Surah Al-An’am Ayat 84-117

{84. And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Yaqub, each of them We guided, and before him, We guided Nuh and among his progeny Dawud, Sulayman, Ayyub, Yusuf, Musa, and Harun. Thus do We reward the good-doers.

85. And Zakariyya, and Yahya and Isa and Iliyas, each one of them was of the righteous.

86. And Ismail and Al-Yasa, and Yunus and Lut, and each one of them We preferred above the Alamin (mankind and Jinns, of their times)

87. And also some of their fathers and their progeny and their brethren, We chose them, and We guided them to a straight path.

88. This is the guidance of Allah with which He guides whomsoever He wills of His servants. But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.

89. They are those whom We gave the Book, Al-Hukm, and prophethood. But if they disbelieve therein, then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.

90. They are those whom Allah had guided. So follow their guidance. Say: “No reward I ask of you for this (the Qur’an). It is only a reminder for the Alamin (mankind and Jinns).”}

Ibrahim Receives the News of Ishaq and Yaqub During His Old Age

Allah states that after Ibrahim became old and he, and his wife, Sarah, lost hope of having children, He gave them Ishaq. The angels came to Ibrahim on their way to the people of Prophet Lut (to destroy them) and they delivered the good news of a child to Ibrahim and his wife. Ibrahim’s wife was amazed at the news, “She said (in astonishment): “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband, an old man Verily! This is a strange thing!” They said: “Do you wonder at the decree of Allah The mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, O the family [of Ibrahim]. Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.” (11:72-73) The angels also gave them the good news that Ishaq will be a Prophet and that he will have offspring of his own. In another Ayah, Allah said; “And We gave him the good news of Ishaq a Prophet from the righteous.” (37:112), which perfects this good news and completes the favor. Allah said, “of Ishaq, and after him, of Yaqub…” (11:71), meaning, this child will have another child in your lifetime, so that your eyes are comforted by him, just as your eyes will be comforted by his father. Certainly, one becomes jubilant and joyous when he becomes a grandfather, because this means that his offspring will continue to exist. It was also expected that if an elderly couple had children, due to the child’s weakness, he would have no offspring. This is why Allah delivered the good news of Ishaq and of his son Yaqub, whose name literally means ‘multiplying and having offspring’. This was a reward for Ibrahim who left his people and migrated from their land so that he could worship Allah alone. Allah compensated Ibrahim with better than his people and tribe when He gave him righteous children of his own, who would follow his religion, so that his eyes would be comforted by them. In another Ayah, Allah said; “So when he turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We gave him Ishaq and Yaqub, and each one of them We made a Prophet.” (19:49) Allah said here, “And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Yaqub, each of them We guided” Allah said; “and before him, We guided Nuh…” meaning, We guided Nuh before and gave him righteous offspring, just asWe guided Ibrahim and gave him righteous children.

Qualities of Nuh and Ibrahim

Each of these two Prophets had special qualities. When Allah caused the people of the earth to drown, except those who believed in Nuh and accompanied him in the ark, Allah made the offspring of Nuh the dwellers of the earth thereafter. Ever since that occurred, the people of the earth were and still are the descendants of Nuh. As for Ibrahim, Allah did not send a Prophet after him but from his descendants. Allah said in other Ayat, “And We ordained among his (Ibrahim’s) offspring prophethood and the Book.” (29:27), “And indeed, We sent Nuh and Ibrahim, and placed in their offspring Prophethood and the Book.” (57:26), and “Those were they unto whom Allah bestowed His grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh, and of the offspring of Ibrahim and Isra’il and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Beneficent (Allah) were recited unto them, they fell down prostrating and weeping.” (19:58) Allah said in this honorable Ayah here, “and among his progeny…” meaning, We guided from among his offspring, “Dawud, Sulayman…” from the offspring of Nuh, according to Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 11:507) It is also possible that the Ayah refers to Ibrahim since it is about him that the blessings were originally mentioned here, although Lut is not from his offspring, for he was Ibrahim’s nephew, the son of his brother Maran, the son of Azar. It is possible to say that Lut was mentioned in Ibrahim’s offspring as a generalization. As Allah said, “Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub? When he said unto his sons, “What will you worship after me?” They said, “We shall worship your God, and the God of your fathers, Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, One God, and to Him we submit.” (2:133). Here, Ismail was mentioned among the ascendants of Yaqub, although he was Yaqub’s uncle. Similarly Allah said, “So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis – he refused to be among those to prostrate.” (15:30-31).

Allah included Iblis in His order to the angels to prostrate, and chastised him for his opposition, all because he was similar to them in that (order), so he was considered among them in general, although he was a Jinn. Iblis was created from fire while the angels were created from light. Mentioning Isa in the offspring of Ibrahim, or Nuh as we stated above, is proof that the grandchildren from a man’s daughter’s side are included among his offspring. Isa is included among Ibrahim’s progeny through his mother, although Isa did not have a father. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Harb bin Abi Al-Aswad said, “Al-Hajjaj sent to Yahya bin Yamar, saying, ‘I was told that you claim that Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn are from the offspring of the Prophet, did you find it in the Book of Allah I read the Qur’an from beginning to end and did not find it.’ Yahya said, ‘Do you not read in Surat Al- An’am, “and among his progeny Dawud, Sulayman…” until, “and Yahya and Isa…” Al-Hajjaj said, ‘Yes.’ Yahya said, ‘Is not Isa from the offspring of Ibrahim, although he did not have a father?’ Al-Hajjaj said, ‘You have said the truth.”’ (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 3:311)

For example, when a man leaves behind a legacy, a trust, or gift to his “offspring” then the children of his daughters are included. But if a man gives something to his “sons”, or he leaves a trust behind for them, then that would be particular to his male children and their male children. Allah’s statement, “And also some of their fathers and their progeny and their brethren,” (6:87), mentions that some of these Prophets’ ascendants and descendants were also guided and chosen. So Allah said, “We chose them, and We guided them to a straight path.”

