Surah An-Nisa’ Ayat 131-175

{131. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you that you have Taqwa of Allah. But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and Allah is Ever Rich (free of any needs), Worthy of all praise.

132. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as Disposer of affairs.

133. If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent over that.

134. Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All- Seer.}

The Necessity of Taqwa of Allah

Allah states that He is the Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is the Supreme Authority over them. Hence Allah’s statement, ”And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you” meaning, We have recommended to you what We recommended to the People of Scriptures; Taqwa of Allah, by worshipping Him Alone without partners. Allah then said, ”But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth”. In another Ayah, Allah said that Musa said to his people, “If you disbelieve, you and all on the earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich (free of any need), Owner of all praise.” Allah said, ”So they disbelieved and turned away. But Allah was not in need (of them). And Allah is Rich (free of any need), Worthy of all praise” meaning, He is far too Rich than to need His servants, and worthy of all praise in all His decisions and commandments. The meaning of Allah’s statement, ”And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All- Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.”

He has perfect watch over every soul, knowing what it deserves, He is the Watcher, and Witness of all things. Allah’s statement, ”If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent over that.” means, He is able to take you away and replace you with other people if you disobey Him. In a similar Ayah, Allah said, ”And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes” Allah’s statement, ”Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter.” means, O those whose ultimate desire is this life, know that Allah owns the rewards of this life and the Hereafter. Therefore, if you ask Allah for both, He will enrich you, award you and suffice for you. As Allah said, ”But of mankind there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world!” and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. And of them there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!” For them there will be alloted a share for what they have earned”, ”Whosoever desires (by his deeds) the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward”, and ”Whoever desires the quick-passing (transitory enjoyment of this world), We readily grant him what We will for whom We like” until, ”See how We prefer one above another (in this world)”. So Allah said here, ”And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.”

{135. O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both. So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice; and if you Talwu or Turidu, it, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.}

Commanding Justice and Conveying the Witness for Allah

Allah commands His believing servants to stand up for justice and fairness and not to deviate from it, right or left. They should not fear the blame of anyone or allow anyone to prevent them from doing something for the sake of Allah. They are also required to help, support and aid each other for Allah’s sake. Allah’s statement, ”as witnesses to Allah” is similar to His statement, ”And establish the testimony for Allah”.

Testimony should be delivered precisely, for the sake of Allah, thus making the testimony correct, truly just, and free of alterations, changes or deletions. This is why Allah said, ”even though it be against yourselves” meaning, give correct testimony, and say the truth when you are asked about it, even if harm will effect you as a consequence. Indeed, Allah shall make a way out and give relief for those who obey Him in every matter. Allah’s statement, ”or your parents, or your kin” means, even if you have to testify against your parents and kin, do not compromise for their sake. Rather, give the correct and just witness even if they are harmed in the process, for the truth presides above everyone and is preferred to everyone.

Allah’s statement, ”be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both” means, do not favor someone (in your testimony) because he is rich, or feel pity for him because he is poor, for Allah is their caretaker, a better Protector of them than you, and has better knowledge of what is good for them. Allah’s statement, ”So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice” means, let not desire, lust or the hatred you have against others, lure you into injustice in your affairs. Rather, stand for justice in all situations.

Allah said, ”And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety” when the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, sent Abdullah bin Rawahah to collect the tax on the fruits and produce of the Jews of Khaybar, they offered him a bribe so that he would go easy on them. He said; “By Allah! I have come to you from the dearest of the creation to me (Muhammad), and you are more hated by me than an equivelent number of apes and swine. However, my love for him (the Prophet) and hatred for you shall not prevent me from being just with you.” On that, they said, “This (justice) is the basis which the heavens and earth were created. ” We will mention this Hadith later in Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5) Allah willing.

Allah’s statement afterwards, ”and if you Talwu or Turidu” means, “Distort your testimony and change it”, according to Mujahid and several others among the Salaf. Talwu, includes distortion and intentional lying. For instance, Allah said, ”And verily, among them is a party who Yalwuna (distort) the Book with their tongues (as they read)”. Turidu, includes hiding and withholding the testimony.

Allah said, ”Who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”The best witness is he who discloses his testimony before being asked to do so.” (Muslim 3:1344)

Allah then warned. “Verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.” and will reward or punish you accordingly.

{136. O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger, and the Book (the Qur’an) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before; and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.}

The Order to Have Faith after Believing

Allah commands His faithful servants to adhere to all the elements of faith, its branches, pillars and cornerstones. This is not stated as mere redundancy, but from the view of completing faith and the continual maintenence of it. For instance, the believer proclaims in every prayer, ”Guide us to the straight way.” which means, make us aware of the straight path and increase us in guidance and strengthen us on it. In this Ayah [4:136], Allah commands the believers to believe in Him and in His Messenger, just as He said elsewhere, ”O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah, and believe in His Messenger”.

Allah’s statement, ”and the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger” refers to the Qur’an, while, ‘‘and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him)” refers to the previously revealed divine Books. Allah then said, ”and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.” meaning, he will have deviated from the correct guidance and strayed far away from its path.

{137. Verily, those who believe, then disbelieve, then believe (again), and (again) disbelieve, and go on increasing in disbelief; Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the (right) way.

138. Give to the hypocrites the tidings that there is for them a painful torment.

139. Those who take disbelievers for friends instead of believers, do they seek honor with them Verily, then to Allah belongs all honour.

140. And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in talk other than that; certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.}

Characteristics of the Hypocrites and Their Destination

Allah states that whoever embraces the faith, reverts from it, embraces it again, reverts from it and remains on disbelief and increases in it until death, then he will never have a chance to gain accepted repentance after death. Nor will Allah forgive him, or deliver him from his plight to the path of correct guidance. This is why Allah said, ”Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the (right) way”. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that his father said that Ahmad bin Abdah related that Hafs bin Jami’ said that Samak said that Ikrimah reported that Ibn Abbas commented; ”and go on increasing in disbelief”, “They remain on disbelief until they die.” Mujahid said similarly. Allah then said, ”Give to the hypocrites the tidings that there is for them a painful torment.”

Hence, the hypocrites have this characteristic, for they believe, then disbelieve, and this is why their hearts become sealed. Allah describes the hypocrites as taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, meaning they are the disbelievers’ supporters in reality, for they give them their loyalty and friendship in secret. They also say to disbelievers when they are alone with them, “We are with you, we only mock the believers by pretending to follow their religion.” Allah said, while chastising them for being friends with the disbelievers, ”do they seek honour, with them?” Allah then states that honor, power and glory is for Him Alone without partners, and for those whom Allah grants such qualities to. Allah said, ”Whosoever desires honor, then to Allah belong all honour”, and, ”But honour belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not”. The statement that honor is Allah’s Alone, is meant to encourage the servants to adhere to their servitude to Allah and to be among His faithful servants who will gain victory in this life and when the Witnesses stand up to testify on the Day of Resurection.

Allah’s statement, ”And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in talk other than that; certainly in that case you would be like them.” The Ayah means, if you still commit this prohibition after being aware of its prohibition, sitting with them where Allah’s Ayat are rejected, mocked at and denied, and you sanction such conduct, then you have participated with them in what they are doing. So Allah said, ”(But if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.” concerning the burden they will earn. What has already been revealed in the Book – as the Ayah says – is the Ayah in Surat Al-Anam (6), which was revealed in Makkah, ”And when you see those who engage in false conversation about Our verses (of the Qur’an) by mocking at them, stay away from them.”

Muqatil bin Hayyan said that this Ayah [4:140] abrogated the Ayah in Surat Al-Anam, referring to the part that says here, ”(But if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them”, and Allah’s statement in Al-Anam, ”Those who fear Allah, keep their duty to Him and avoid evil, are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, but (their duty) is to remind them, that they may have Taqwa”.

Allah’s statement, ”Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.” means, just as the hypocrites participate in the Kufr of disbelievers, Allah will join them all together to reside in the Fire for eternity, dwelling in torment, punishment, enchained, restrained and in drinking boiling water.

{141. Those who wait and watch about you; if you gain a victory from Allah, they say: “Were we not with you” But if the disbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): “Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers?” Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection. And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.}

Hypocrites Wait and Watch what Happens to Muslims

Allah states that the hypocrites watch and await the harm that occurs to the believers, awaiting the time when the Muslim circumstances and religion are dissolved and the state of Kufr takesover. ”if you gain a victory from Allah” triumph, aid and booty, ”they say, “Were we not with you” trying to come closer to the believers with this statement. However, ”But if the disbelievers gain a success” by gaining victory over the believers sometimes, just as occurred during Uhud, for surely, the Messengers are tested, but the final victory is theirs. ”they say (to them), “Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers?” meaning, did we not help you in secret and try our best to confuse the believers and weaken their resolve, until you gained victory over them This statement of the hypocrites is an attempt to strengthen relations with the disbelievers, because they pretend to be friends with both parties so that they will be safe from their harm, due to their weak faith and lack of certainty. Allah said, “Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection” meaning, by what He knows about you, O hypocrites. Therefore, do not be deceived by being shaded under the protection of Islamic Law in this life, which is such only out of Allah’s wisdom. Surely, on the Day of Resurrection, your pretending shall not benefit you, because on that Day, the secrets of the souls will be disclosed and the contents of the hearts will be collected.

