.” The word Asa (I hope) here means that which will necessarily occur and not that which is hoped for from the impossible. For verily, he (Ibrahim) is the leader of the Prophets other than Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

{49. So when he had turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We gave him Ishaq and Yaqub, and each one of them We made a Prophet. 

50. And We gave them of Our mercy, and We granted them Sidqin Aliyyan on the tongues.}

Allah gave Ibrahim Ishaq and Yaqub

Allah, the Exalted, says that when the Friend of Allah (Ibrahim) withdrew from his father and his people for the sake of Allah, Allah gave him in exchange those who were better than them. He gave him Ishaq (Isaac) and Yaqub (Jacob), meaning his son, Ishaq, and Ishaq’s son, Yaqub. This is as Allah said in another Ayah, “and Yaqub, a grandson.” (21:72) Also, Allah says, “and after Ishaq, of Yaqub.” (11:71) There is no difference of opinion about Ishaq being the father of Yaqub. This is what is recorded in the Qur’an in Surah Al-Baqarah. “Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub, When he said unto his sons, “What will you worship after me?” They said, “We shall worship your God the God of your fathers, Ibrahim, Ismail and Ishaq.” (2:133)

Allah only mentioned Ishaq and Yaqub here to show that He made Prophets from among his descendants and successors in order to give him relief and happiness in his life. This is why Allah says, “and each one of them We made a Prophet.” (19:49) If Yaqub had not become a Prophet in the lifetime of Ibrahim, then Allah would not have limited the promise of prophethood to him, but He would have mentioned his son Yusuf as well. For verily, Yusuf was also a Prophet, just as the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said in a Hadith whose authenticity is agreed upon, when he was asked who was the best of people. He said, “The Prophet of Allah, Yusuf, the son of the Prophet of Allah Yaqub, the son of the Prophet of Allah Ishaq, the son of the Friend of Allah Ibrahim.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:212) In another wording of this Hadith, he said, “Verily, the noble one is the son of the noble one, who is the son of the noble one, who is the son of the noble one. That is Yusuf, the son of Yaqub, the son of Ishaq, the son of Ibrahim.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:460) Concerning Allah’s statement, “And We gave them of Our mercy, and We granted Sidqin Aliyyan on the tongues.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Sidqin Aliyyan means the good praise.” (At-Tabari 18:208) As-Suddi and Malik bin Anas said the same thing. Ibn Jarir said, “Allah only said Aliyyan (loftiness, exalted) because all of the religions commend them and mention them with praises, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon them all.” (At-Tabari 18:208)

{51. And mention in the Book, Musa. Verily, he was Mukhlasan and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet. 

52. And We called him from the right side of the Mount (Tur), and made him draw near to Us for a talk with him. 

53. And We granted him his brother Harun, (also) a Prophet, out of Our mercy.}

Mentioning Musa and Harun

After Allah had mentioned Ibrahim, the Friend of Allah, and commended him, he next mentioned Al-Kalim (the one spoken to by Allah directly). Allah said, “And mention in the Book, Musa. Verily, he was Mukhlasan”. Ath-Thawri reported from Abdul-Aziz bin Rafi, from Abu Lubabah that he said, “The Disciples (of Isa) said, ‘O Spirit of Allah, inform us about the one who is Mukhlis (purely devoted) to Allah.’ He said, ‘That is one who does a deed solely for Allah and he does not like for the people to praise him.” Others recited the word as Mukhlas, which means that he was chosen. This is as Allah says, “Verily, I have chosen you above men.” (7:144) Concerning Allah’s statement, “and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet.” Allah combined these two descriptions for him. For verily, he was one of the greatest Messengers and one of the five Messengers of Strong Will. They are Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and Muhammad. May the blessings of Allah be upon them and all of the Prophets.

Allah said, “And We called him from the side of the Tur.” means Mount “right” It was on the right side of Musa when he went seeking a burning wood from that fire. He saw its glow in the distance, so he set out towards it and found it on the right side of the mountain from his direction, at the edge of the valley that he was in. This is when Allah, the Exalted, spoke to him and called out to him. Allah summoned him to come near and He conversed Ayah with him.

Concerning His statement, “And We granted him his brother Harun, (also) a Prophet, out of Our mercy.” This means, “We responded to his request and his plea on behalf of his brother and We made him a Prophet as well.” This is as Allah says in another Ayah, “And my brother Harun he is more eloquent in speech than me: so send him with me as a helper to confirm me. Verily, I fear that they will belie me.” (28:34) Also, Allah said, “Allah said: “You are granted your request, O Musa.” (20:36) He also said, “So send for Harun. And they have a charge of crime against me, and I fear they will kill me.” (26:13-14) Because of this, some of the Salaf (predecessors) said, “No one in this life pleaded on behalf of someone else more than Musa pleaded for his brother to be a Prophet.” Allah, the Exalted said, “And We granted him his brother Harun, (also) a Prophet, out of Our mercy.”

{54. And mention in the Book, Ismail. Verily, he was true to what he promised, and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet.

 55. And he would enjoin on his family and his people the Salah and the Zakah, and his Lord was pleased with him.}

Mentioning Ismail

Here Allah has commended Ismail, the son of Ibrahim, the Friend of Allah. He (Isma`il) is the father of all of the Arabs of the Hijaz because he was true to what he promised. Ibn Jurayj said, “He did not make any promise to his Lord, except that he fulfilled it.” (At-Tabari 18:211)  He never obligated himself to do any act of worship with a vow, except that he fulfilled it and carried it out, giving it its full due.