Shirk Eradicates the Deeds, Even the Deeds of the Messengers

Allah said next, “This is the guidance of Allah with which He guides whomsoever He wills of His servants.” meaning, this occurred to them by Allah’s leave and because He directed them to guidance. Allah said; “But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.” This magnifies the serious danger of Shirk and the gravity of committing it. In another Ayah, Allah said; “And indeed it has been revealed to you, as it was to those (Allah’s Messengers) before you: “If you join others in worship with Allah, surely your deeds will be in vain.” (39:65)

‘If’ here does not mean that this would ever occur, as is similar in Allah’s statement; “Say: “If the Most Beneficent had a son, then I am the first of Allah’s worshippers.” (43:81), and “If We intended to take a pastime (a wife or a son, etc.) We could surely have taken it from Us, if We were going to do (that)” (21:17), and, “If Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Compelling.” (39:4) Allah said, “They are those whom We gave the Book, Al-Hukm, and prophethood.” We bestowed these bounties on them, as a mercy for the servants, and out of our kindness for creation. “But if they disbelieve therein…” in the prophethood, or the three things; the Book, the Hukm and the prophethood, “They…” refers to the people of Makkah, according to Ibn Abbas, Said bin Al-Musayyib, Ad- Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi, and others. (At-Tabari 11:515, 516)

“Then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.” This Ayah means, if the Quraysh and the rest of the people of the earth – Arabs and non-Arabs, illiterate and the People of the Scripture – disbelieve in these bounties, then We have entrusted them to another people, the Muhajirun and Ansar, and those who follow their lead until the Day of Resurrection, “who are not disbelievers therein.” They will not deny any of these favors, not even one letter. Rather, they will believe in them totally, even the parts that are not so clear to some of them. We ask Allah to make us among them by His favor, generosity and kindness. Addressing His servant and Messenger, Muhammad, Allah said; “They are…” the Prophets mentioned here, along with their righteous fathers, offspring and bretheren, “those whom Allah had guided.” meaning, they alone are the people of guidance,

“So follow their guidance.” Imitate them. This command to the Messenger certainly applies to his Ummah, according to what he legislates and commands them. While mentioning this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Mujahid asked Ibn Abbas, “Is there an instance where prostration is warranted in [Surah] Sad?” Ibn Abbas said, “Yes.” He then recited, “…And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Yaqub…” until, “…So follow their guidance.”

He commented, “He (our Prophet, Muhammad) was among them.” In another narration, Mujahid added that Ibn Abbas said, “Your Prophet was among those whose guidance we were commanded to follow.” Allah’s statement, “Say: “No reward I ask of you for this.” means, I do not ask you for any reward for delivering the Qur’an to you, nor anything else, “It is only a reminder for the Alamin (mankind and Jinns).” so they are reminded by it and guided from blindness to clarity, from misguidance to guidance, and from disbelief to faith.

{91. They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: “Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).” Say: “Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought, a light and a guidance to mankind which you (the Jews) have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing much. And you were taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew.” Say: “Allah (sent it down).” Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.

92. And this is a blessed Book which We have sent down, confirming what came before it, so that you may warn the Mother of Towns and all those around it. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are constant in guarding their Salah.}

The Messenger is but a Human to Whom the Book was Revealed by Inspiration

Allah says that those who rejected His Messengers did not give Allah due consideration. Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Abdullah bin Kathir said that this Ayah was revealed about the Quraysh. It was also said that it was revealed about some Jews. “They said: “Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).” Allah also, said, “Is it a wonder for mankind that We have inspired to a man from among themselves (saying): “Warn mankind.” (10:2), and, “And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them, except that they said: “Has Allah sent a man as Messenger?” Say: “If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace and security, We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger.” (17:94-95).

Allah said here, “They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: “Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).” Allah answered them, “Say: “Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought, a light and a guidance to mankind?” meaning, say, O Muhammad, to those who deny the concept that Allah sent down Books by revelation, answering them specifically, “Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought?” in reference to the Tawrah that you and all others know that Allah sent down to Musa, son of Imran. Allah sent the Tawrah as a light and a guidance for people, so that it could shed light on the answers to various disputes, and to guide away from the darkness of doubts. Allah’s statement, “which you have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much).” means, you made the Tawrah into separate sheets which you copied from the original and altered, changed and distorted as you wished. You then said, “this is from Allah,” meaning it is in the revealed Book of Allah, when in fact, it is not from Allah. This is why Allah said here, “which you have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much).” Allah said; “And you were taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew.” meaning, Who sent down the Qur’an in which Allah taught you the news of those who were before you and the news of what will come after, that neither you nor your fathers had knowledge of.

Allah’s statement, “Say: “Allah.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Meaning, ‘Say, Allah sent it down.”’ Allah said, “Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.” leave them to play in ignorance and misguidance until the true news comes to them from Allah. Then, they will know whether the good end is theirs or for the fearful servants of Allah. Allah said, “And this is a Book” the Qur’an, “Blessed, which We have sent down, confirming which came before it, so that you may warn the Mother of Towns” that is, Makkah, “and all those around it…” refering to the Arabs and the rest of the children of Adam, Arabs and non-Arabs alike. Allah said in other Ayat, “Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.” (7:158), and “that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.” (6:19), and “but those of the sects who reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place” (11:17) and, “Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to the Alamin (mankind and Jinn).” (25:1), and, “And say to those who were given the Scripture and to those who are illiterates: “Do you submit yourselves” If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message; and Allah is All-Seer of (His) servants.” (3:20).