Allah said, “And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers”. Abdur- Razzaq recorded that Yasi Al-Kindi said, “A man came to Ali bin Abi Talib and said, ‘What about this Ayah, “And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.” Ali said, ‘Come closer, come closer. Allah will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection, and He will not grant victory for the disbelievers over the believers.’ ” (Tafsir Abdur Razzaq 1:175) Ibn Jurayj recorded that Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that Ibn Abbas said that, “And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.” “Will occur on the Day of Resurrection.”  As-Suddi recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashja`i said that it occurs on the Day of Resurrection. As-Suddi said that “way” means, proof. (At-Tabari 9:328) It is possible that the meaning of, ”and never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers”, is in this life by being unable to exterminate the believers completely, although they sometimes gain victory over some Muslims. However, the Final Triumph will be for the believers in this life and the Hereafter. Allah said, “Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in the worldly life” This provides a rebuttal to the wishes of the hypocrites for the destruction of the believers, and their loyalty to the disbelievers, fearing for themselves if they are victorious.

In another Ayah, Allah said, “And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship”, until, “Regretful”

{142. Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.

143. (They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those; and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way.}

The Hypocrites Try to Deceive Allah and Sway Between Believers and Disbelievers

In the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah (2), we mentioned Allah’s statement, “They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe”. Here, Allah states, “Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them.”

There is no doubt that Allah can never be deceived, for He has perfect knowledge of the secrets and what the hearts conceal. However, the hypocrites, due to their ignorance, scarce knowledge and weak minds, think that since they were successful in deceiving people, using Islamic Law as a cover of safety for themselves, they will acquire the same status with Allah on the Day of Resurrection and deceive Him too. Allah states that on that Day, the hypocrites will swear to Him that they were on the path of righteousness and correctness thinking that such statement will benefit them with Allah. For instance, Allah said, ”On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you” Allah’s statement, ”but it is He Who deceives them” means, He lures them further into injustice and misguidance. He also prevents them from reaching the truth in this life and on the Day of Resurrection. Allah said, ”On the Day when the hypocrites -men and women- will say to the believers: “Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!” It will be said: “Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!” until, “And worst indeed is that destination.”

“Whoever wants to be heard of, Allah will make him heard of, and whoever wants to be seen, Allah will show him.” (Fath Al-Bari 11:343)

Allah’s statement, “And when they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness”. This is the characteristic of the hypocrites with the most honored, best and righteous act of worship, the prayer. When they stand for prayer, they stand in laziness because they neither truly intend to perform it nor do they believe in it, have humility in it, or understand it. This is the description of their outward attitude! As for their hearts, Allah said, ”to be seen of men’‘ meaning, they do not have sincerity when worshipping Allah. Rather, they show off to people so that they gain closeness to them. They are often absent from the prayers that they can hide away from, such as the Isha’ prayer and the Dawn prayer that are prayed in darkness. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“The heaviest prayers on the hypocrites are the Isha’ and Dawn prayers. If they know their rewards, they will attend them even if they have to crawl. I was about to order someone to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer, then order someone to lead the prayer for the people, then order some men to collect fire-wood (fuel); then I would burn the houses around men who did not attend the (compulsory congregational) prayer.” (Fath Al-Bari 2:53)

In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”By Him, in Whose Hand my soul is, if anyone of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat or two (small) pieces of meat between two ribs, he would have turned up for the prayer, and had it not been that the houses have women and children in them, I would burn their homes around them.” (Fath Al-Bari 2:248)

Allah’s statement, “And they do not remember Allah but little” means, during the prayer they do not feel humbleness or pay attention to what they are reciting. Rather, during their prayer, they are inattentive, jesting and avoid the good that they are meant to receive from prayer.

Imam Malik reported that Al-Ala bin Abdur-Rahman said that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”This is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite. He sits watching the sun until when it goes down between the two horns of the devil, he stands up pecks out four Rakahs (for Asr) without remembering Allah during them except little.” (Al-Muwatta 1:220)

Allah’s statement, “(They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these” means that the hypocrites are swaying between faith and disbelief. So they are neither with believers inwardly or outwardly nor with disbelievers inwardly or outwardly. Rather, they are with the believers outwardly and with the disbelievers inwardly. Some of them would suffer fits of doubt, leaning towards these sometimes and towards those sometimes, “Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still”.

Mujahid said; “(They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these” “The Companions of Muhammad, “nor to those” the Jews.”

Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Umar said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said,

”The example of the hypocrite is the example of the sheep wandering between two herds, sometimes she goes to one of them, and sometimes the other, confused over whom she should follow.” (Muslim 4:2146)

This is why Allah said afterwards, “and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way” meaning, whomever He leads astray from the guidance, “For him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) to lead him (to the right path)” because, “Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him”. So the hypocrites whom Allah has led astray from the paths of safety will never find a guide to direct them, nor someone to save them. There is none who can resist Allah’s decision, and He is not asked about what He does, while they all will be asked.

{144. O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves?

145. Verily, the hyprocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them.

146. Except those who repent, do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah, then they will be with the believers. And Allah will grant the believers a great reward.

147. Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him. And Allah is Ever All- Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.}

The Prohibition of Wilayah with the Disbelievers

Allah forbids His believing servants from taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers. This includes being friends and associates of the disbelievers, advising them, being intimate with them and exposing the secrets of the believers to them. In another Ayah, Allah said, “Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself”. meaning, He warns you against His punishment if you fall into what He has prohibited. This is why Allah said here, “Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves?” meaning, proof against you that warrants receiving His torment.

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas commented; “manifest Sultan”, “The word Sultan in the Qur’an means proof. ” There is an authentic chain of narration for this statement, which is also the saying of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Said bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and An-Nadr bin Arabi.

The Hypocrites and the Friends of Disbelievers are in the Lowest Depth of the Fire, Unless they Repent

Allah then states that, “Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire” on the Day of Resurrection due to their tremendous Kufr. Al-Walibi [Ali bin Abi Talhah] said that Ibn Abbas said, “in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire” means, in the bottom of the Fire. Other scholars said that the Fire has ever lower depths just as Paradise had ever higher grades. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said that,

“Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire”, “Inside coffins of Fire that surround them, for they are closed and sealed in them.” (At-Tabari 9:339)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when Ibn Masud was asked about the hypocrites, he said, “They will be placed in coffins made of fire and they will be closed in them in the lowest depth of the Fire.” “no helper will you find for them.” to save them from their misery and painful torment. Allah then states that whoever among the hypocrites repents in this life, Allah will accept his repentance and sorrow, if his repentance were sincere and he then follows it by performing righteous deeds, all the while depending on his Lord. Allah said, “Except those who repent (from hypocrisy), do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah” replacing showing off with sincerity, so that their good deeds will benefit them, even if they were minute. “then they will be with the believers.” on the Day of Resurrection, “And Allah will grant to the believers a great reward” Allah then states that He is too Rich to need anyone and that He only punishes the servants because of their sins, “Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him.” by correcting your actions and having faith in Allah and His Messenger, “And Allah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.” Allah appreciates those who appreciate Him, and has knowledge of those whose hearts believe in Him, and He will give them perfect reward.

Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 2 Page 603- 624.

This completes Volume 2 la hawla wa la quwatta illah billah

{148. Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Knower.

149. Whether you disclose a good deed or conceal it, or pardon an evil, verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.}

The Permission to Utter Evil in Public, For One Who Was Wronged

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah, “Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public” “Allah does not like that any one should invoke Him against anyone else, unless one was wronged. In this case, Allah allows one to invoke Him against whoever wronged him. Hence Allah’s statement, “except by him who has been wronged.” Yet, it is better for one if he observes patience.” (At-Tabari 9:344) Al- Hasan Al-Basri commented, “One should not invoke Allah (for curses) against whoever wronged him. Rather, he should supplicate, ‘O Allah! Help me against him and take my right from him.”’ (At-Tabari 9:344) In another narration, Al-Hasan said, “Allah has allowed one to invoke Him against whoever wronged him without transgressing the limits.”

Abdul-Karim bin Malik Al-Jazari said about this Ayah; “When a man curses you, you could curse him in retaliation. But if he lies about you, you may not lie about him. “And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.” Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Whatever words are uttered by those who curse each other, then he who started it will carry the burden thereof, unless the one who was wronged transgresses the limit.” (Abu Dawud:4894)

Allah said, “Whether you disclose a good deed, or conceal it, or pardon an evil; verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.” Meaning when you, mankind, admit to a good favour done to you, or conceal it, and forgive those who wrong you, then this will bring you closer to Allah and increase your reward with Him.