Some said, “(he was) true to what he promised.” “This was said about him because he said to his father, “If Allah wills you will find me of the patient.” (37:102) So he was truthful in that.” Being true to one’s promise is one of the praiseworthy characteristics, just as breaking one’s promise is of the detested characteristics. Allah, the Exalted, says, “O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.” (61:2-3) The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“The sign of the hypocrite is three things. When he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he breaks his promise; and when he is entrusted with something, he is disloyal to his trust.” (Al-Bukhari no.33, 2682)

Thus, if these are the characteristics of the hypocrites, then behaving contrary to these is a characteristic of the true believer. For this reason, Allah commended His servant and Messenger Ismail, for he was true to his promise. Likewise, the Messenger of Allah was true to his promise. He did not promise anyone anything, except that he fulfilled his promise to that person. He also commended Abu Al-As bin Ar-Rabi, the husband of his daughter Zaynab, by saying, “He spoke to me and he told me the truth, and he promised me and he fulfilled his promise to me.” (Fath Al-Bari 5:380)

When the Prophet died, the Khalifah (his successor), Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “Whoever received any promise from the Messenger of Allah or was owed any debt by him, then let him come to me and I will fulfill it on his behalf.” So Jabir bin Abdullah came and related that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“If the wealth of Bahrain comes (to me), then I would give you such and such and such”

This meant that he would fill his hands with wealth. Therefore, when the wealth of Bahrain came (to them), Abu Bakr commanded Jabir to come and fill his hands from that wealth. Then, he commanded him to do so again, until he collected five hundred Dirhams. Then, Abu Bakr gave him its double along with it. (Fath Al-Bari 4:554) (i.e. one thousand extra Dirhams).

Concerning Allah’s statement, “and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet.” In this is a proof of Ismail’s favored status over his brother, Ishaq. Ishaq was only described as being a Prophet, but Ismail was described with both prophethood and messengership. It is confirmed in Sahih Muslim that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, Allah chose Ismail from the sons of Ibrahim…” (Muslim 4:1782)

Then, Imam Muslim mentions the rest of the Hadith in its entirety. However, this statement proves the correctness of what we have said. Allah said, “And he would enjoin on his family and his people the Salah and the Zakah, and his Lord was pleased with him.” This is also a beautiful form of praise, a commendable quality, and and upright characteristic. He was commanded in this way because of his persistence in obedience of his Lord, and enjoining his family to do so.

This is as Allah said to His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “And enjoin the Salah on your family, and be patient with them.” (20:132) Also, Allah, the Exalted, said, “O you who believe! Protect yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded.” (66:6) This means to command them to do good, forbid them from evil and do not neglect them. If you do so, and they obey your command, the Fire (of Hell) will not devour them on the Day of Resurrection. It has been reported in a Hadith from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“May Allah have mercy upon a man who gets up at night to pray and he wakes his wife. If she refuses to get up, he sprinkles water in her face. May Allah have mercy upon a woman who gets up at night to pray and she wakes her husband. If he refuses to get up, she sprinkles water in his face.”

This Hadith was recorded by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah. (Abu Dawud 2:73, Ibn Majah 1:424)

{56. And mention in the Book, Idris. Verily, he was a man of truth, (and) a Prophet. 

57. And We raised him to a high station.}

Mentioning Idris

Allah complimented Idris for being a truthful Prophet and He mentioned that he raised him to a high station. It has previously been mentioned that in the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah passed by Idris on the night of the Isra (Night Journey) and he (Idris) was in the fourth heaven. Sufyan reported from Mansur that Mujahid said, “And We raised him to a high station.” “This means the fourth heaven.” (At-Tabari 18:213) Al-Hasan and others said concer- ning Allah’s statement, “And We raised him to a high station.” “This means Paradise.”

{58. Those were they unto whom Allah bestowed His grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh, and of the offspring of Ibrahim and Israel, and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the Ayat of the Most Gracious were recited unto them, they fell down prostrate and weeping.}

These Prophets are the Chosen Ones

Allah, the Exalted, says that these Prophets (were favored), but this does not mean only these Prophets who were mentioned in this Surah. Rather, it is referring to all of those who were Prophets. Allah merely changes the implication of the discussion from specific individuals to the entire group of Prophets. “they unto whom Allah bestowed His grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam.” As-Suddi and Ibn Jarir both said, “That which is meant by the offspring of Adam is Idris, and what is meant by the offspring of those ‘whom We carried with Nuh is Ibrahim, and what is meant by the offspring of Ibrahim is Ishaq, Yaqub and Ismail, and what is meant by the offspring of Israil is Musa, Harun, Zakariyya, Yayha and Isa bin Maryam.” Ibn Jarir said, “And that is the distinction of their genealogies, even though Adam gathers all of them (as their original father). This is because among them is he who was not a descendant of those who were on the ship with Nuh, and he that is Idris. For verily, he was the grandfather of Nuh.” I say that this is the most apparent meaning, which concludes that Idris is amongst the pillars of Nuh’s ancestral lineage. (At-Tabari 18:214)

The view that this Ayah refers to the ancestral lineage of the Prophets, is the fact that it is similar to Allah’s statement in Surah Al-Anam, “And that was our proof which We gave Ibrahim against his people. We raise whom We will in degrees. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Yaqub, each of them We guided; and before him We guided Nuh, and among his progeny Dawud, Sulayman, Ayyub, Yusuf, Musa and Harun. Thus do We reward the doers of good. And Zakariyya, and Yahya, and Isa and Ilyas, each one of them was of the righteous. And Ismail and Al-Yasa and Yunus and Lut and each one of them We preferred above the Alamin. And also some of their fathers and their progeny and their brethern, We chose them, and We guided them to the straight path.” (6:83-87)

Until Allah’s statement, “They are those whom Allah had guided. So follow their guidance.” (6: 90) Allah, the Exalted, says, “Of some of them We have related to you their story. And of some We have not related to you their story.” (40:78) In Sahih Al-Bukhari it is reported from Mujahid that he asked Ibn Abbas, “Is there a prostration in Surah Sad” Ibn Abbas replied, “Yes.” Then he recited, “They are those whom Allah had guided. So follow their guidance.” (6:90) Ibn Abbas then said, “So your Prophet is one of those who have been commanded to follow them. And he is of those who should be followed.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:14) referring to Dawud.