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me.”

The Prophet mentioned among these five things,

“Every Prophet was sent only to his nation, but I have been sent to all people.” (Fath Al-Bari no.519, Muslim 1:370)
This is why Allah said, “Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it” meaning, those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, believe in this blessed Book, the Qur’an, which We revealed to you, O Muhammad, “and they are constant in guarding their Salah.” for they perform what Allah ordered them, offering the prayers perfectly and on time.

{93. And who can be more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah, or says: “I have received inspiration,” whereas he is not inspired in anything; and who says, “I will reveal the like of what Allah has revealed.” And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): “Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth. And you used to reject His Ayat with disrespect!”

94. And truly you have come unto Us alone, as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you. We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be your partners. Now you and they have been cut off, and all that you used to claim has vanished from you.}

None is Worse Than One who Invents a Lie Against Allah and Claims that Revelation Came to Him

Allah said, “And who can be more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah,” Therefore, none is more unjust than one who lies about Allah claiming that He has partners or a son, or falsely claiming that Allah sent him as a Prophet; “or says: “I have received inspiration,” whereas he is not inspired with anything” Ikrimah and Qatadah said that this Ayah was revealed about Musaylimah Al-Kadhdhab. (At-Tabari 11:533-535) [‘Al-Kadhdhab’ meaning the Liar who claimed to be a Prophet during the time of the Messenger then he repented. Later after the death of Allah’s messenger, it is reported that made claims that are similar or the same] “and who says, “I will reveal the like of what Allah has revealed.” This refers to he, who claims that the lies he invents rival the revelation that came from Allah. In another Ayah, Allah said, “And when Our verses (of the Qur’an) are recited to them, they say: “We have heard this (the Qur’an); if we wish we can say the like of this.”

The Condition of These Unjust People Upon Death and on the Day of Resurrection

Allah, the Most Honored, said, “And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death…” suffering from the hardhips, agonies and afflictions of death, “while the angels are stretching forth their hands…” beating them. Allah said in other Ayat: “If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me..” (5:28) and, “And stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil.” (60:2)

Ad-Dahhak and Abu Salih said that, ‘stretch forth their hands,’ means, ‘with torment’. (At-Tabari 11:539) In another Ayah, Allah said, “And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve they smite their faces and their backs.” (8:50) Allah said, “while the angels are stretching forth their hands” beating them, until their souls leave their bodies, saying, “Deliver your souls!” When the disbeliever is near death, the angels will convey the ‘good news’ to him of torment, vengeance, chains, restraints, Hell, boiling water and the anger of the Most Beneficent, Most Merciful. The soul will then scatter in the body of the disbeliever and refuse to get out of it. The angels will keep beating the disbeliever until his soul exits from his body, “(Saying): “Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to say about Allah other than the truth.”

This Ayah means, today, you will be utterly humiliated because you used to invent lies against Allah and arrogantly refused to follow His Ayat and obey His Mesengers.

There are many Hadiths, of Mutawatir [A hadith reported by numerous routes, having many different narrators at every level of the chain] grade, that explain what occurs when the believers and disbelievers die, and we will mention these Hadiths when explaining Allah’s statement, “Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world, and in the Hereafter.” (14:27) Allah said next, “And truly you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time.” (6:94), and this statement will be said on the Day of Return. In another Ayah, Allah said, “And they will be set before your Lord in rows, (and Allah will say): “Now indeed, you have come to Us as We created you the first time.” (18:48), meaning, just as We started your creation, We brought you back, although you used to deny Resurrection and reject its possibility. Therefore, this is the Day of Resurrection! Allah said, “You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.” (6:94), The wealth and the money that you collected in the life of the world, you left all this behind you. It is recorded in the Sahih that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“The Son of Adam says, ‘My money, my money!’ But, what part of your money do you have, other than what you eat of it and is thus spent, what you wear and tear and what you gave in charity and thus remains (in the record of good deeds) Other than that, you will depart and leave it to the people.” (Muslim 4:2273)

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “On the Day of Resurrection, the Son of Adam will be brought, as if he were a golden chariot and Allah, the Most Honored, will ask, ‘Where is what you collected?’ He will reply, ‘O Lord! I collected it and left it as intact as ever.’ Allah will say to him, ‘O Son of Adam! Where is what you sent forth for yourself (of righteous, good deeds),’ and he will realize that he did not send forth anything for himself.” Al-Hasan then recited the Ayah, “And truly you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement. Allah said; “We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be your partners.”

This chastises and criticizes the disbelievers for the rivals, idols and images that they worshipped in this life, thinking they will avail them in this life and upon Resurrection, if there is Resurrection, as they thought. On the Day of Resurrection, all relationships will be cut off, misguidance will be exposed, and those whom they used to call upon as gods will disappear from them. Allah will then call them, while the rest of creation is listening, “Where are My (so-called) partners whom you used to assert” (28:62) And, “And it will be said to them: “Where are those that you used to worship. Instead of Allah Can they help you or help themselves” (26:92-93) Allah said here, “We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed were partners.” meaning partners in worship. That is, partners in a share of your worship. “Now you and they have been cut off” or, the Ayah is recited with the meaning: all connections, means, and ties between you and them have been severed. “and vanished from you” you have lost, “all that you used to claim” of hope in the benefit of the idols and rivals “you worshipped with Allah”.