Among Allah’s attributes is that He forgives and pardons His servants, although He is able to punish them. Hence Allah’s statement, “Verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.” It was reported that some of the angels who carry Allah’s Throne praise Him saying, “All praise is due to You for Your forbearing even though You have perfect knowledge (in all evil committed).” Some of them supplicate, “All praise is due to You for Your forgiving even though You have perfect ability (to punish).” An authentic Hadith states,

“No charity shall ever decrease wealth, and Allah will only increase the honor of a servant who pardons, and he who is humble for Allah’s sake, then Allah will elevate his grade.” (Muslim 4:2001)

{150. Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers saying, “We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between.

151. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.

152. And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them (Messengers), We shall give them their rewards; and Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

Believing in Some Prophets and Rejecting Others is Pure Kufr

Allah threatens those who disbelieve in Him and in His Messengers, such as the Jews and Christians, who differentiate between Allah and His Messengers regarding faith. They believe in some Prophets and reject others, following their desires, lusts and the practices of their forefathers. They do not follow any proof for such distinction, because there is no such proof. Rather, they follow their lusts and prejudices. The Jews, may Allah curse them, believe in the Prophets, except Isa and Muhammad, peace be upon them. The Christians believe in the Prophets but reject their Final and Seal, and the most honored among the prophets, Muhammad, peace be upon him. In addition, the Samirah (Samaritans) do not believe in any Prophet after Yuwsha (Joshua), the successor of Musa bin Imran. The Majus (Zoroastrians) are said to believe only in a Prophet called Zoroaster, although they do not believe in the law he brought them casting it behind them, and Allah knows best.

Therefore, whoever rejects only one of Allah’s Prophets, he will have disbelieved in all of them, because it is required from mankind to believe in every prophet whom Allah sent to the people of the earth. And whoever rejects one Prophet, out of envy, bias and personal whim, he only demonstrates that his faith in other Prophets is not valid, but an act of following desire and whim. This is why Allah said, “and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers” in faith, “saying, “We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between.” Allah then describes them, “They are in truth disbelievers.”

meaning, their disbelief in the Prophet they claim to believe in is clear. This is because their claimed faith in a certain Messenger is not true, for had they truly believed in him, they would have believed in other Messengers, especially if the other Messenger has a stronger proof for his truthfulness. Or at least, they would have strived hard to acquire knowledge of the truth of the other Messenger.

Allah said, ”And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.” This is just punishment for belittling the Prophets whom they disbelieved in, by ignoring what the Prophet brought to them from Allah, and because they are interested in the insignificant possessions of this world. Or, their behavior could be the result of their disbelief in the Prophet after they were aware of his truth, just as the Jewish rabbis did during the time of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Jews envied the Messenger because of the great prophethood that Allah gave him, and as a consequence, they denied the Messenger, defied him, became his enemies and fought against him. Allah sent humiliation upon them in this life, that shall be followed by disgrace in the Hereafter, “And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah.” in this life and the Hereafter. Allah’s statement, “And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them” This refers to the Ummah of Muhammad who believe in every Book that Allah has revealed and in every Prophet whom Allah has sent. Allah said,

”The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. All of them believe in Allah.” (2:285).

Allah then states that He has prepared great rewards for them, tremendous favor and a handsome bounty, ”We shall give them their rewards” because of their faith in Allah and His Messengers, ”and Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful” for their sin, if they have any.

{153. The People of the Scripture (Jews) ask you to cause a book to descend upon them from heaven. Indeed, they asked Musa for even greater than that, when they said: “Show us Allah in public,” but they were struck with a bolt of lightning for their wickedness. Then they worshipped the calf even after Al-Bayyinat had come to them. (Even) so We forgave them. And We gave Musa a clear proof of authority.

154. And for their covenant, We raised over them the mount and (on the other occasion) We said: “Enter the gate prostrating (or bowing) with humility;” and We commanded them: “Transgress not on the Sabbath (Saturday).” And We took from them a firm covenant.}

The Stubbornness of the Jews

Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi, As-Suddi and Qatadah said that the Jews asked the Messenger of Allah to cause a book to come down to them from heaven, just as the Tawrah was sent down to Musa. Ibn Jurayj said that the Jews asked the Messenger to cause books to come down to them addressed to so-and-so among them, testifying to the truth of what he was sent with. The Jews only asked for this because of their stubbornness, defiance, rejection and disbelief. The disbelievers of Quraysh also asked for similar things from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as is mentioned in Surat Al-Isra,

”And they say: “We shall not believe in you, until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us” (17:90)

Allah said, ”Indeed, they asked Musa for even greater than that, when they said, “Show us Allah in public,” but they were struck with a bolt of lightning for their wickedness.” injustice, transgression, defiance and rebellion. This part was explained in Surat Al-Baqarah,

”And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” But you were struck by a bolt of lightning while you were looking. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.” (2:55,56)

Allah’s statement, ”Then they worshipped the calf even after Al-Bayyinat had come to them” meaning, after they witnessed the tremendous miracles and unequivocal proofs at the hand of Musa in Egypt. They also witnessed the demise of their enemy, Firawn and his soldiers, when they all drowned in the sea. Yet soon after, when they passed by a people who were worshipping idols, they said to Musa, ”Make for us a god as they have gods”. Allah explains the story of the Jews worshipping the calf in Surat Al-Araf (7) and Surah Ta Ha (20) after Musa went to meet with his Lord. When Musa returned, Allah decreed that in order for the Jews to earn accepted repentance, then those who did not worship the calf would have to kill those who worshipped it. They complied with this command, and Allah resurrected them afterwards. Allah said here, ”(Even) so We forgave them. And We gave Musa a clear proof of authority.”

Allah then said, ”And for their covenant, We raised over them the mount” This was when they refrained from implementing the rulings of the Tawrah and refused what Musa brought them from Allah. So Allah raised the mountain above their heads and they were ordered to prostrate, which they did. Even so, they were looking above when they were prostrating for fear that the mountain might fall on them, ”And (remember) when We raised t he mount ain over t hem as if it had been a canopy, and t hey thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said): “Hold firmly to what We have given you.”

Allah then said, ”and We said, “Enter the gate prostrating (or bowing) with humility” meaning that they also defied this command in word and action. They were commanded to enter Bayt Al-Quds (in Jerusalem) while bowing and saying “Hittah”, meaning: ‘O Allah! take from us our sin of abandoning Jihad.’ This was the cause of their wandering in the desert of Tih for forty years. Yet, they entered the House while crawling on their rear ends and saying Hintah (a wheat grain) in Sharah (the hair)’. ”and We commanded them, “Transgress not the Sabbath (Saturday).” meaning, We commanded them to honor the Sabbath and honor what Allah prohibited them on that day. ”And We took from them a firm covenant” meaning, strong covenant. They rebelled, transgressed and committed what Allah prohibited by using deceit and trickery, as is mentioned in Surat Al-Araf (7), “And ask them about the town that was by the sea.”

{155. Because of their breaking the covenant, and their rejecting the Ayat of Allah, and their killing the Prophets unjustly, and their saying: “Our hearts are Ghulf,” nay, Allah has set a seal upon their hearts because of their disbelief, so they believe not but a little.

156. And because of their disbelief and uttering against Maryam a grave false charge.

157. And because of their saying, “We killed Al-Masih `Isa, son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah,” but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared as that to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not.

158. But Allah raised him up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All- Wise.

159. And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them.}

The Crimes of the Jews

The sins mentioned here are among the many sins that the Jews committed, which caused them to be cursed and removed far away from right guidance. The Jews broke the promises and vows that Allah took from them, and also rejected Allah’s Ayat, meaning His signs and proofs, and the miracles that they witnessed at the hands of their Prophets. Allah said, ”and their killing the Prophets unjustly” because their many crimes and offenses against the Prophets of Allah, for they killed many Prophets, may Allah’s peace be upon them Their saying: “Our hearts are Ghulf,” meaning, wrapped with covering, according to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Qatadah. This is similar to the what the idolators said, ”And they say: “Our hearts are under coverings (screened) from that to which you invite us.” Allah said, ”nay, Allah has set a seal upon their hearts because of their disbelief” It is as if they had given an excuse that their hearts do not understand what the Prophet says since their hearts are wrapped with coverings, so they claim. Allah said that their hearts are sealed because of their disbelief, as we mentioned before in the explanation of Surat Al-Baqarah. Allah then said, ”so they believe not but a little” for their hearts became accustomed to Kufr, transgression and weak faith.

The Evil Accusation the Jews Uttered Against Maryam and Their Claim that They Killed Isa

Allah said, ”And because of their (Jews) disbelief and uttering against Maryam a grave false charge.” Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas stated that the Jews accused Maryam of fornication.This is also the saying of As-Suddi, Juwaybir, Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others. This meaning is also apparent in the Ayah, as the Jews accused Maryam and her son of grave accusations: They accused her of fornication and claimed that Isa was an illegitimate son. Some of them even claimed that she was menstruating while fornicating. May Allah’s continued curse be upon them until the Day of Resurrection. The Jews also said, “We killed Al-Masih, Isa, son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah,” meaning, we killed the person who claimed to be the Messenger of Allah. The Jews only uttered these words in jest and mockery, just asthe polytheists said, ”O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur’an) has been sent down! Verily, you are a mad man!”