Allah, the Exalted, said in this noble Ayah, “When the Ayah of the Most Gracious were recited unto them, they fell down prostrate and weeping.” This means that when they heard the Words of Allah, mentioning His proofs and evidences, they prostrated to their Lord in humility, humbleness, praise and thanks for the great favors they were blessed with. The word Bukiyan at the end of the Ayah means those who are crying, and it is the plural of Baki. Due to this the scholars agree that it is legislated to prostrate upon reading this Ayah, in following them and adhering to their manner of worship.

{59. Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have lost the Salah and have followed lusts. So they will meet Ghaiy. 

60. Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness. Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught.}

They were succeeded by Wicked People and Good People 

After Allah mentioned the party of blessed ones – the Prophets and those who followed them by maintainig the limits set by Allah and His commandments, fulfilling what Allah ordered and avoiding His prohibitions – then He mentions, “there has succeeded them a posterity.” This means later generations. “who have lost Salah” Losing their prayers is when they do not consider the prayers obligatory. Therefore they lose, because the prayer is the pillar and foundation of the religion. It is the best of the servants’ deeds. Thus, these people will occupy themselves with worldly desires and delights, and they will be pleased with the life of this world. They will be tranquil and at ease in the worldly appetites. Therefore, these people will meet with Ghaiy, which means loss on the Day of Resurrection.

Al-Awzai reported from Musa bin Sulayman, who reported from Al-Qasim bin Mukhaymirah that he said concerning Allah’s statement, “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have lost the Salah” “This means that they will not keep up with the proper times of the prayer, because if it meant complete abandonment of the prayer, this would be disbelief.” It is also reported that it was said to Ibn Masud, “Allah often mentions the prayer in the Qur’an. He says, “Those who neglect their Salah.” (107:5) And He says, “Those who remain constant in their Salah.” (70:23) And He says, “Who guard their Salah.” (23:9) Then, Ibn Masud said, “This means at its designated times.” The people said, “We thought that this was referring to the abandonment of the prayer.” He replied, “That would be disbelief.” (At-Tabari 18:215) Masruq said, “No one who guards the five daily prayers will be written among the heedless. In their neglect is destruction. Their neglect is delaying them past their fixed times.” (At-Tabari 18:216) Al-Awzai reported from Ibrahim bin Zayd that Umar bin Abdul-Aziz recited the Ayah, “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have lost the Salah and have followed lusts. So they will meet Ghayy.” Then, he said, “Their loss was not their abandonment of the prayers, but it was by not offering them during their proper and prescribed times.” (At-Tabari 18:216)

Allah said, “So they will meet Ghayy.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas that he said, “So they will meet Ghayy.” “This means loss.” (At-Tabari 18:219) Qatadah said, “This means evil.” (At-Tabari 18:218) Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Shubah and Muhammad bin Ishaq all reported from Abu Ishaq As-Sabi, who reported from Abu Ubaydah, who reported from Abdullah bin Masud that he said,“So they will meet Ghayy.” “This is a valley in the Hellfire which is very deep and its food is filthy.” (At-Tabari 18:218) Al-Amash reported from Ziyad, who reported from Abu Iyad, who commented Allah’s statement, “So they will meet Ghayy.” He said, “This is a valley in Hell made of puss and blood.”

Allah said, “Except those who repent and believe and work righteousness.” This means, “Except those who recant from giving up the prayers and following the desires, for verily, Allah will accept their repentance, give them a good end and make them of those who inherit the Garden of Delight (Paradise).” For this reason Allah says, “Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught.” This is because repentance wipes away that which was before it. In another Hadith, the Prophet said,

“The one who repents from sin is like he who has no sin.” (Ibn Majah 2:1420)

Because of this, those who repent will not lose anything from the (good) deeds that they did. They will not be held accountable for what they did before their repentance, thus causing a decrease in their reward for deeds that they do after their repentance. That is because whatever they did before repenting is lost, forgotten and not taken to account. This is an honor from the Most Generous and a kindness from the Most Gentle. This is an exception that is made for these people, similar to Allah’s statement in Surah Al-Furqan, “And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause…” until Allah’s statement, “and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (25:68-70)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Abridged (Vol 6) Pages 267-288

{61. (They will enter) Adn Gardens which the Most Gracious has promised to His servants in the unseen. Verily, His promise must come to pass. 

62. They shall not hear therein any Laghw, but only Salam. And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and afternoon. 

63. Such is the Paradise which We shall give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who had Taqwa.}

The Description of the Gardens of the Truthful and Those Who repent

Allah, the Exalted, says that the Gardens (of Paradise), which the penitent will enter, will be Gardens of Adn, meaning, eternity. These are Gardens that the Most Beneficent promises His servants in the unseen. This means that these Gardens are from the unseen things that they believe in, even though they have never witnessed them. They believe in the unseen out of their strong conviction and the strength of their faith. Concerning Allah’s statement, “Verily, His promise must come to pass.” This affirms the fact that this will occur, and that it is a settled matter. Allah does not break His promise, nor does He change it. This is similar to His statement, “His promise is certainly to be accomplished.” (73:18) This means that His promise will be and there is no avoiding it. Allah’s statement here, “must come to pass.” This means that it will come to His servants who are striving towards it and they will reach it. There are those commentators who said, “must come to pass.” “This means it is coming, because everything that comes to you, you also come to it. This is as the Arabs say, “Fifty years came to me, and I came to fifty years.” They both mean the same thing (I’m fifty years old).” Concerning Allah’s statement, “They shall not hear therein any Laghw.” This means that in these gardens of Paradise there is no ignorant, wasteful and useless speech, like there is in this life. He said, “…but only Salam.” This is an indifferent exception, similar to Allah’s statement, “No Laghw will they hear therein, nor any sinful speech. But only the saying of: Salam! Salam!” (56:25-26) Concerning His statement, “And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and afternoon.” This means, in what is similar to mornings and evenings. This does not mean that there is a night and a day (in Paradise), but they will be living in times that alternate. They will know its lighted times from its lights and illumination. This is as Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“The first group to enter into Paradise will have forms like the form of the moon on a night when it is full. They will not spit, nor will they blow their noses therein. They also will not defecate. Their containers and combs will be made of gold and silver and their censers will be of aloeswood. Their sweat will be the fragrance of musk and each of them will have two wives. The marrow of their shins will be visible from beneath the skin due to their beauty. They will not have any disputes between them, or any hatred. Their hearts will be united like the heart of one man. They will glorify Allah in the morning and evening.” (Ahmad 2:316)