Allah said in other Ayat, “When those who were followed, declare themselves innocent of those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. And those who followed will say: “If only we had one more chance to return, we would disown them as they have disowned us.” Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regret for them. And they will never get out of the Fire.” (2:166-167), and “Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.” (23:101), and “You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah, and the love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.” (29:25), and “And it will be said (to them): “Call upon your partners”, and they will call upon them, but they will give no answer to them.” (28:64), and “And the Day whereon We shall gather them all together, then We shall say to those who committed Shirk…” (10:28) until, “And their invented false deities will vanish from them.” (10:30)

{95. Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout. He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living. Such is Allah, then how are you deluded away from the truth

96. (He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.

97. It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea. We have (indeed) explained in detail Our Ayat for people who know.}

Recognizing Allah Through Some of His Ayat

Allah states that He causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout in the ground, producing various types, colors, shapes, and tastes of grains and produce. The Ayah, “Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout.” is explained by the next statement, “He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the deed from the living.” meaning, He brings the living plant from the seed grain and the fruit stone, which is a liflessand inanimate object. Allah said, “And a sign for them is the dead land. We gave it life, and We brought forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.” (36:33) until, “as well as of their own (human) kind (male and female), and of that which they know not.” (36:36) Allah’s statement, “and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living.” There are similar expressions in meaning such as, He brings the egg from the chicken, and the opposite. Others said that it means, He brings the wicked offspring from the righteous parent and the opposite, and there are other possible meanings for the Ayah. Allah said, “Such is Allah” meaning, He Who does all this, is Allah, the One and Only without partners, “then how are you deluded away from the truth?” meaning, look how you are deluded from Truth to the falsehood of worshipping others besides Allah. Allah’s statement, “(He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting,” means, He is the Creator of light and darkness. Allah said in the beginning of the Surah, “And originated the darkness and the light.”

Indeed, Allah causes the darkness of the night to disappear and brings forth the day, thus bringing brighteness to the world and light to the horizon, while dissipating darkness and ending the night with its depth of darkness and starting the day with its brightness and light. Allah said, “He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly.” (7:54)

In this Ayah, Allah reminds of His ability to create diversified things in opposites, testifying to His perfect greatness and supreme power. Allah states that He is the Cleaver of the daybreak and mentioned its opposite, when He said, “He has appointed the night for resting” meaning, created darkness, in order for the creation to become halt and rest during it. Allah said in other Ayat, “By the forenoon. And by the night when it is still.” (93:1-2), “By the night as it envelops. And by the day as it appears in brightness.” (92:1,2) and, “And by the day as it shows up (the sun’s) brightness. And by the night as it conceals it.” (91:3-4) Allah’s statement, “…And the sun and the moon for reckoning.” means, the sun and the moon have specific orbits, according to a term appointed with magnificent precision that never changes or alters. Both the sun and the moon have distinct positions that they assume in summer and winter, effecting changes in the length of night and day. Allah said in other Ayat, “It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the Moon as a light and measured out stages for it.” (10:5), “It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.” (36:40), And, “The sun and the moon; and the stars are subjected by His command.” (16:12)

Allah’s statement, “Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.” means, all of this occurs according to the decree and due measurement of the Almighty Who is never resisted or contradicted. He is the Knower of all things and nothing ever escapes His knowledge, not even the weight of an atom on earth or in heavens. Allah often mentions the creation of the night, the day, the sun and the moon and then ends His Speech by mentioning His attributes of power and knowledge, as in this Ayah above (6:96), and in His statement, “And a sign for them is the night, We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness. And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.” (36:37-38)

In the beginning of Surat Ha-Mim As-Sajdah, after mentioning the creation of the heavens and earth and all that is in them, Allah said: “And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard. Such is the decree of Him, the Almighty, the All-Knower.” (41:12) Allah said next, “It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea.” Some of the Salaf said; Whoever believes in other than three things about these stars, then he has made a mistake, and lied against Allah. Indeed Allah made them as decorations for the heavens, and to shoot at the Shayatin, and for directions in the dark recesses of the land and sea. Then, Allah said, “We have explained in detail Our Ayat.” meaning, We made them clear and plain, “for people who know.” who have sound minds and are able to recognize the truth and avoid f al sehood.

{98. It is He Who has created you from a single person, and has given you a place of residing and a place of storage. Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations for people who understand.

99. It is He Who sends down water from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain. And out of the date-palm and its sprouts come forth clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates, each similar, yet different. Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and Yanih. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe.}

Allah said, “It is He Who has created you from a single person,” (6:98) in reference to Adam, peace be upon him. In another Ayah, Allah said; “O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his mate, and from them both He created many men and women.” (4:1) Allah said, “Mustaqar and Mustawda” Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas, Abu Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, Qays bin Abu Hazim, Mujahid, Ata’, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ata’ Al- Khurasani and others said that , “Mustaqar”, ‘in the wombs’. They, or most of them, also said that, “And Mustawda” means, ‘in your father’s loins’. (At-Tabari 11:565-570) Ibn Masud and several others said that, Mustaqar, means residence in this life, while, Mustawda, means the place of storage after death (the grave).