When Allah sent Isa with proofs and guidance, the Jews, may Allah’s curses, anger, torment and punishment be upon them, envied him because of his prophethood and obvious miracles; curing the blind and leprous and bringing the dead back to life, by Allah’s leave. He also used to make the shape of a bird from clay and blow in it, and it became a bird by Allah’s leave and flew. Isa performed other miracles that Allah honored him with, yet the Jews defied and bellied him and tried their best to harm him. Allah’s Prophet Isa could not live in any one city for long and he had to travel often with his mother, peace be upon them. Even so, the Jews were not satisfied, and they went to the king of Damascus at that time, a Greek polytheist who worshipped the stars. They told him that there was a man in Bayt Al-Maqdis misguiding and dividing the people in Jerusalem and stirring unrest among the king’s subjects. The king became angry and wrote to his deputy in Jerusalem to arrest the rebel leader, stop him from causing unrest, crucify him and make him wear a crown of thorns. When the king’s deputy in Jerusalem received these orders, he went with some Jews to the house that Isa was residing in, and he was then with twelve, thirteen or seventeen of his companions. That day was a Friday, in the evening. They surrounded Isa in the house, and when he felt that they would soon enter the house or that he would sooner or later have to leave it, he said to his companions, “Who volunteers to be made to look like me, for which he will be my companion in Paradise?” A young man volunteered, but Isa thought that he was too young. He asked the question a second and third time, each time the young man volunteering, prompting Isa to say, “Well then, you will be that man.” Allah made the young man look exactly like Isa, while a hole opened in the roof of the house, and Isa was made to sleep and ascended to heaven while asleep. Allah said, ”And (remember) when Allah said: “O Isa! I will take you and raise you to Myself.”

When Isa ascended, those who were in the house came out. When those surrounding the house saw the man who looked like Isa, they thought that he was Isa. So they took him at night, crucified him and placed a crown of thorns on his head. The Jews then boasted that they killed Isa and some Christians accepted their false claim, due to their ignorance and lack of reason. As for those who were in the house with Isa, they witnessed his ascension to heaven, while the rest thought that the Jews killed Isa by crucifixion. They even said that Maryam sat under the corpse of the crucified man and cried, and they say that the dead man spoke to her. All this was a test from Allah for His servants out of His wisdom.

Allah explained this matter in the Glorious Qur’an which He sent to His honorable Messenger, whom He supported with miracles and clear, unequivocal evidence. Allah is the Most Truthful, and He is the Lord of the worlds Who knows the secrets, what the hearts conceal, the hidden matters in heaven and earth, what has occurred, what will occur, and what would occur if it was decreed. He said, ”but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared as that to them” referring to the person whom the Jews thought was Isa. This is why Allah said afterwards, ”and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture.” referring to the Jews who claimed to kill Isa and the ignorant Christians who believed them. Indeed they are all in confusion, misguidance and bewilderment. This is why Allah said, ”For surely; they killed him not” meaning they are not sure that Isa was the one whom they killed. Rather, they are in doubt and confusion over this matter. ”But Allah raised him up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful” meaning, He is the Almighty, and He is never weak, nor will those who seek refuge in Him ever be subjected to disgrace, ”All-Wise” in all that He decides and ordains for His creatures. Indeed, Allah’s is the clearest wisdom, unequivocal proof and the most glorious authority.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “Just before Allah raised Isa to the heavens, Isa went to his companions, who were twelve inside the house. When he arrived, his hair was dripping water and he said, ‘There are those among you who will disbelieve in me twelve times after he had believed in me.’ He then asked, ‘Who volunteers that his image appear as mine, and be killed in my place. He will be with me (in Paradise)?’ One of the youngest ones among them volunteered and Isa asked him to sit down. Isa again asked for a volunteer, and the young man kept volunteering and Isa asking him to sit down. Then the young man volunteered again and Isa said, ‘You will be that man,’ and the resemblance of Isa was cast over that man while Isa ascended to heaven from a hole in the house. When the Jews came looking for Isa, they found that young man and crucified him. Some of Isa’s followers disbelieved in him twelve times after they had believed in him. They then divided into three groups. One group, Al-Ya`qubiyyah (Jacobites), said, ‘Allah remained with us as long as He willed and then ascended to heaven.’ Another group, An- Nasturiyyah (Nestorians), said, ‘The son of Allah was with us as long as he willed and Allah took him to heaven.’ Another group, Muslims, said, ‘The servant and Messenger of Allah remained with us as long as Allah willed, and Allah then took him to Him.’ The two disbelieving groups cooperated against the Muslim group and they killed them. Ever since that happened, Islam was then veiled until Allah sent Muhammad .” (Ibn Abi Hatim 4:1110) This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn Abbas, and An-Nasa’i narrated it through Abu Kurayb who reported it from Abu Muawiyah. (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:489) Many among the Salaf stated that Isa asked if someone would volunteer for his appearance to be cast over him, and that he will be killed instead of Isa, for which he would be his companion in Paradise.

All Christians Will Believe in Isa Before He Dies

Allah said, ”And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Abbas commented, ”And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death.” before the death of Isa, son of Maryam, peace be upon him.  Al-Awfi reported similar from Ibn Abbas. Abu Malik commented, ”but must believe in him, before his death.” “This occurs after Isa returns and before he dies, as then, all of the People of the Scriptures will believe in him.” (At-Tabari 9:380)

The Hadiths Regarding the Descent of Isa Just Before the Day of Judgement, and his Mission

In the chapter about the Prophetsin hisSahih, under, “The Descent of Isa, Son of Maryam,” Al- Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the son of Maryam (Isa) will shortly descend among you as a just ruler, and will break the cross, kill the pig and abolish the Jizyah. Then there will be an abundance of wealth and nobody will accept charitable gifts any more. At that time, one prostration will be better for them than this life and all that is in it.”

Abu Hurayrah then said, “Read if you will, ”And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:566) 

So, Allah’s statement, ”before his death” refersto the death of Isa, son of Maryam.

Another Hadith by Abu Hurayrah

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”Isa will say Ihlal [loud calling] from the mountain highway of Ar-Rawha’ for Hajj, Umrah or both.” (Ahmad 2:513)

Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”Isa, son of Maryam, will descend and will kill the pig, break the cross, lead the prayer in congregation and give away wealth until it is no longer accepted by anyone. He will also abolish the Jizyah and go to Ar-Rawha’ from where he will go to perform Hajj, Umrah or both.”

Abu Hurayrah then recited, ”And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death.” Hanzalah said, “Abu Hurayrah added, ‘Will believe in Isa before Isa dies,’ but I do not know if this was a part of the Prophet’s Hadith or if it was something that Abu Hurayrah said on his own. ” (Ahmad 2:290)

Another Hadith

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”How will you be when Al-Masih, son of Maryam (Isa) descends among you while your Imam is from among yourselves?” (Fath Al-Bari 6:566)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”The Prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one. I, more than any of mankind, have more right to Isa, son of Maryam, for there was no Prophet between him and I. He will descend, and if you see him, know him. He is a well-built man, (the color of his skin) between red and white. He will descend while wearing two long, light yellow garments. His head appears to be dripping water, even though no moisture touched it. He will break the cross, kill the pig, and banish the Jizyah and will call the people to Islam. During his time, Allah will destroy all religions except Islam and Allah will destroy Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the False Messiah). Safety will then fill the earth, so much so that the lions will mingle with camels, tigers with cattle and wolves with sheep. Children will play with snakes, and they will not harm them. Isa will remain for forty years and then will die, and Muslims will offer the funeral prayer for him.” (Ahmad 2:406)

Another Hadith

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah related to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that he said,

”The (Last) Hour will not start until the Romans occupy Al-Amaq or Dabiq [two cities close to Aleppo in Syria]. An army, comprised of the best of the people of the earth then, will come from Al-Madinah and challenge them. When they camp face to face, the Romans will say, ‘Let us fight those who captured some of us.’ The Muslims will say, ‘Nay! By Allah, we will never let you get to our brothers.’ They will fight them. A third of the (Muslim) army will flee in defeat, and those are the ones whom Allah will never forgive. Another third will be killed, and those are the best martyrs before Allah. The last third will be victorious, and this third will never be stricken with Fitnah, and they will capture Constantinople (Istanbul). While they are dividing war booty, after hanging their swords on olive trees, Shaytan will shout among them, saying, Al-Masih (Ad-Dajjal) has cornered your people’. They will leave to meet Ad-Dajjal in Ash-Sham. This will be a false warning, and when they reach Ash-Sham, Ad-Dajjal will then appear. When the Muslims are arranging their lines for battle and the prayer is called for, Isa, son of Maryam, will descend and lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah (the False Messiah) sees him, he will dissolve just as salt dissolves in water, and if any of him were left, he would continue dissolving until he died. Allah will kill him with the hand of Isa and will show the Muslims his blood on his spear.” (Muslim 4:2221)

