Surah At-Tawbah Ayat 102-129 (end)

{102. And (there are) others who have acknowledged their sins, they have mixed a deed that was righteous with another that was evil. Perhaps Allah will turn unto them in forgiveness. Surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

Some Believers stayed away from Battle because They were Lazy

After Allah explained the characteristics of the hypocrites who stayed away from battle because they sought to avoid it out of denial and doubt, He then mentioned the disobedient who stayed away from Jihad due to laziness and preferring comfort, even though they truely believed,“And others who have acknowledged their sins” These people admitted their error to themselves and their Lord. They had performed good deeds before, as well as, this evil deed that they committed. For them there was forgiveness and pardon of Allah. This Ayah is general, covering all sinners who combine good and evil deeds, thus becoming partly impure, even though it was revealed about some people in specific. Ibn Abbas said that,“And (there are) others”, refers to Abu Lubabah and some of his friends who stayed away from the battle of Tabuk and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. When the Messenger of Allah returned from that battle, this group, Abu Lubabah and five, seven or nine with him, tied themselves to the pillars of the Masjid and refused to let anyone untie them except the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. When this Ayah was revealed,“And (there are) others who have acknowledged their sins” the Messenger of Allah untied them and pardoned them. ” (At-Tabari 14:437) [This narration is not authentic. There is a similar mural narration from Said bin Al-Musayyib in Dalail An-Nubuwah] Al-Bukhari recorded that Samurah bin Jundub said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said to us,

“Last Night, two (angels) came to me (in a vision) and took me to a city, built with bricks made of gold and silver. We met some men who, part of their bodies were as handsome as you ever saw and the part as ugly as you ever saw. The two (angels) ordered these men to go to a river and submerge themselves in it; they did that and came back to us, and the ugliness went away from them, thus becoming the most beautiful form. The two said to me, ‘This is the garden of Eden, and this is your residence in it.’ The two said, ‘As for the men who had part of their body handsome and part ugly, they have mixed a deed that was righteous with another that was evil. Allah has pardoned them.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:193)

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in a short form upon the explanation of this Ayah.

{103. Take Sadaqah from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and Salli for them. Verily, your Salat are a Sakan for them; and Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. 

104. Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants and accepts the Sadaqat, and that Allah alone is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful}

The Common to collect the Zakah and Its Benefits

Allah commanded His Messenger to take Sadaqah from the Muslims’ money to purify and sanctify them with it. This Ayah is general, even though some said that it refers specifically to those who mixed good and evil deeds, who admitted to their errors. Some bedouin later thought that paying Zakah to the Leader was not legislated except to the Messenger himself, using this Ayah as evidence,“Take Sadaqah from their wealth.” Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and other Companions refuted this ill comprehension and fought against them until they paid the Zakah to the Khalifah, just as they used to pay it to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. As-Siddiq said, “By Allah! If they abstain from paying a bridle that they used to pay to the Messenger of Allah, I will fight them for refraining from paying it.” (Fath Al-Bari 13:264) Allah’s statement,“and Salli for them”, means, supplicate for them, and ask Allah to forgive them. In the Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abdullah bin Abi Awfa said, “Whenever the Prophet was brought charity, he used to invoke Allah for those who brought it. My father also brought his charity and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“O Allah! I invoke You for the family of Abu Awfa” (Muslim 2:756)

Allah’s statement,“Verily, your Salat are a Sakan for them”, means, a mercy for them, according to Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 14:457)

Allah said next,“and Allah is All-Hearer” of your invocation “O Muhammad”,“All-Knower.” in those who deserve your invocation on their behalf, who are worthy of it. Allah said,“Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants and accepts the Sadaqat” This Ayah encourages reverting to repentance and giving charity, for each of these actions erases, deletes and eradicate sins. Allah states that He accepts the repentance of those who repent to Him, as well as charity from pure resources, for Allah accepts it with His Right Hand and raises it for its giver until even a date becomes as large as Mount Uhud. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, Allah accepts charity, receives it in His Right Hand and develops it for its giver, just as one of you raises his pony, until the bite [of food] becomes as large as Uhud.” 

The Book of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, testifies to this Hadith,“Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants and accepts the Sadaqat”, and,“Allah will destroy Riba and will give increase for Sadaqat.” (2:276) Abdullah bin Masud said, “Charity falls in Allah’s Hand before it falls in the needy’s hand,” he then recited this Ayah,“Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants and accepts the Sadaqat?”. (At-Tabari 14:460)

{105. And say “Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.}

Warning the Disobedient

Mujahid said that this Ayah carries a warning (At-Tabari 14:463) from Allah to those who defy His orders. Their deeds will be shown to Allah, Blessed and Most Honored, and to the Messenger and the believers. This will certainly occur on the Day of Resurrection, just as Allah said,“That Day shall you be brought to Judgement, not a secret of you will be hidden” (69:18),“The Day when all the secrets will be examined.” (86:9), and,“And that which is in the breasts (of men) shall be made known.” (100:10) Allah might also expose some deeds to the people in this life. Al-Bukhari said that Aishah said, “If the good deeds of a Muslim person please you, then say,

“Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers.” (Fath Al-Bari 13:512) 

There is a Hadith that carries a similar meaning. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Do not be pleased with someone’s deeds until you see what his deeds in the end will be like. Verily, one might work for some time of his life with good deeds, so that if he dies while doing it, he will enter Paradise. However, he changes and commits evil deeds. one might commit evil deeds for some time in his life, so that if he dies while doing them he will enter the Fire. However, he changes and performs good deeds. If Allah wants the good of a servant He employs him before he dies.”

He was asked, “How would Allah employ him, O Allah’s Messenger?” He said,

“He directs him to perform good deeds and takes his life in that condition.” (Ahmad 3:120)

Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith.

{106. And others are made to await for Allah’s Decree, whether He will punish them or will forgive them. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.}

Delaying the Decision about the Three Companions Who Stayed away from the Battle of Tabuk

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak and several others said that those mentioned in the Ayah are the three who were made to wait to know if their repentance was accepted; Mararah bin Ar-Rabi, Kab bin Malik and Hilal bin Umayyah. Some Companions stayed behind from the battle of Tabuk due to laziness, preferring comfort, ease, ripe fruits and shade. They did not lag behind because of hypocrisy or doubts. Some of them tied themselves to the pillars (of the Masjid) like Abu Lubabah and several of his friends did. Some of them did not do that, and they are the three mentioned here. Those who tied themselves received their pardon before these three men whose pardon was delayed, until this Ayah was revealed,“Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirin and the Ansar…”  “And the three who stayed behind, until for them the earth, vast as it is, was straitened…” (At-Tabari 14:465-466) We will mention the Hadith about this story from Kab bin Malik. Allah said,“whether He will punish them or will forgive them.” meaning, they are at Allah’s mercy, if He wills, He pardons them or punishes them. However, Allah’s mercy comes before His anger,“And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (9:106) Allah knows those who deserve the punishment and those who deserve the pardon. He is All-Wise in His actions and statements, there is no deity worthy of worship nor Lord besides Him.

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