Allah’s statement, “Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations for people who understand.” refers to those who comprehend and understand Allah’s Words and its meanings. Allah said next, “It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky” in due measure, as a blessing and provision for the servants, relief and means of survival for the creatures and mercy from Allah for His creation. Allah’s statement, “And with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds” is similar to, “And We have made from water every living thing.” (21:30) “and out of it We bring forth green stalks” green produce and trees, on which We grow seeds and fruits. “from which We bring forth thick clustered grain” lined on top of each other in clusters, like an ear or spike of grain. “And out of the date-palm and its sprouts come forth clusters” of dates “hanging low” Within reach and easy to pick. Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi said that Ibn Abbas said that, “clusters hanging low” refers to short date trees whose branches hang low, close to the ground. This was recorded by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 11:576)

Allah’s statement “and gardens of grapes” means, We bring forth gardens of grapes. Grapes and dates are the most precious fruits to the people of Al-Hijaz (Western Arabia), and perhaps both are the best fruits in this world. Allah has reminded His servants of His favor in making these two fruits for them, when He said, “And from the fruits of date-palms and grapes, you derive strong drink and a goodly provision.” (16:67) before intoxicating drinks were prohibited, and; “And We have made therein gardens of date-palms and grapes.” (36:34). Allah said, “olives and pomegranates, each similar yet different.” The leaves are similar in shape and appearence, yet different in the shape, and taste. And the kind of fruit each plant produces is different, according to the explanation of Qatadah and several others. (At-Tabari 11:578) Allah’s statement, “Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and Yanih.” means, when the fruits become ripe, according to Al-Bara bin Azib, Ibn Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, Ata’ Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others. (At-Tabari 11:582)

This Ayah means, contemplate the ability of the Creator of these fruits, Who brought them into existence after they were dry wood, and they later became grapes and dates; and similar is the case with the various colors, shapes, tastes and fragrance of whatever Allah created. Allah said, “And in the earth are neighbouring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops, and date- palms, growing out, two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water, yet some of them We make better than others to eat.” (13:4) This is why Allah said here, “In these things there are…” O people, “signs…” and proofs that testify to the perfect ability, wisdom and mercy of He Who created these things, “for people who believe.” in Allah and obey His Messengers.

{100. Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them, and they attribute, falsely without knowledge – sons and daughters to Him. Be He Glorified and Exalted above what that they attribute to Him.}

Rebuking the Idolators

This Ayah refutes the idolators who worshipped others besides Allah and associated the Jinns with Him in worship. Glory be to Allah above this Shirk and Kufr. If someone asks, how did the idolators worship the Jinns, although they only were idol worshippers The answer is that in fact, they worshipped the idols by obeying the Jinns who commanded them to do so. Allah said in other Ayat, “They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him, and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel! Allah cursed him. And he [Shaytan] said: “I will take an appointed portion of your servants. Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.” And whoever takes Shaytan as a protector instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss. He [Shaytan] makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions.” (4:117-120) and, “Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me” (18:50)

Ibrahim said to his father, “”O my father! Worship not Shaytan. Verily! Shaytan has been a rebel against the Most Beneficent (Allah).” (19:44) Allah said, “Did I not ordain for you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you. And that you should worship Me. That is a straight path.” (36:60-61) On the Day of Resurrection, the angels will proclaim, “Glorified be You! You are our Protector instead of them. Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them.” (34:41) This is why Allah said here, “Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them.” (6:100), Alone without partners. Consequently, how is it that another deity is being worshipped along with Him As Ibrahim said, “Worship you that which you (yourselves) carve While Allah has created you and what you make!” (37:95-96)

Allah alone is the Creator without partners. Therefore, He Alone deserves to be worshipped without partners. Allah said next, “And they Kharaqu (attribute falsely) without knowledge, sons and daughters to Him.” Allah mentions the misguidance of those who were led astray and claimed a son or offspring for Him, as the Jews did with Uzayr, the Christians with Isa and the Arab pagans with the angels whom they claimed were Allah’s daughters. Allah is far holier than what the unjust, polytheist people associate with Him. The word, Kharaqu, means ‘falsely attributed, invented, claimed and lied’, according to the scholars of the Salaf. Allah’s statement next, “Be He Glorified and Exalted above (all) that they attribute to Him.” means, He is holier than, hallowed, and Exalted above the sons, rivals, equals and partners that these ignorant, misled people attribute to Him.
{101. He is the Badi (Originator) of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife? He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.}

Meaning of Badi

“He is the Badi of the heavens and the earth” Meaning He originated, created, invented and brought them into existence without precedence, as Mujahid and As-Suddi said. This is why the word for innovation – Bidah – comes from it, because it is something that did not have a precedence. “How can He have children when He has no wife?” for the child is the offspring of two compatible spouses. Allah does not have an equal, none of His creatures are similar to Him, for He alone created the entire creation. Allah said; “And they say: “The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a son.” Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing.” (19:88-89), until, “And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.” (19:95) . “He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.” He has created everything and He is All-Knower of all things. How can He have a wife from His creation who is suitable for His majesty, when there is none like Him How can He have a child then Verily, Allah is Glorified above having a son.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir Vol 3 Pages 397-428

 {102. Such is Allah, your Lord! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him (alone), and He is the Guardian over all things.

103. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is the Most Subtle, Well-Acquainted (with all things).}

 

Allah is Your Lord

Allah said,  “Such is Allah, your Lord!” Who created everything and has neither a son nor a wife, “None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him,” Alone without partners, and attest to His Oneness, affirming that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. Allah has neither descendants, nor acsendants, wife, equal or rival, “And He is the Guardian over all things.” meaning, Trustee, Watcher and Disposer of affairs for all things in existence, giving them provisions and protection by day and night. Seeing Allah in the Hereafter Allah said, “No vision can grasp Him” in this life. The vision will be able to look at Allah in the Hereafter, as affirmed and attested to by the numerous Hadiths from the Prophet through authentic chains of narration in the collections of the Sahihs, Musnad and Sunan collections. As for this life, Masruq narrated that A’ishah said, “Whoever claims that Muhammad has seen his Lord, will have uttered a lie against Allah, for Allah the Most Honored, says, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” (Fath Al Bari 8:472)