Muslim recorded that Abdullah bin Amr said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”You will fight the Jews and will kill them, until the stone will say, ‘O Muslim! There is a Jew here, so come and kill him.” (Muslim 4:2238)

Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”The Hour will not start, until after the Muslims fight the Jews and the Muslims kill them. The Jew will hide behind a stone or tree, and the tree will say, ‘O Muslim! O servant of Allah! This is a Jew behind me, come and kill him.’ Except Al-Gharqad, for it is a tree of the Jews.” (Muslim 4:2239)

Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj recorded in his Sahih that An-Nawwas bin Saman said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, mentioned Ad-Dajjal one day and kept belittling him (because being blind, yet claiming to be Allah) and speaking in grave terms about him until we thought that he was hiding in gardens of date-trees (in Al-Madinah). When we went by the Messenger, he sensed this anxiety in us and said, ‘What is the matter with you?’  We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Earlier, you mentioned Ad-Dajjal and while belittling him you spoke gravely about him until we thought that he was hiding in gardens of date-trees (of Al-Madinah).’ He said, 

”I fear other than Ad-Dajjal for you! If he appears while I am still among you, I will be his adversary on your behalf. If he appears while I am not among you, each one will depend on himself and Allah will be the Helper of every Muslim after me. He is young, with very curly hair and his eye is smashed. I thought that he looked like Abdul-Uzza bin Qatan. Whoever lives long and meets Ad-Dajjal, then let him recite the beginnings of Surat Al-Kahf. He will appear on a pass between Ash-Sham (Syria) and Al-Iraq. He will wreak havoc to the right and left. O Servants of Allah! Hold fast.”

We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! How long will he stay on earth?’ He said,

”Forty days: One day as long as a year, one day as long as a month and one day as long as a week. The rest of his days will be as long as one of your ordinary days.”

We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! As for the day that is like a year, will the prayers of one day suffice for it?’ He said,

”No. Count for its due measure.”

We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how will his speed be on earth?’ He said,

”Like the storm when driven by the wind. He will come to a people and will call them (to his worship), and they will believe in him and accept his call. He will order the sky and it will rain, the land and it will grow (vegetation). Their cattle will return to them with their hair the longest, their udders the fullest (with milk) and their stomachs the fattest. He will come to a different people and will call them (to his worship), and they will reject his call. He will then leave them. They will wake up in the morning destitute, missing all of their possessions. He will pass by a deserted land and will say to it, ‘Bring out your treasures’, and its treasures will follow him just like swarms of bees. He will summon a man full of youth and will strike him with the sword once and will cut him into two pieces (and will separate between them like) the distance (between the hunter and) the game. He will call the dead man and he will come, and his face will radiant with pleasure and laughter. Afterwards (while all this is happening with Ad-Dajjal), Allah will send Al-Masih (Isa), son of Maryam down. He will descend close to the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will be wearing garments lightly colored with saffron and his hands will be placed on the wings of two angels. Whenever he lowers his head droplets fall. Whenever he raises his head, precious stones that look like pearls fall. No disbeliever can survive Isa’s breath, which reaches the distance of his sight. He will pursue Ad- Dajjal and will follow him to the doors of (the Palestinian city of) Ludd where he will kill him. A group of people who, by Allah’s help, resisted and survived Ad-Dajjal, will pass by Isa and he will anoint their faces and inform them about their grades in Paradise. Shortly afterwards, while this is happening with Isa, Allah will reveal to him, ‘I raised a people of My creation that no one can fight. Therefore, gather My servants to At-Tur (the mountain of Musa in Sinai).’ Then, Allah will raise Gog and Magog and they will swiftly swarm from every mound. Their front forces will reach Lake Tabariah (Sea of Galilee) and will drink all its water. The last of their forces will say as they pass by the lake, ‘This lake once had water!’ Meanwhile, Isa, Allah’s Prophet, will be cornered along with his companions until the head of a bull will be more precious to them than a hundred Dinars to you today. Isa, Allah’s Prophet, and his companions will invoke Allah for help and Allah will send An-Naghaf (a worm) into the necks of Gog and Magog! The morning will come, and they will all be dead as if it was the death of one soul. Afterwards, Isa, the Prophet of Allah, will come down with his companions to the low grounds (from Mount At-Tur). They will find that no space of a hand-span on the earth was free of their fat and rot (rotten corpses). Isa, the Prophet of Allah, and his companions will seek Allah in supplication. Allah will send birds as large as the necks of camels. They will carry them (the corpses of Gog and Magog) and will throw them wherever Allah wills. Afterwards, Allah will send rain that no house made of mud or animal hair will be saved from, and it will cleanse the earth until it is as clean as a mirror. The earth will be commanded (by Allah), ‘Produce your fruits and regain your blessing.’ Then, the group will eat from a pomegranate and will take shelter under the shade of its skin. Milk will be blessed, so much so that the milk-producing camel will yield large amounts that suffice for a large group of people. Meanwhile, Allah will send a pure wind that will overcome Muslims from under their arms and will take the soul of every believer and Muslim. Only the evildoers among people will remain. They will indulge in shameless public sex like that of donkeys. On them, the Hour will begin.” (Muslim 4:2250)

Imam Ahmad and the collectors of the Sunan also recorded this Hadith. We will mention this Hadith again using the chain of narration collected by Ahmad explaining Allah’s statement in Surat Al-Anbiya’ (chapter 21), ”Until, when Ya`juj and Ma`juj (Gog and Magog people) are let loose (from their barrier)”.

Another Hadith

Muslim recorded in hisSahih that Yaqub bin Asim bin Urwah bin Masud Ath-Thaqafi said, “I heard Abdullah bin Amr saying to a man who asked him, ‘What is this Hadith that you are narrating You claim that the Hour will start on such and such date?’ He said, ‘Subhan Allah (glory be to Allah),’ or he said, ‘There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ I almost decided to never narrate anything to anyone. I only said, “Soon, you will witness tremendous incidents, the House (the Kabah) will be destroyed by fire, and such and such things will occur.” He then said, ‘The Messenger of Allah said,

”Ad-Dajjal will appear in my nation and will remain for forty. (The narrator doubts whether it is forty days, months, or years). Then, Allah will send down Isa, son of Maryam, looking just like Urwah bin Masud and he will seek Ad-Dajjal and will kill him. People will remain for seven years with no enmity between any two. Allah will send a cool wind from As-Sham that will leave no man on the face of the earth who has even the weight of an atom of good or faith, but will capture (his soul). Even if one of you takes refuge in the middle of a mountain, it will find him and capture (his soul). Afterwards, only the most evil people will remain. They will be as light as birds, with the comprehension of beasts. They will not know or enjoin righteousness or forbid or know evil. Shaytan will appear to them and will say to them, ‘Would you follow me?’ They will say, ‘What do you command us?’ He will command them to worship the idols. Meanwhile, their provision will come to them in abundance and their life will be good. Then the Trumpet will be blown and every person who hears it, will lower one side of his head and raise the other side (trying to hear that distant sound). The first man who will hear the Trumpet is someone who is preparing the water pool for his camels, and he and the people will swoon away. Allah will send down heavy rain and the bodies of people will grow with it. The Trumpet will be blown in again and the people will be resurrected and looking all about, staring. It will be said to them, ‘O people! Come to your Lord,’  “But stop them, verily, they are to be questioned.” “It will then be said, `Bring forth the share of the Fire.’ It will be asked, ‘How many?’ It will be said, ‘From every one thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine.’ That Day is when,” “the children will turn grey-headed” and, “The Day when the Shin shall be laid bare”

The Description of Isa, upon him be Peace

As mentioned earlier, Abdur-Rahman bin Adam narrated that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”If you see Isa, know him. He is a well-built man, (the color of his skin) between red and white. He will descend while wearing light yellow garments. His head looks like it is dripping water, even though no moisture touched it.” (Abu Dawud 4:498)

In the Hadith that An-Nawwas bin Saman narrated,

“He will descend close to the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will be wearing two garments lightly colored with saffron, having his hands on the wings of two angels. Whenever he lowers his head, drops will fall off of it. Whenever he raises his head, precious jewels like pearls will fall off of it. No disbeliever can survive ` Isa’s breath, and his breath reaches the distance of his sight.” (Muslim 4:2250)

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,  said,

“I met Musa on the night of my Ascension to heaven.”

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then described him saying, as I think,

“He was a tall person with hair as if he was one of the men from the tribe of Shanu’ah.” 