Al-Bukhari and Muslim both recorded this narration in the Two Sahihs. (Fath Al-Bari 6:367, Muslim 4:2180) Imam Ahmad also recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

“The martyrs will be upon the banks of a river by the gates of Paradise. Over them will be a green dome. Their sustenance will be brought out to them from Paradise, morning and evening.” (Ahmad no.2390)

Ahmad is the only one who collected this narration. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn Abbas said, “And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and afternoon.” “This means the amount of time equal to night and day.” Allah said, “Such is the Paradise which We shall give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who had Taqwa.” This means, ‘This Paradise that We have described with these magnificent attributes, it is that which We will cause are pious servants to inherit.’ They are those who obey Allah in happiness and times of hardship. They are those who suppress their anger and they pardon people’s offenses. This is as Allah says at the beginning of Surah Al-Mu’minun, “Successful indeed are the believers. Those who are humble in their Salah.” (23:1-2) Until His saying, “These are indeed the inheritors. Who shall inherit the Firdaws. In it they shall dwell forever.” (23:10-11)

{64. And we descend not except by the command of your Lord. To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between those two; and your Lord is never forgetful. 

65. Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him and abide patiently in His worship. Do you know of any who is similar to Him?}

The Angels do not descend, except by Allah’s Command

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to Jibril, “What prevents you from visiting us more than you do?” Then this Ayah was revealed, “And we descend not except by the command of your Lord.” (Ahmad 1:231) Al-Bukhari was alone in recording it and he related it with the Tafsir of this Ayah. (Fath Al-Bari 8:282) Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas that he said, “Jibril was kept from visiting the Messenger of Allah, so he was disturbed and grieved because of this. Then, Jibril came to him and said, ‘O Muhammad, “And we descend not except by the command of your Lord.”  (At-Tabari 18:222) Allah said, “To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us” It has been said that the meaning of “what is before us” refers to that which is in this life and “what is behind us” refers to the Hereafter. “and what is between those two” This means what is between two blows of the Sur. This is the opinion of Abu Al-Aliyah, Ikrimah and Mujahid. This was also stated by Said bin Jubayr and Qatadah in one narration from them. As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi bin Anas (At-Tabari 18:224) held this opinion as well. It has also been said, “what is before us” means the future matters of the Hereafter. “what is behind us” means what has taken place in this life, “what is between those two” means what happens between this life and the Hereafter. A statement like this explanation has been reported from Ibn Abbas, Said bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and Ath-Thawri. (At-Tabari 18:224) Ibn Jarir also preferred this latter interpretation. And Allah knows best. Concerning Allah’s statement, “and your Lord is never forgetful.” (At-Tabari 18:225) Mujahid said, “This means that your Lord has not forgotten you.” Allah said, “Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them” He created all of that, He is the Disposer of its affairs, He is the Legislator over it and He is in absolute control of it, having no one to oppose His decisions. “so worship Him and abide patiently in his worship. Do you know of any who is similar to Him”

Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn Abbas said that this means, “Do you know any comparison or something similar to the Lord?” (At-Tabari 18:226) Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and others all said the same. Ikrimah related that Ibn Abbas said, “There is no one named Ar-Rahman (the Most Beneficent) other than Him, Blessed and Exalted is He. Most Holy is His Name.” (Al-Qurtubi 11:130)

{66. And man says: “When I am dead, shall I then be raised up alive” 

67. Does not man remember that We created him before, while he was nothing? 

68. So by your Lord, surely We shall gather them together, and (also) the Shayatin, then We shall bring them round Hell, Jithyya. 

69. Then indeed We shall drag out from every sect all those who were worst in obstinate rebellion against the Most Gracious. 

70. Then, verily, We know best those who are most worthy of being burnt therein.}

Man’s Amazement about Life after Death and the Refutation against this Amazement

Allah, the Exalted, informs that mankind is amazed that he could be returned to life after death and he thinks that this is something farfetched. As Allah says, “And if you wonder, then wondrous is their saying: “When we are dust, shall we indeed then be (raised) in a new creation” (13:5) Allah also says, “Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah. Yet behold he (stands forth) as an open opponent. And he puts forth for Us a parable and forgets his own creation. He says: “Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust?” Say: “He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!” (36:77-79) And Allah says here in this Surah, “And man says: “When I am dead, shall I then be raised up alive?” Does not man remember that We created him before, while he was nothing?” Allah uses the beginning of creation as a proof for its repetition. This means that He, the Exalted, created the human being while he was nothing. So can he not repeat this creation after the human had actually become something Similalry Allah says; “And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.” (30:27) In the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Allah, the Exalted said, “The son of Adam denies Me and he has no right to deny Me. The son of Adam harms Me and he has no right to harm Me. His denial of Me is his statement that I will never repeat His creation like I created him the first time. Yet, the second creation is not more difficult upon Me than the first. His harming Me is his statement that I have a son. Yet, I am One Alone, the Self-Sufficient Whom all creatures need. He Who does not beget children, nor was He born and there is none coequal or comparable unto Him.” (Ahmad 2:350)

Concerning Allah’s statement, “So by your Lord, surely We shall gather them together, and the Shayatin,” The Lord, Blessed be He the Most High, swears by His Noble Self that He will definitely gather all of those who worshipped other than Allah and their devils as well. “Then We shall bring them round Hell, Jithiyya.” Al-Awfi related that Ibn Abbas said, “This means sitting and it is similar to His statement, “And you will see each nation Jathiyah.” (45:28) (At-Tabari 18:227) As-Suddi commented on the word Jithiyya, “It means standing.” It has been reported from Murrah that Ibn Masud said the same.