In the Sahih (Muslim) it is recorded that Abu Musa Al-Ashari narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,

“Verily, Allah does not sleep and it does not befit His majesty that He should sleep. He lowers the scale (of everything) and raises it. The deeds of the day are ascended to Him before the night, and the deeds of the night before the day. His Veil is the Light – or Fire – and if He removes it (the veil), the Light of His Face will burn every created thing that His sight reaches.” (Muslim 1:162)

In the previous [revealed] Books there is this statement, “When Musa requested to see Him, Allah said to Musa: ‘O Musa! Verily, no living thing sees Me, but it dies and no dried things sees me, but it rolls up.’ ” Allah said, “So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Musa fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.” (7:143). These Ayat, Hadiths and statements do not negate the fact that Allah will be seen on the Day of Resurrection by His believing servants, in the manner that He decides, all the while preserving His might and grace as they are. The Mother of the Faithful, A’ishah, used to affirm that Allah will be seen in the Hereafter, but denied that it could occur in this life, mentioning this Ayah as evidence, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” Her denial was a denial of the ability to encompass Him, meaning to perfectly see His grace and magnificance as He is, for that is not possible for any human, angel or anything created. Allah’s statement, “but His grasp is over all vision.” means, He encompasses all vision and He has full knowledge of them, for He created them all. In another Ayah, Allah said; “Should not He Who has created know? And He is the Most Subtle, Well Acquainted (with all things).” (67:14) It is also possible that  ‘all vision’ refers to those who have the vision. As-Suddi said that Allah’s statement, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” means, “Nothing sees Him (in this life), but He sees all creation.” Abu Al-Aliyah said that Allah’s statement, “He is the Most Subtle, Well-Acquainted (with all things).” means, “He is the Most Subtle, bringing forth all things, Well-Acquainted with their position and place.” Allah knows best. In another Ayah, Allah mentions Luqman’s advice to his son, “O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Most Subtle, Well Acquainted” (31:16)

 

{104. Verily, Basa’ir (proofs) have come to you from your Lord, so whosoever sees, will do so for (the good of) himself, and whosoever blinds himself, will do so against himself, and I am not a Hafiz over you.

105. Thus We explain variously the verses so that they (the disbelievers) may say: “You have Darasta (studied)” and that We may make the matter clear for the people who have knowledge.}

 

The Meaning of Basa’ir

Basa’ir are the proofs and evidences in the Qur’an and the Message of Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Ayah, “so whosoever sees, will do so for (the good of) himself.” is similar to, “So whosoever receives guidance, he does so for the good of himself, and whosoever goes astray, he does so at his own loss.” (10:108) After Allah mentioned the Basa’ir, He said, “And whosoever blinds himself, will do so against himself” meaning, he will only harm himself. Allah said, “Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind.” (22:46) “And I (Muhammad) am not a Hafiz over you. “ neither responsible, nor a watcher over you. Rather, I only convey, Allah guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills. Allah said, “Thus We explain variously the verses…” (6:105), meaning, just as We explained the Ayat in this Surah, such as explaining Tawhid and that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. This is how We explain the Ayat and make them plain and clear in all circumstances, to suffice the ignorance of the ignorant; and so that the idolators and disbelievers who deny you say, ‘O Muhammad! You have Darasta with those who were before you from among the People of the Book and learned with them’. Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr and Ad-Dahhak said similarly. (At-Tabari 12:27) At-Tabarani narrated that Amr bin Kaysan said that he heard Ibn Abbas saying, “Darasta, means, ‘recited, argued and debated.”’ (At-Tabarani 11:137) This is similar to Allah’s statement about the denial and rebellion of the disbelievers,  “Those who disbelieve say, “This (the Qur’an) is nothing but a lie that he has invented, and others have helped him at it, so that they have produced an unjust wrong (thing) and a lie.” And they say, “Tales of the ancients, which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.’‘ (25:4-5)

Allah described the chief liar of the disbelievers [Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah Al-Makhzumi], “Verily, he thought and plotted. So let him be cursed! How he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted! Then he thought. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way. Then he turned back and was proud. Then he said, “This is nothing but magic from that of old. This is nothing but the word of a human being!” (74:18-25) Allah said next, “And that We may make the matter clear for the people who have knowledge.”

The Ayah means, so that We explain the matter to a people who know truth, and thus follow it, and know falsehood, and thus avoid it. Allah’s wisdom is perfect, He allows the disbelievers to st ray, and He guides t he people who have knowledge. Allah said in other Ayat , “By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby.” (2:26), and; “That He (Allah) may make what is thrown in by Shaytan a trial for those in whose hearts is a disease and whose hearts are hardened.” (22:53) and, “And verily, Allah is the Guide of those who believe, to the straight path.” (22:54), “And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Fire, and We have fixed their number only as a trial for the disbelievers, in order that the People of the Scripture may arrive at a certainty and the believers may increase in faith, and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Scripture and the believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) and the disbelievers may say, “What does Allah intend by this example” Thus Allah leads astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none can know the hosts of your Lord but He.” (74:31), and; “And We send down in the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers, and it increases the wrongdoers in nothing but loss.” (17:82), and, “Say, “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness in their ears, and it is blindness for them. They are those who are called from a place far away.” (41:44) There are similar Ayat that testify that Allah sent down the Qur’an as guidance to those who fear Him and that He guides or misguides whom He wills by the Qur’an.

 

{106. Follow what has been inspired (revealed) to you from your Lord, none has the right to be worshipped but He, and turn aside from the idolators.