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, further said,

”I met Isa.’ The Prophet described him saying, ‘He was of moderate height and was red-faced as if he had just come out of a bathroom. I saw Ibrahim whom I resembled more than any of his children did.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:493)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Mujahid said that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”I saw Musa, Isa and Ibrahim. Isa was of red complexion and had curly hair and a broad chest. Musa was of brown complexion and had straight hair and a tall stature, as if he was from the people of Az-Zutt.”(Fath Al-Bari 6:549)

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Ibrahim said that Abdullah bin Umar said, “The Prophet once mentioned the False Messiah (Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal) to people, saying,

“Allah is not blind in His Eye. Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal is blind in his right eye. His eye is like a protruding grape.” (Muslim 4:2248)

Muslim recorded that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”In a dream, I was at the Kabah and Allah made me see a light – colored man, a color that is as beautiful as a light – colored man could be, with combed hair that reached his shoulders. His hair was dripping water, and he was leaning on the shoulders of two men while circling the Kabah. I asked, ‘Who is this man?’ I was told, ‘This is the Al-Masih, son of Maryam.’ Behind him, I saw a man with very curly hair who was blind in his right eye. He looked exactly as Ibn Qatan, and he was leaning on the shoulder of a man while circling the House. I asked, ‘Who is this man?’ I was told, ‘He is Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal.” (Muslim 1:154)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Salim said that his father said, “No, By Allah! The Prophet did not say that Isa was of red complexion but said,

“While I was asleep circumambulating the Kabah (in my dream), I suddenly saw a man of brown complexion and ample hair walking between two men with water dripping from his head. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ The people said, ‘He is the son of Maryam.’ Then I looked behind and I saw a red-complexioned, fat, curly-haired man, blind in the right eye, which looked like a bulging out grape. I asked, ‘Who is this’ They replied, ‘He is Ad-Dajjal.’ The person he most resembled is Ibn Qatan.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:550)

Az-Zuhri commented that Ibn Qatan was a man from the tribe of Khuzaah who died during the time of Jahiliyyah. This is the wording of Al-Bukhari.

Allah’s statement, “And on the Day of Resurrection, he (Isa) will be a witness against them” Qatadah said, “He will bear witness before them that he has delivered the Message from Allah and that he is but a servant of His.” In a similar statement in the end of Surat Al-Ma’idah, “And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men…” until, “Almighty, the All-Wise.”

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 3 Pages 15-43

{160. For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful for them certain good foods which had been lawful for them – and for their hindering many from Allah’s way

161. And their taking of Riba though they were forbidden from taking it, and their devouring men’s substance wrongfully. And We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful torment.

162. But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down before you; and those who perform the Salah, and give Zakah and believe in Allah and in t he Last Day, it is they to whom We shall give a great reward.}

Some Foods Were Made Unlawful for the Jews Because of their Injustice and Wrongdoing

Allah states that because of the injustice and transgression of the Jews, demonstrated by committing major sins, He prohibited some of the lawful, pure things which were previously allowed for them. This prohibition could be only that of decree, meaning that Allah allowed the Jews to falsely interpret their Book and change and alter the information about what was allowed for them. They thus, out of exaggeration and extremism in the religion, prohibited some things for themselves. It could also mean that in the Tawrah, Allah prohibited things that were allowed for them before. Allah said, “All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Isra’il made unlawful for himself before the Tawrah was revealed.”

We mentioned this Ayah before, which means that all types of food were allowed for the Children of Israel before the Tawrah was revealed, except the camel’s meat and milk that Isra’il prohibited for himself. Later, Allah prohibited many things in the Tawrah. Allah said in Surat Al-Anam (chapter 6), “And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs or their entrails, or is mixed up with a bone. Thus We recompensed them for their rebellion. And verily, We are Truthful.”

This means, We prohibited these things for them because they deserved it due to their transgression, injustice, defying their Messenger and disputing with him. So Allah said; “For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful to them certain good foods which had been lawful to them, and for their hindering many from Allah’s way.” This Ayah states that they hindered themselves and others from following the truth, and this is the behavior that they brought from the past to the present. This is why they were and still are the enemies of the Messengers, killing many of the Prophets. They also denied Muhammad and Isa, peace be upon them.

Allah said, “And their taking of Riba’ though they were forbidden from taking it” Allah prohibited them from taking Riba’, yet they did so using various kinds of tricks, ploys and cons, thus devouring people’s property unjustly. Allah said, “And We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful torment.” Allah then said, “But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge…” firm in the religion and full of beneficial knowledge. We mentioned this subject when we explained Surah Al Imran (3). The Ayah, “believe in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down before you” Ibn Abbas said, “This Ayah was revealed concerning Abdullah bin Salam, Thalabah bin Sayah, Zayd bin Sayah and Asad bin Ubayd who embraced Islam and believed what Allah sent Muhammad with.” Allah said, “and give Zakah” This could be referring to the obligatory charity due on one’s wealth and property, or those who purify themselves, or both. Allah knows best. “and believe in Allah and in the Last Day” They believe that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, believe in Resurrection after death and the reward or punishment for the good or evil deeds. Allah’s statement, “It is they” those whom the Ayah described above, “To whom We shall give a great reward” means Paradise.

{163. Verily, We have sent the revelation to you as We sent the revelation to Nuh and the Prophets after him; We (also) sent the revelation to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub, and Al- Asbat, (the offspring of the twelve sons of Yaqub Isa, Ayyub, Yunus, Harun, and Sulayman; and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.

164. And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you, and to Musa Allah spoke directly.

165. Messengers as bearers of good news and warning, in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the (coming of) Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.}

Revelation Came to Prophet Muhammad, Just as it Came to the Prophets Before Him

Allah states that He sent down revelation to His servant and Messenger Muhammad just as He sent down revelation to previous Prophets. Allah said, “Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him” until, “…and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.” The ‘Zabur’ (Psalms) is the name of the Book revealed to Prophet Dawud, peace be upon him.

Twenty-Five Prophets Are Mentioned in the Qur’an

Allah said, “And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you” Before the revelation of this Ayah. The following are the names of the Prophets whom Allah named in the Qur’an. They are: Adam, Idris, Nuh (Noah), Hud, Salih, Ibrahim (Abraham), Lut, Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joesph), Ayyub (Job), Shuayb, Musa (Moses), Harun (Aaron), Yunus (Jonah), Dawud (David), Sulayman (Solomon), Ilyas (Elias), Al-Yasa (Elisha), Zakariya (Zachariya), Yahya (John) and Isa (Jesus), and their leader, Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Several scholars of Tafsir also listed Dhul-Kifl among the Prophets. Allah’s statement, “and Messengers We have not mentioned to you” means, ‘there are other Prophets whom We did not mention to you in the Qur’an.’

The Virtue of Musa

Allah said, “and to Musa Allah spoke directly” This is an honor to Musa, and this is why he is called the Kalim, he whom Allah spoke to directly. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded that Abdul-Jabbar bin Abdullah said, “A man came to Abu Bakr bin Ayyash and said, ‘I heard a man recite (this Ayah this way) “and to Allah, Musa spoke directly.” Abu Bakr said, ‘Only a disbeliever would recite it like this.’ Al-Amash recited it with Yahya bin Withab, who recited it with Abu Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami who recited it with Ali bin Abi Talib who recited with the Messenger of Allah, “and to Musa Allah spoke directly.” (At-Tabarani in Al-Aswat:3325)

Abu Bakr bin Abi Ayyash was so angry with the man who recited the Ayah differently, because he altered its words and meanings. That person was from the group of Mutazilah who denied that Allah spoke to Musa or that He speaks to any of His creation. We were told that some of the Mutazilah once recited the Ayah that way, so one teacher present said to him, “O son of a stinking woman! What would you do concerning Allah’s statement, “And when Musa came at the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord spoke to him” (7:143)?” The Shaykh meant that the later Ayah cannot be altered or changed.

The Reason Behind Sending the Prophets is to Establish the Proof

Allah said, “Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning” meaning, the Prophets bring good news to those who obey Allah and practice the good things that please Him. They also warn against His punishment and torment for those who defy His commandments. Allah said next, “in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.” Allah sent down His Books and sent His Messengers with good news and warnings. He explained what He likes and is pleased with and what He dislikes and is displeased wit h. This way, no one will have an excuse with Allah. Allah said in other Ayat, “And if We had destroyed them with a torment before this, they would surely have said: “Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger, we should certainly have followed Your Ayat, before we were humiliated and disgraced.” and, “And if (We had) not (sent you to the people of Makkah) in case a calamity should seize them for (the deeds) that their hands have sent forth.” It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Masud said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“No one is more jealous than Allah. This is why He prohibited all types of sin committed in public or secret. No one likes praise more than Allah, and this is why He has praised Himself. No one likes to give excuse more than Allah, and this is why He sent the Prophets as bearers of good news and as warners.”

In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“And this is why He sent Messengers and revealed His Books.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:146)

{166. But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down unto you; He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Witness.

167. Verily, those who disbelieve and prevent (others) from the path of Allah; they have certainly strayed far away.

168. Verily, those who disbelieve and did wrong; Allah will not forgive them, nor will He guide them to a way.

169. Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever; and this is ever easy for Allah.

170. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger with the truth from your Lord. So believe in him, it is better for you. But if you disbelieve, then certainly to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Ever All- Knowing, All-Wise.}

Allah’s statement, “Verily, We have inspired you…” emphasized the Prophet’s prophethood and refuted the idolators and People of the Scripture who denied him. Allah said, “But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down unto you” meaning, even if they deny, defy and disbelieve in you, O Muhammad, Allah testifies that you are His Messenger to whom He sent down His Book, the Glorious Qur’an that, “Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.”