Concerning Allah’s statement, “Then indeed We shall drag out from every sect” This means from every nation. This is what Mujahid said. (At-Tabari 18:228) “all those who were worst in obstinate rebellion against the Most Gracious.” Ath-Thawri reported from Ali bin Al-Aqmar, from Abu Al-Ahwas, from Ibn Masud that he said, “The first of them will be bound to the last of them until their number is complete. Then, they will be brought all together. Then, Allah will begin with the greatest of them in crime and continue in succession. That is Allah’s statement, “Then indeed We shall drag out from every sect all those who were worst in obstinate rebellion against the Most Gracious.” (Ad Durr Al-Manthur 5:533) This is similar to Allah’s statement, “Until they will be gathered all together in the Fire. The last of them will say to the first of them: “Our Lord! These misled us, so give them a double torment of the Fire.” Until His saying, “For what you used to earn.” (7:38-39) The first of them will say to the last of them: “Your were not better than us, so taste the torment for what you used to earn.” Concerning Allah’s statement, “Then, verily, We know best those who are most worthy of being burnt therein.” Then, at this point Allah attaches one piece of information to another. The meaning here is that Allah best knows which of His creatures deserve to be burned in the fire of Hell and remain there forever and who deserves to have his punishment doubled. This is as He says in the Ayah that was previously mentioned, “He will say: “For each one there is double (torment), but you know not.” (7:38)

{71. There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell); this is with your Lord, a decree which must be accomplished. 

72. Then We shall save those who had Taqwa. And We shall leave the wrongdoers in it, Jithiyya.}

Everyone will be brought to Hell, then the Righteous will be saved

Ibn Jarir reported from Abdullah that he said concerning Allah’s statement, “There is not one of you but will pass over it.” “The bridge over Hell is like the sharp edge of a sword. The first group to cross it will pass like a flash of lightning. The second group will pass like the wind. The third group will pass like the fastest horse. The fourth group will pass like the fastest cow. Then, the rest will pass while the angels will be saying, ‘O Allah save them, save them.” (At-Tabari 18:232) This narration has supporting narrations similar to it from the Prophet in the Two Sahihs and other collections as well. These narrations have been related by Anas, Abu Said, Abu Hurayrah, Jabir and other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.

Ahmad also recorded that Umm Mubashshar, the wife of Zayd bin Harithah, said, “The Messenger of Allah was in the house of Hafsah when he said, “No one who was present at the battles of Badr and Hudaybiyyah (of the Muslims) will enter into the Hellfire.” Then, Hafsah said, “Doesn’t Allah say, “There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell)”?”  The Messenger of Allah replied by reciting, “Then We shall save those who had Taqwa.” (Ahmad 6:362) In the Two Sahihs there is a Hadith reported from Az-Zuhri, from Said from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“No one of the Muslims who has had three children, who all died, will be touched by the Hellfire, except for an oath that must be fulfilled.” (Fath Al-Bari 3:142)

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on Allah’s statement, “There is not one of you but will pass over it” “The passing of the Muslims (over the Hellfire) means their passing over a bridge that is over it. But the passing of the idolators over the Hellfire refers to their admission to the Fire.”

As-Suddi reported from Murrah, from Ibn Masud, that he said concerning Allah’s statement,””An oath that must be fulfilled.” (At-Tabari 18:237)  Mujahid said, “Hatman means preordainment.” (At-Tabari 18:237) Ibn Jurayj said the same. (At-Tabari 18:237)

Concerning Allah’s statement,“Then We shall save those who had Taqwa.”  When all of the creatures passed over the Hellfire, and those disbelievers and the disobedient people who are destined to fall into it because of their disobedience, Allah will save the believers and the righteous people from it because of their deeds. Therefore, their passing over the bridge and their speed will be based upon their deeds that they did in this life. Then, the believers who performed major sins will be allowed intercession. The angels, the Prophets and the believers will all intercede. Thus, a large number of the sinners will be allowed to come out of Hell. The fire will have devoured much of their bodies, except the places of prostration on their faces. Their removal from the Hellfire will be due to the faith in their hearts. The first to come out will be he who has the weight of a Dinar of faith in his heart. Then, whoever has the next least amount after him. Then, whoever is next to that after him, and so forth. This will continue until the one who has the tiniest hint of faith in his heart, equal to the weight of an atom. Then, Allah will take out of the Fire whoever said “La ilaha illallah,” even one day of his entire life, even if he never performed any good deed. After this, no one will remain in the Hellfire, except those it is obligatory upon to remain in the Hellfire forever. This has been reported in many authentic Hadiths from the Messenger of Allah . This is why Allah says, “Then We shall save those who had Taqwa. And We shall leave the wrongdoers in it, Jithyya.” (Fath Al-Bari 13:48)

{73. And when Our clear Ayat are recited to them, those who disbelieve say to those who believe: “Which of the two groups has the best dwellings and the finest Nadiyyan?” 

74. And how many a generation have We destroyed before them, who were better in wealth, goods and outward appearance.}

The Disbelievers boast over Their good Fortune in the World

Allah, the Exalted, informs that when the clear, evident Ayat of Allah are recited to the disbelievers, they reject them and turn away. They say about those who believe, while boasting to them and arguing that their false religion is correct, “best dwellings and the finest Nadiyyan.” This means the best houses, with the loftiest levels and the finest Nadiyyan, which are meeting rooms for men to gather and discuss matters. Thus, this means that their meeting rooms are full of more people who come to attend. In this they were saying, “How can we be upon falsehood while we are in this manner of successful living?” These people were actually those who were concealed in the house of Al-Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqam and its likes from the other houses. This is as Allah says about them, “And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been a good thing, they (the weak and the poor) would not have preceded us thereto!” (46:11) Nuh’s people said, “Shall we believe in you, when the weakest (of the people) follow you?” (26:111) And Allah says, “Thus We have tried some of them with others, that they might say: “Is it these [poor believers] whom Allah has favored among us?” “Does not Allah know best those who are grateful?” (6:53) This is why Allah refuted their doubts: “And how many a generations have We destroyed before them” This means, “How many nations and generations did We destroy of those who denied (this message) due to their disbelief” “who were better in wealth, goods and outward appearance” This means that they were better than these present people in wealth, possessions, looks and appearance.