107. Had Allah willed, they would not have taken others besides Him in worship. And We have not made you Hafiz over them nor are you set over them to dispose of their affairs.}

 

The Command to Follow the Revelation

Allah commands His Messenger and those who followed his path, “Follow what has been inspired to you from your Lord,” meaning, follow it, obey it and act according to it. What has been revealed to you from your Lord is the Truth, no doubt, and there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, “and turn aside from the idolators” meaning, forgive them, be forbearing and endure their harm until Allah brings relief to you, supports you and makes you triumphant over them. Know – O Muhammad – that there is a wisdom behind misleading the idolators, and that had Allah willed, He would have directed all people to guidance, “Had Allah willed, they would not have taken others besides Him in worship.”

Allah’s is the perfect will and wisdom in all decrees and decisions, and He is never questioned about what He does, while they all will be questioned. Allah’s statement, “And We have not made you Hafiz over them.” means, a watcher who observes their statements and deeds, “Nor are you set over them to dispose of their affairs.” or to control their provision. Rather, your only job is to convey, just as Allah said, “So remind them, you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.” (88:21-22) and, “Your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.” (13:40)

 

{108. And insult not those whom they worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge. Thus We have made fair seeming to each people its own doings; then to their Lord is their return and He shall inform them of all that they used to do.}

 

The Prohibition of Insulting the False gods of the Disbelievers, So that they Do not Insult Allah

Allah prohibits His Messenger and the believers from insulting the false deities of the idolators, although there is a clear benefit in doing so. Insulting their deities will lead to a bigger evil than its benefit, for the idolators might retaliate by insulting the God of the believers, Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but He.

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented on this Ayah (6:108); “They (disbelievers) said, ‘O Muhammad! You will stop insulting our gods, or we will insult your Lord.’ Thereafter, Allah prohibited the believers from insulting the disbelievers’ idols, “lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge.” (At-Tabari 12:34)

Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mamar said that Qatadah said, “Muslims used to insult the idols of the disbelievers and the disbelievers would retaliate by insulting Allah wrongfully without knowledge. Allah revealed, “And insult not those whom they worship besides Allah.” (Abdur-Razzaq 2:215)

On this same subject – abandoning what carries benefit to avert a greater evil – it is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said,

“Cursed is he who insults his own parents!”

They said, “O Allah’s Messenger! And how would a man insult his own parents?” He said,

“He insults a man’s father, and that man insults his father, and insults his mother and that man insults his mother.” (Fath Al-Bari 10:417)

Allah’s statement, “Thus We have made fair seeming to each people its own doings” means, as We made fair seeming to the idolators loving their idols and defending them, likewise We made fair seeming to every previous nation the misguidance they indulged in. Allah’s is the most perfect proof, and the most complete wisdom in all that He wills and chooses. “then to their Lord is their return” gathering and final destination, “and He shall then inform them of all that they used to do.” He will compensate them for their deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

 

{109. And they swear their strongest oaths by Allah, that if there came to them a sign, they would surely believe therein. Say: “Signs are but with Allah and what will make you perceive that (even) if it came, they will not believe”

110. And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly.}

 

Asking for Miracles and Swearing to Believe if They Come

Allah states that the idolators swore their strongest oaths by Allah, “that if there came to them a sign…” a miracle or phenomenon, “they would surely believe therein.” affirming its truth, “Say: “Signs are but with Allah.” (6:109) meaning: Say, O Muhammad – to those who ask you for signs out of defiance, disbelief and rebellion, not out of the desire for guidance and knowledge – “The matter of sending signs is for Allah. If He wills, He sends them to you, and if He wills, He ignores your request.” Allah said next, “And what will make you perceive that (even) if it came, they will not believe”

It was said that ‘you’ in ‘make you preceive’ refers to the idolators, according to Mujahid. In this case, the Ayah would mean, what makes you – you idolators – preceive that you are truthful in the vows that you swore? Therefore, in this recitation, the Ayah means, the idolators will still not believe if the sign that they asked for came. It was also said that ‘you’ in, ‘what will make you preceive’, refers to the believers, meaning, what will make you preceive, O believers, that the idolators will still not believe if the signs come. Allah also said, “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you” (7:12) and, “And a ban is laid on every town (population) which We have destroyed that they shall not return (to this world again).” (21:95) These Ayat mean: What made you, O Iblis, refrain from prostrating, although I commanded you to do so, and, in the second Ayah, that village shall not return to this world again. In the Ayah above (6:109), the meaning thus becomes: What makes you perceive, O believers, who wish eagerly for the disbelievers to believe, that if the Ayat came to them they would believe.

Allah said next, “And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time,” Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said about this Ayah, “When the idolators rejected what Allah sent down, their hearts did not settle on any one thing and they turned away from every matter (of benefit).” Mujahid said that Allah’s statement, “and We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away,” means, We prevent them from the faith, and even if every sign came to them, they will not believe, just as We prevented them from faith the first time. Similar was said by Ikrimah and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said, “Allah mentions what the servants will say before they say it and what they will do before they do it. Allah said; “And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.” (35:14) and, “Lest a person should say, “Alas, my grief that I was undutiful to Allah.” (39:56) until, “If only I had another chance, then I should indeed be among the doers of good.” (39:58).

So Allah, glory be to Him, states that if they were sent back to life, they would not accept the gui dance, “But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.” (6:28) Allah said, “And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe therein for the first time” meaning: ‘If they were sent back to this life, they would be prevented from embracing the guidance, just as We prevented them from it the first time, when they were in the life of this world.” (At-Tabari 12:45) Allah said, “and We shall leave them…” and abandon them, “in their trespass…” meaning, disbelief, according to Ibn Abbas and As-Suddi. Abu Al- Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Qatadah said that ‘their trespass’ means, ‘their misguidance’. ”to wander blindly” or playfully, according to Al-Amash. Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi, Abu Malik and others commented, “to wander in their disbelief.”