Allah then said, “He has sent it down with His knowledge” The knowledge of His that He willed His servants to have access to. Knowledge about the clear signs of guidance and truth, what Allah likes and is pleased with, what He dislikes and is displeased with, and knowledge of the Unseen, such as the past and the future. This also includes knowledge about His honorable attributes that no sent Messenger or illustrious angel can even know without Allah’s leave. Similarly, Allah said, “And they will never compass anything of His knowledge except that which He wills.” and, “but they will never compass anything of His knowledge.” Allah’s statement, “and the angels bear witness.” to the truth of what you came with and what was revealed and sent down to you, along with Allah’s testimony to the same, “And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Witness.” Allah said, “Verily, those who disbelieve and prevent (others) from the path of Allah, they have certainly strayed far away.” For they are disbelievers themselves and do not follow the truth. They strive hard to prevent people from following and embracing Allah’s path. Therefore, they have defied the truth, deviated, and strayed far away from it. Allah also mentions His judgment against those who disbelieve in His Ayat, Book and Messenger, those who wrong themselves by their disbelief and hindering others from His path, committing sins and violating His prohibitions. Allah states that He will not forgive them, “Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever…” and this is the exception. Allah then said, “O mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger with the truth from your Lord, so believe in him, it is better for you.”

This Ayah means, Muhammad has come to you with guidance, the religion of truth and clear proof from Allah. Therefore, believe in what he has brought you and follow him, for this is better for you. Allah then said, “But if you disbelieve, then certainly to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth.” Allah is far too rich than to need you or your faith, and no harm could ever affect Him because of your disbelief. Allah said in another Ayah, “nor will He guide them to a way (that is, of good).” “And Musa said: “If you disbelieve, you and all on earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich (Free of all needs), Owner of all praise.” Allah said here, “And Allah is Ever All-Knowing” He knows those who deserve to be guided, and He will guide them. He also knows those who deserve deviation, and He leads them to it, “All-Wise” in His statements, actions, legislation and all that He decrees.

{171. O People of the Scripture! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allah except the truth. Al-Masih Isa, son of Maryam, was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from [created by] Him; so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not: “Three!” Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allah is (the only) One God, hallowed be He above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.}

Prohibiting the People of the Book From Going to Extremes in Religion

Allah forbids the People of the Scriptures from going to extremes in religion, which is a common trait of theirs, especially among the Christians. The Christians exaggerated over Isa until they elevated him above the grade that Allah gave him. They elevated him from the rank of prophethood to being a god, whom they worshipped just as they worshipped Allah. They exaggerated even more in the case of those who they claim were his followers, claiming that they were inspired, thus following every word they uttered whether true or false, be it guidance or misguidance, truth or lies. This is why Allah said, “They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said that Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Do not unduly praise me like the Christians exaggerated over Isa, son of Maryam. Verily, I am only a servant, so say, ‘Allah’s servant and His Messenger.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:551)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said that a man once said, “O Muhammad! You are our master and the son of our master, our most righteous person and the son of our most righteous person…” The Messenger of Allah said,

“O people! Say what you have to say, but do not allow Shaytan to trick you. I am Muhammad bin Abdullah, Allah’s servant and Messenger. By Allah! I do not like that you elevate me above the rank that Allah has granted me.” (Ahmad 3:153)

Allah’s statement, “nor say of Allah except the truth” means, do not lie and claim that Allah has a wife or a son, Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him. Allah is glorified, praised, and honored in His might, grandure and greatness, and there is no deity worthy of worship nor Lord but Him. Allah said, “Al-Masih Isa, son of Maryam, was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from [created by] Him” Isa is only one of Allah’s servants and one of His creatures. Allah said to him, ‘Be’, and he was, and He sent him as a Messenger. Isa was a word from Allah that He bestowed on Maryam, meaning He created him with the word ‘Be’ that He sent with Jibril to Maryam. Jibril blew the life of Isa into Maryam by Allah’s leave, and Isa came to existence as a result. This incident was in place of the normal conception between man and woman that results in children. This is why Isa was a word and a Ruh (spirit) created by Allah, as he had no father to conceive him. Rather, he came to existence through the word that Allah uttered, ‘Be,’ and he was, through the life that Allah sent with Jibril. Allah said, “Al-Masih [Isa], son of Maryam, was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam] was a Siddiqah. They both ate food.” And Allah said, “Verily, the likeness of Isa before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: “Be! – and he was.”

“And she who guarded her chastity, We breathed into her (garment) and We made her and her son [Isa] a sign for all that exits.” (21:91)

“And Maryam, the daughter of Imran who guarded her chastity” and Allah said concerning the Messiah, “He [Isa] was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him.”

The Meaning of “His Word and a spirit from Him”

Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mamar said that Qatadah said that the Ayah, “And His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from [created by] Him” means, He said, “Be” and he was. (Abdur Razzaq 1:77) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ahmad bin Sinan Al-Wasiti said that he heard Shadh bin Yahya saying about Allah’s statement, “and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from [created by] Him” Isa was not the word. Rather, Isa came to existence because of the word.” (Ibn Abu Hatim:6310) Al-Bukhari recorded that Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“If anyone testifies that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, and that Isa is Allah’s servant and Messenger and His Word which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit created by Him, and that Paradise is true and Hell is true, then Allah will admit him into Paradise with the deeds which he performed.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:547)

In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“…through any of the eight doors of Paradise he wishes.” (Muslim 1:57)

Therefore, ‘Ruh from Allah’, in the Ayah and the Hadith is similar to Allah’s statement,

“And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; it is all from Him.” meaning, from His creation. ‘from Him’ does not mean that it is a part of Him, as the Christians claim, may Allah’s continued curses be upon them. Saying that something is from Allah, such as the spirit of Allah, the she-camel of Allah or the House of Allah, is meant to honor such items. Allah said, “This is the she-camel of Allah…” and, “and sanctify My House for those who circumambulate it.” An authentic Hadith states,

“I will enter on my Lord in His Home” (Al-Bukhari 13:246)

All these examples are meant to honor such items when they are attributed to Allah in this manner. Allah said, “so believe in Allah and His Messengers” believe that Allah is One and Alone and that He does not have a son or wife. Know and be certain that Isa is the servant and Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Allah said after that, “Say not: “Three!” do not elevate Isa and his mother to be gods with Allah. Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him. In Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5), Allah said, “Surely, disbelievers are those who said: “Allah is the third of the three.” But there is none who has the right to be worshipped but One God.” Allah said by the end of the same Surah, “And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection) “O Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me”’ and in its beginning, “Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam.”

The Christians, may Allah curse them, have no limit to their disbelief because of their ignorance, so their deviant statements and their misguidance grows. Some of them believe that ` Isa is Allah, some believe that he is one in a trinity and some believe that he is the son of Allah. Their beliefs and creeds are numerous and contradict each other, prompting some people to say that if ten Christians meet, they would end up with eleven sects!

The Christian Sects

Said bin Batriq, the Patriarch of Alexandria and a famous Christian scholar, mentioned in the year four hundred after the Hijrah, that a Christian Council convened during the reign of Constantine, who built the city that bears his name. In this Council, the Christians came up with what they called the Great Trust, which in reality is the Great Treachery. There were more than two thousand patriarchs in this Council, and they were in such disarray that they divided into many sects, where some sects had twenty, fifty or a hundred members, etc.! When the king saw that there were more than three hundred Patriarchs who had the same idea, he agreed with them and adopted their creed. Constantine who was a deviant philosopher — gave his support to this sect for which, as an honor, churches were built and doctrines were taught to young children, who were baptized on this creed, and books were written about it. Meanwhile, the king oppressed all other sects. Another Council produced the sect known as the Jacobites, while the Nestorians were formed in a third Council. These three sects agreed that Isa was divine, but disputed regarding the manner in which Isa’s divinity was related to his humanity; were they in unity or did Allah incarnate in Isa! All three of these sects accuse each other of heresy and, we believe that all three of them are disbelievers. Allah said, “Cease! (it is) better for you” meaning, it will be better for you, “For Allah is (the only) One God, hallowed be He above having a son” and He is holier than such claim, “To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs” for all are creatures, property and servants under His control and disposal, and He is the Disposer of the affairs. Therefore, how can He have a wife or a son among them, “He is the originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children” and “And they say: “The Most Gracious (Allah) has begotten a son. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing.” Up to His saying, “Alone”.

{172. Al-Masih will never be too proud to be a servant of Allah, nor the angels who are the near (to Allah). And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then He will gather them all together unto Himself.