Al-Amash reported from Abu Zibyan, who reported from Ibn Abbas that he said concerning the Ayah, “best dwellings and finest Nadiyyan.” “Position [Maqam] means home, Nadi means place of gathering, wealth refers to material possessions and outward appearance is how they look physically.” (At-Tabari 18:239) Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said, “Position [Maqam] means dwelling, Nadi means place of gathering and the blessing and happiness that they were living in. This is as Allah says about the people of Firawn when He destroyed them and related the story of their situation in the Qur’an, “How many gardens and springs that they [Firawn’s people] left behind, and green crops and honored places (Maqam).” (44:25-26) Therefore, position ﴿Maqam﴾ refers to their dwellings and splendid bounties, and Nadi is the places of gathering and meeting where they used to congregate. Allah said while relating the story to His Messenger of what happened with the people of Lut, “And practice Al-Munkar (evil deeds) in your meeting places [Nadiyakum].” (29:29) The Arabs call a place of gathering a Nadi.” (At-Tabari 18:239)

{75. Say: whoever is in error, the Most Gracious will extend [circumstances] for him, until, when they see that which they were promised, either the torment or the Hour, they will come to know who is worst in position, and who is weaker in forces.}

The Rebellious Person is given Respite but He is not forgotten

Allah, the Exalted, says, “Say” This means, “O Muhammad, say to these people who are associating partners with their Lord, while claiming to follow the truth, that they are really following falsehood.’ “whoever is in error” This means, ‘be they from us or from you.’“the Most Gracious will extend [circumstances]

  for him.” This means that the Most Beneficent will give him respite in that which he is in, until he meets his Lord and his appointed time will have arrived. “until, when they see that which they were promised, either the torment” that will strike him, “or the Hour” that will come suddenly, “they will come to know” at that time,“who is worst in position, and who is weaker in forces.” This is in refutation of thier argument about their nice dwellings and splendid places of gathering. This is a challenge against the idolators who claim that they were following guidance in what they were doing. This is similar to the challenge that Allah mentions about the Jews when He says, “O you Jews! If you pretend that you are friends of Allah, to the exclusion of (all) other people, then long for death if you are truthful.” (62:6) Meaning, ‘Supplicate for death to come to those who are following falsehood among us if you truly claim to be upon the truth. If you are true, then this supplication will not harm you.’ But they refused to do so. An extensive discussion of this has already preceded in Surat Al-Baqarah, and to Allah is the praise. Likewise, Allah mentioned the challenge that was given to the Christians in Surah Al Imran, when they were persistent in their disbelief and continued in their transgression. They refused to give up their exaggerating claim that Isa was the son of Allah. Therefore, Allah mentioned His arguments and proofs against the worship of Isa, and that he was merely a creature like Adam. After this, Allah said, “Then whoever disputes with you about him after (all this) knowledge that has come to you, say: “Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves – then we pray and invoke (sincerely) the curse of Allah upon those who lie.” (3:61) However, they (the Christians) also retreated from this challenge.

{76. And Allah increases in guidance those who walk aright. And the righteous good deeds that last are better with your Lord for reward and better for resort.}

Increasing Guidance of Those Who are guided

After Allah mentions the extended time and respite that is allowed to those who are in misguidance, increasing them in misguidance, He informs of the increase in guidance of those who are rightly guided. Similarly He says, “And whenever there comes down a Surah, some of them say: “Which of you has had his faith increased by it?” (9:124) And the following Ayah also shows this. Concerning Allah’s statement, “And the righteous good deeds that last” Its explanation has already preceded in Surat Al-Kahf [See Tafsir 18:46] , along with a lengthy discussion concerning it and the related Hadiths. “(they) are better with your Lord for reward.” meaning the recompense and reward. “and better for resort.” meaning in the final outcome, the result for its doer.

{77. Have you seen him who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: “I shall certainly be given wealth and children [if I live again].” 

78. Has he known the Unseen or has he taken a covenant from the Most Gracious 

79. Nay, We shall record what he says, and We shall increase his torment; 

80. And We shall inherit from him all that he speaks of, and he shall come to Us alone.}

Refuting the Disbelievers Who claim that They will be given Wealth and Children in the Hereafter

Imam Ahmad reported from Khabbab bin Al-Aratt that he said, “I was a blacksmith and Al-As bin Wa’il owed me a debt. So I went to him to collect my debt from him. He said to me, ‘No, by Allah, I will not pay my debt to you until you disbelieve in Muhammad.’ I replied to him, ‘No, by Allah, I will not disbelieve in Muhammad until you die and are resurrected again.’ He then said to me, ‘Verily, if I die and am resurrected, and you come to me, I will also have abundance of wealth and children and I will repay you then.’ Then, Allah revealed these Ayat, “Have you seen him who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: “I shall certainly be given wealth and children.” until, “and he shall come to Us alone.” (Ahmad 5:111) This was also recorded by the two compilers of the Sahihs and other collections as well. In the wording of Al-Bukhari it states that Khabbab said, “I used to be a blacksmith in Makkah and I made a sword for Al-As bin Wa’il. So I went to him to collect my pay from him…” then he mentioned the rest of the Hadith and he said,

“or has he taken a covenant from the Most Gracious?” 

“This means an agreement.” (Fath Al-Bari 4:372)

Concerning Allah’s statement, “Has he known the Unseen” This is a rejection of the person who says, “I shall certainly be given wealth and children.” Meaning, on the Day of Resurrection. In other words, “Does he know what he will have in the Hereafter, to such an extent that he can swear to it” “or has he taken a covenant from the Most Gracious” Or has he received a promise from Allah that he will be given these things It has already been stated that in Sahih Al-Bukhari it is mentioned that covenant means an agreement. (Fath Al-Bari 4:273)

Concerning Allah’s statement, “Nay” This is a participle that opposes what came before it and gives emphasis to what follows it. “We shall record what he says” what he is seeking, and his idea that he has given himself about what he hopes for, and his disbelief in Allah the Most Great. “We shall increase his torment.” This is referring to what will happen in the abode of the Hereafter, because of his saying his disbelief in Allah in this life. “And We shall inherit from him all that he speaks of” His wealth and children. It means, “We will take all of this from him, in opposition to his claim that he will be given more wealth and children in the Hereafter than he had in this life.” To the contrary, in the Hereafter that which he had in this life will be taken from him. This is why Allah says, “And he shall come to Us alone.” without wealth or children.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Vol 6 (Abridged) Pages 285-305

{81. And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they might give them honour, power and glory. 