173. So, as for those who believed and did deeds of righteousness, He will give them their (due) rewards and more out of His bounty. But as for those who refused His worship and were proud, He will punish them with a painful torment. And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.}

The Prophets and Angels Are Never too Proud to Worship Allah

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said that, ‘proud’, means insolent. Qatadah said that, “Al-Masih will never be too proud to be a servant of Allah nor the angels who are near (to Allah).” [they] will never be arrogant, Allah then said, “And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then He will gather them all together unto Himself.” on the Day of Resurrection. Then, Allah will judge between them with His just judgment that is never unjust or wrong. “So, as for those who believed and did deeds of righteousness, He will give their (due) rewards, and more out of His bounty.” Allah will award them their full rewards for their righteous actions and will give them more of His bounty, kindness, ample mercy and favour. “But as for those who refused His worship and were proud” out of arrogance, they refused to obey and worship Him, “He will punish them with a painful torment. And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.” In another Ayah, Allah said, “Verily! Those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation” degradation, disgrace and dishonor, for they were arrogant and rebellious.

{174. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof from your Lord; and We sent down to you a manifest light.

175. So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to [depend on] Him, He will admit them to His mercy and grace (i.e. Paradise), and guide them to Himself by a straight path.}

 

The Description of the Revelation that Came From Allah

Allah informs all people that a plain, unequivocal proof has come to them from Him. One that eradicates all possibility of having an excuse, or falling prey to evil doubts. Allah said, ”and We sent down to you a manifest light” that directs to the Truth. Ibn Jurayj and others said, “It is the Qur’an.” (At-Tabari 9:428)

”So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to [depend on] Him” by worshipping Him and relying on Him for each and every thing. Ibn Jurayj said that this part of the Ayah means, “They believe in Allah and hold fast to the Qur’an.” (At-Tabari 9:429) ”He will admit them to His mercy and grace” meaning, He will grant them His mercy and admit them into Paradise, and will increase and multiply their rewards and their ranks, as a favor and bounty from Him. “and guide them to Himself by a straight path” and a clear way that has no wickedness in it or deviation. This, indeed, is the description of the believers in this life and the Hereafter, as they are on the straight and safe path in matters of action and creed. In the Hereafter, they are on the straight path of Allah that leads to the gardens of Paradise.

{176. They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: “Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah. If it is a man that dies leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance, and [in her case] he will be her heir if she has no children. If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female. (Thus) does Allah make clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.”}

This is the Last Ayah Ever Revealed, the Ruling on Al-Kalalah

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said that the last Surah to be revealed was Surah Bara’ah (chapter 9) and the last Ayah to be revealed was, “They ask you for a legal verdict…” (Fath Al-Bari 8:117) Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said, “The Messenger of Allah came visiting me when I was so ill that I fell unconscious. He performed ablution and poured the remaining water on me, or had it poured on me. When I regained consciousness, I said, ‘I will only leave inheritance through Kalalah, so what about the inheritance that I leave behind?’ Allah later revealed the Ayah about Fara’id (inheritance [4:11]).”’ (Ahmad 3:298) The Two Sahihs and also the Group recorded it. In one of the wordings, Jabir said t hat t he Ayah on inherit ance was revealed; “They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: “Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah.” (Fath Al-Bari 12:26)  The wording of the Ayah indicates that the question was about the Kalalah, “Say: “Allah directs (thus)…” We mentioned the meaning of Kalalah before, that it means the crown that surrounds the head from all sides. This is why the scholars stated that Kalalah pertains to one who dies and leaves behind neither descendants, nor ascendants. Some said that the Kalalah pertains to one who has no offspring, as the Ayah states, “If it is a man that dies, leaving no child”

The meaning and ruling of Kalalah was somewhat confusing to the Leader of the Faithful  Umar bin Al-Khattab. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Umar said, “There are three matters that I wished the Messenger of Allah had explained to us, so that we could abide by his explanation. (They are: the share in the inheritance of) the grandfather, the Kalalah and a certain type of Riba.” (Fath Al-Bari 1:48) Imam Ahmad recorded that Madan bin Abi Talhah said that Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “There is nothing that I asked the Messenger of Allah about its meaning more than the Kalalah, until he stabbed me with his finger in my chest and said,

 “The Ayah that is in the end of Surat An-Nisa’ should suffice for you.” (Ahmad 1:26)

The Meaning of This Ayah

Allah said, “If it is a man that dies” Allah said in another Ayah, “Everything will perish save His Face”

Therefore, everything and everyone dies and perishes except Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. Allah said, “Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of majesty and honor will remain forever.” Allah said here, “leaving no child” referring to the person who has neither children, nor parents. What testifies to this, is that Allah said afterwards, “Leaving a sister, she shall have half the inheritance.”

Had there been a surviving ascendant, the sister would not have inherited anything, and there is a consensus on this point. Therefore, this Ayah is referring to the man who dies leaving behind neither descendants nor ascendants, as is apparent for those who contemplate its meaning. This is because when there is a surviving parent, the sister does not inherit anything, let alone half of the inheritance.

Ibn Jarir and others mentioned that Ibn Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr used to judge that if a person dies and leaves behind a daughter and a sister, the sister does not inherit anything. They would recite, “If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance.”

They said that if one leaves behind a daughter, then he has left behind a child. Therefore the sister does not get anything. The majority of scholars disagreed with them, saying the daughter gets one half and the sister the other half, relying on other evidence. This Ayah (4:176 above) gives the sister half of the inheritance in the case that it specifies. As for giving the sister half in other cases, Al-Bukhari recorded that Sulayman said that Ibrahim reported to Al-Aswad that he said, “During the time of the Messenger of Allah , Muadh bin Jabal gave a judgment that the daughter gets one half and the sister the other half.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Huzayl bin Shurahbil said, “Abu Musa Al-Ashari was asked about the case when there was a daughter, grand-daughter and sister to inherit. He said, ‘The daughter gets one-half and the sister one- half.’ (Al-Bukhari:6741) Go and ask Ibn Masud, although I think he is going to agree with me.’ So Ibn Masud was asked and was told about Abu Musa’s answer, and Ibn Masud commented, ‘I would have deviated then and would not have become among those who are rightly guided. I will give a judgment similar to the judgment given by the Prophet,peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The daughter gets one-half, the grand-daughter gets one-sixth, and these two shares will add up to two-thirds. Whatever is left will be for the sister.’ We went back to Abu Musa and conveyed to him Ibn Masud’s answer and he said, ‘Do not ask me (for legal verdicts) as long as this scholar is still among you.”’ (Al-Bukhari:6736)

Allah then said, “… and he will be her heir if she has no children.” This Ayah means, the brother inherits all of that his sister leaves behind if she has no surviving offspring or parents. If she has a surviving parent, her brother would not inherit anything. If there is someone who gets a fixed share in the inheritance, such as a husband or half brother from the mother’s side, they take their share and the rest goes to the brother. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Give the Farai’d to its people, and whatever is left is the share of the nearest male relative.” (Fath Al-Bari 12:17)

Allah said, “If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance” meaning, if the person who dies in Kalalah has two sisters, they get two-thirds of the inheritance. More than two sisters share in the two-thirds. From this Ayah, the scholars took the ruling regarding the two daughters, or more, that they share in the two-thirds, just as the share of the sisters (two or more) was taken from the Ayah about the daughters, “if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance.” (4:11). Allah said, “if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female.” This is the share that the male relatives (sons, grandsons, brothers) regularly get, that is, twice as much as the female gets. Allah said, “(Thus) does Allah make clear to you…” His Law and set limits, clarifying His legislation, “Lest you go astray” from the truth after this explanation, “And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.”

Allah has perfect knowledge in the consequences of everything and in the benefit that each matter carries for His servants. He also knows what each of the relatives deserves from the inheritance, according to the degree of relation he or she has with the deceased. Ibn Jarir recorded that Tariq bin Shihab said that Umar gathered the Companions of the Messenger of Allah once and said, “I will give a ruling concerning the Kalalah that even women will talk about it in their bedrooms.” A snake then appeared in the house and the gathering had to disperse. Umar commented, ‘Had Allah willed this (Umar’s verdict regarding the Kalalah) to happen, it would have happened.” (At-Tabari 9:439) The chain of narration for this story is authentic. Al-Hakim, Abu Abdullah An-Naysaburi recorded that Umar bin Al- Khattab said, ‘Had I asked the Messenger of Allah regarding three things, it would have been better for me than red camels. (They are) who should be the Khalifah after him; about a people who said, ‘We agree to pay Zakah, but not to you (meaning to the Khalifah),’ if we are allowed to fight them; and about the Kalalah.” Al-Hakim said, “Its chain is Sahih according to the Two Shaykhs, and they did not recorded it.” (Al-Hakim 2:304)  Ibn Jarir also said that it was reported that Umar said, “I feel shy to change a ruling that Abu Bakr issued. Abu Bakr used to say that the Kalalah is the person who has no descendants or ascendants.” Abu Bakr’s saying is what the majority of scholars among the Companions, their followers and the earlier and later Imams agree with. This is also the ruling that the Qur’an indicates. For Allah stated that He has explained and made plain the ruling of the Kalalah, when He said, “(Thus) does Allah makes clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.” And Allah knows best.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah An-Nisa’ 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 3 Pages 44 -70

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