82.Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and will become their adversaries. 

83. See you not that We have sent the Shayatin against the disbelievers to push them to do evil.  

84. So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number.}

The Idols of the Polytheists will deny Their Worship

Allah, the Exalted, informs about the disbelievers who associate partners with their Lord, that they have taken gods besides Allah, so that these gods may be a source of honor and might for them. They think that these gods give them power and make them victorious. Then, Allah mentions that the matter is not as they claim, and it will not be as they hope. He says, “Nay, but they will deny their worship of them” on the Day of Judgement. “and will become their adversaries.” This means that they will be foes in a state other than what they think about these gods. This is similar to Allah’s statement, “And who is more astray than one who calls upon, besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls to them And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.” (46:5-6) As-Suddi said, “Nay, but they will deny their worship of them” “This means their worshipping of the idols. ” (At-Tabari 18:251) Allah said, “and will become their adversaries” contrary to what they hoped for from these gods. As-Suddi said, “and will become their adversaries.” “They will be in severe opposition and argument.” Ad-Dahhak said, “and will become their adversaries.” “This means enemies.” (At-Tabari 18:250)

The Power of the Devils over the Disbelievers

Concerning Allah’s statement, “See you not that We have sent the Shayatin against the disbelievers to push them to do evil.” Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said, “They will lead them astray with temptation.” (At-Tabari 18:251) Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said, “They will incite them against Muhammad and his Companions.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 5:538) Qatadah said, “They will harass them and disturb them until they disobey Allah.” (At-Tabari 18:252) Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said, “This is similar to Allah’s statement, “And whosoever turns away blindly from the remembrance of the Most Gracious, We appoint for him a Shaytan to be a companion for him.” (43:36) (At-Tabari 18:252) Concerning Allah’s statement, “So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number.” This means, “Do not be hasty with the punishment that is going to befall them, O Muhammad.” “We only count out to them a number.” This means, “We are only delaying them for a fixed appointment whose time is numbered. They are destined for that and there is no escaping the torment of Allah and His exemplary punishment.” Allah says, “And consider not that Allah is unaware of that which the wrongdoers do.” (14:42) And He says, “So give a respite to the disbelievers; deal gently with them for a while.” (86:17) And Allah says, “We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness.” (3:178) “We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.” (31:24) “Say: “Enjoy! But certainly, your destination is the (Hell) Fire.” (14:30) As-Suddi said, “We only count out to them a (limited) number.” means years, months, days and hours.”

{85. The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious (Allah), like a delegation. 

86. And We shall drive the criminals to Hell, in a thirsty state. 

87. None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious (Allah).}

The Condition of the Righteous and the Criminals on the Day of Resurrection

Allah, the Exalted, informs about His righteous friends, who feared Him in the life of this world. They followed His Messengers and believed in what the Messengers told them. They obeyed them in what they commanded them and abstained from that which they prohibited. Allah explains that He will gather these people on the Day of Resurrection like a delegation that has come to Him. A Wafd (delegation) is a group that arrives while riding and from it comes the word Wufud (arriving). They will come riding upon noble steeds of light from the riding animals of the Hereafter. They will arrive before the Best Receiver of delegations at the abode of His honor and pleasure. In reference to the criminals, who denied the Messengers and opposed them, they will be driven violently to the Hellfire. Allah says, “In a thirsty state.” This means parched and thirsting for drink. This was stated by Ata’, Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and many others. (At-Tabari 18:253) Here it will be said, “Which of the two groups is best in Maqam (position) and the finest Nadiyyan (meeting place).” (19:73) Ibn Abi Hatim reported from Amr bin Qays Al-Mula’i, who reported from Ibn Marzuq that he said, “The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious, like a delegation.” “When the believer comes forth from his grave, he will meet the most handsome form he has ever seen and it will have the nicest fragrance. He will say, ‘Who are you?’ The being will reply, ‘You do not know me’ The believer will say, ‘No, but Allah has made you sweet smelling with a handsome face.’ The being will say, ‘I am your righteous deeds. This is how you use to beautify and apply fragrance to your deeds in the worldly life. I was riding upon you in the entire length of your worldly life, so will you not ride upon me now’ So the believer will therefore mount the creature. This is the meaning of Allah’s statement, “The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious, like a delegation.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious, like a delegation.” “Riding.” (At-Tabari 8:380) His saying, “And We shall drive the criminals to Hell, in a thirsty state.” This means parched and thirsty. “None shall have the power of intercession” There will be no one who can intercede for them like the believers who intercede for each other. Allah says about them, “Now we have no intercessors, nor a close friend.” (26:100-101) Allah said, “but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious.” This is a separate exclusion, which means, “But those who have taken a covenant with the Most Beneficent.” This covenant is the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and upholding of its rights and implications. Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious.” “The promise is the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, that the person accepts that all power and strength belong to Allah and he only places his hope with Allah alone.” (At-Tabari 18:257)

{88. And they say: “The Most Gracious (Allah) has begotten a son.” 

89. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a thing Idda. 

90. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains Hadda. 

91. That they ascribe a son to the Most Gracious. 

92. But it is not suitable for the Most Gracious that He should beget a son. 

93. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious as a slave. 

94. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. 

95. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.}

The Stern Rejection of attributing a Son to Allah

After Allah affirms in this noble Surah that Isa was a worshipper and servant of Allah and He mentioned his birth from Maryam without a father, He then begins refuting those who claim that He has a son. Holy is He and far Exalted is He above such description. Allah says, “And they say: “The Most Gracious has begotten a son.” Indeed you have brought forth” This means, “In this statement of yours.” “a thing Idda.” Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Malik all said, “Terrible.” It has been said that it is pronounced Iddan, Addan, and Addan with elongation on the first vowel. All three of these pronunciations are known, but the most popular is the first. Allah said; “Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains Hadda, that they ascribe a son to the Most Gracious.” that is, out of their high esteem for Allah, when they hear this statement of wickedness coming from the Children of Adam. The reason for this is that these are creatures of Allah and they are established upon His Tawhid and the fact that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. He has no partners, no peer, no child, no mate and no coequal. Rather, He is the One, Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures are in need of. Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Abbas said concerning Allah’s statement, “Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains Hadda, that they ascribe a son to the Most Gracious.” “Verily, the heavens, the earth, the mountains and all creatures – except for humans and Jinns – are frightened by the associating of partners with Allah. Creation will almost cease existing before the association of partners with Allah, due to His Greatness. Just as the idolator does not benefit by his good deeds because of associating partners with Allah, we hope that Allah would forgive the sins of those who believed in His absolute Oneness by worshipping Him alone. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Encourage your dying people to testify to La ilaha illallah, for whoever says it at the time of their death, they will definitely enter into Paradise.” 

The people said, “O Messenger of Allah, what about he who says it while in good health” He replied,

“This will necessitate his entrance into Paradise even more.”

Then he said,

“I swear by He Whom my soul is in His Hand, if the heavens and the earths, and all that is in them, between them and under them, were brought and placed in a balance of a scale, and the testimony of La ilaha illallah was placed on the other side of the scale, the testimony would outweigh all of it.”

This was recorded by Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari 18:258) and it is supported by the Hadith related to the story of the card. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:330 – referring to the text wherein it is stated that the Kalimah will outweigh ninety-nine scrolls of recorded bad deeds reaching as far as can be seen on the Day of Judgement) And Allah knows best.

Ad-Dahhak said, “Whereby the heavens are almost torn” “This means to be split apart into pieces due to the fear of the magnificence of Allah.” Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “and the earth is split asunder” “This is due to its anger on behalf of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime.” “and the mountains Hadda.” Ibn Abbas said, “This means to be torn down.” Said bin Jubayr said, “Haddan means some of it is broken by other parts of it in succession.”

Imam Ahmad reported from Abu Musa that he said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“There is no one more patient than Allah concerning something harmful that he hears. For verily, partners are associated with Him and a son is ascribed to Him, while He is the One Who gives them good health, protects them and sustains them.” (Ahmad 4:405)

This narration is also recorded in the Two Sahihs. In one wording of it he said,

“…that they attribute a son to Him, while He is the One Who sustains them and gives them good health.” (Fath Al-Bari 10:527)

Allah said; “But it is not suitable for the Most Gracious that He should beget a son.” Meaning that it is not befitting of Him, nor is it appropriate for His lofty majesty and greatness. There is no coequal for Him in His creation, because all creatures are His slaves. This is why He says, “There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious as a slave. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting.” He knows their number from the time He created them, until the Day of Resurrection, male and female, both the small and the large of them. “And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.” This means that there will be no helper for him and no one to save him, except Allah alone, Who has no partners. He judges His creatures as He wills and He is the Most Just, Who does not do even an atom’s weight of injustice. He will not wrong anyone.

{96. Verily, those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the Most Gracious will bestow love for them. 

97. So, We have made this easy in your own tongue, only that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa, and warn with it the people that are Ludda. 

98. And how many a generation before them have We destroyed! Can you find a single one of them or hear even a whisper of them?}

Allah places Love of the Righteous People in the Hearts

Allah, the Exalted, informs about His believing servants, who work righteous deeds – deeds that He is pleased with because they are in accordance with the legislation of Muhammad – that He plants love for them in the hearts of His righteous servants. This is something that is absolutely necessary and there is no avoiding it. This has been reported in authentic Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah in various different ways. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, whenever Allah loves a servant of His, He calls Jibril and says, “O Jibril, verily I love so-and-so, so love him.” Thus, Jibril will love him. Then, he (Jibril) will call out to the dwellers of the heavens, “Verily, Allah loves so-and-so, so you too must love him.” Then the dwellers of the heavens love him and he will be given acceptance in the earth. Whenever Allah hates a servant of His, He calls Jibril and says, “O Jibril, verily I hate so-and-so, so hate him.” Thus, Jibril will hate him. Then, he (Jibril) will call out amongst the dwellers of the heavens, “Verily, Allah hates so-and-so, so you too must hate him.” Then the dwellers of the heavens hate him and hatred for him will be placed in the earth.” (Ahmad 2:413, 514) 

Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported narrations similar to this. (Fath Al-Bari 1:476)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Whenever Allah loves a servant of His, He calls Jibril (saying), “Verily, I love so-and-so, so love him.” Then, Jibril calls out into the heavens and love for him descends among the people of the earth. That is the meaning of the statement of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime: “Verily, those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the Most Gracious will bestow love for them.” (19:96)” (Abdur Razzaq 10:450)

This was also reported by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” (Muslim 4:1031)

The Qur’an descended to give Glad Tidings and to warn

Allah said; “So, We have made this easy” meaning the Qur’an. “in your own tongue” This is an address to Prophet Muhammad and it means that the Qur’an is in the pure, complete and eloquent Arabic language. “that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa” those who respond to Allah and believe in His Messenger , “and warn with it the people who are Ludda.” meaning, the people who have deviated away from the truth and are inclined towards falsehood. His saying, “And how many a generation before them have We destroyed!” means from the nations that disbelieved in the signs of Allah and rejected His Messengers. “Can you find a single one of them or hear even a whisper of them?” Meaning, ‘have you seen any of them or even heard a whisper from them.’ Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Said bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd all said, “This means any sound.” (At-Tabari 18:265) Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said that this means, “Do you see with your eye, or hear any sound?” (At-Tabari 18:265)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Maryam. All praises and thanks are due to Allah. Following this will be the Tafsir of Surah Ta Ha, Allah willing and all praise is due to Allah.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 6 Pages 306-319 

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