{111. And even if We had sent down unto them angels, and the dead had spoken unto them, and We had gathered together all things before them, they would not have believed, unless Allah willed, but most of them behave ignorantly.}

Allah says: ‘Had We accepted what the disbelievers asked for,’ that is – those who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that if a miracle came to them they would believe in it – ‘had We sent down angels, ‘ to convey to them Allah’s Message, in order to support the truth of the Messengers, as they asked, when they said, “or you bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face.” (17:92) “They said: “We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah had received.” (6:124) and, “And those who expect not a meeting with Us said: “Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord?” Indeed they think too highly of themselves, and are scornful with great pride.” (25:21) Allah said, “and the dead had spoken unto them,” This is, to inform them of the truth of what the Messengersbrought them; “and We had gathered together all things before them,” before their eyes, as Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas. This is the view of Qatadah and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. This Ayah means, if all nations were gathered before them, one after the other, and each one testifies to the truth of what the Messengers came with, “they would not have believed, unless Allah willed,” for guidance is with Allah not with them. Cert ainly, Allah guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and He does what He wills, “He cannot be questioned about what He does, while they will be questioned.” (21:23), This is due to His knowledge, wisdom, power, supreme authority and irresistibility. Similarly, Allah said,“Truly, those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment.” (10:96-97)

 

{112. And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies – Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion. If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it; so leave them alone with their fabrications.

113. And Tasgha to it that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to such (deceit), and that they may remain pleased with it, and that they may commit what they are committing.}

 

Every Prophet Has Enemies

Allah says, just as We made enemies for you, O Muhammad, who will oppose and rebel against you and become your adversaries, We also made enemies for every Prophet who came before you. Therefore, do not be saddened by this fact. Allah said in other Ayat: “Verily, Messengers were denied before you, but with patience they bore the denial, and they were hurt…” (6:34), and, “Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you. Verily, your Lord is the Possessor of forgiveness, and (also) the Possessor of painful punishment.” (41:43) and, “Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.” (25:31). Waraqah bin Nawfal said to Allah’s Messenger, “None came with what you came with but he was the subject of enmity.” (Al-Bukhari no:3)

Allah’s statement, “Shayatin among mankind…” refers to, “enemies…” meaning, the Prophets have enemies among the devils of mankind and the devils of the Jinns. The word, Shaytan, describes one who is dissimilar to his kind due to his or her wickedness. Indeed, only the Shayatin, may Allah humiliate and curse them, from among mankind and the Jinns oppose the Messengers. Abdur-Razzaq said that Mamar narrated that Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,“Shayatin (devils) among mankind and Jinn…” “There are devils among the Jinns and devils among mankind who inspire each other.”

Allah’s statement, “inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.” means, they inspire each other with beautified, adorned speech that deceives the ignorant who hear it, “If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it” for all this occurs by Allah’s decree, will and decision, that every Prophet had enemies from these devils, “so leave them alone with their fabrications.” and lies. This Ayah orders patience in the face of the harm of the wicked and to trust in Allah against their enmity, for, “Allah shall suffice for you (O Muhammad) and aid you against them.” Allah’s statement, “And Tasgha to it.” means, according to Ibn Abbas, “incline to it.” (At-Tabari 12:58) “the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter…” their hearts, mind and hearing. As- Suddi said that this Ayah refers to the hearts of the disbelievers. (At-Tabari 12:59) “And that they may remain pleased with it.” they like and adore it. Only those who disbelieve in the Hereafter accept this evil speech, being enemies of the Prophets, etc., just as Allah said in other Ayat, “So, verily, you (pagans) and those whom you worship (idols). Cannot lead astray. Except those who are predestined to burn in Hell!” (37:161-163) and, “Certainly, you have different ideas. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.” (51:8-9) Allah said; “And that they may commit what they are committing.” meaning, “let them earn whatever they will earn”, according to Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported this from Ibn Abbas. As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd also commented, “Let them do whatever they will do.”

 

{114. [Say:] “Shall I seek a judge other than Allah while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained in detail.” Those unto whom We gave the Scripture know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth. So be not you of those who doubt.

115. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.}

 

 

Allah tells His Prophet to say to these polytheists who worship others besides Allah, “Shall I seek a judge other than Allah…” between you and I, “while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained…” in detail, “and those unto whom We gave the Scripture” the Jews and the Christians,“know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth.” because the previous Prophets have conveyed the good news of you coming to them. Allah’s statement, “So be not you of those who doubt.” is similar to His other statement, “So if you are in doubt concerning that which We have revealed unto you, then ask those who are reading the Book before you. Verily, the truth has come to you from your Lord. So be not of those who doubt (it).” (10:94) The conditional ‘if’ in this Ayah does not mean that ‘doubt’ will ever occur to the Prophet . Allah said, “And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice.”

Qatadah commented, “In truth concerning what He stated and in justice concerning what He decided.” (At-Tabari 12:63) Surely, whatever Allah says is the truth and He is Most Just in what He commands. All of Allah’s statements are true, there is no doubt or cause for speculation about this fact, and all His commandments are pure justice, besides which there is no justice. All that He forbade is evil, for He only forbids what brings about evil consequences. Allah said in anot her Ayah, “He commands them with good; and forbids them from evil…” (7:157) until the end of the Ayah. “None can change His Words.” meaning, none can avert Allah’s judgment whether in this life or the Hereafter, “And He is the All-Hearer,” Hearing, His servants’ statements, “The All-Knower.” of their activities and lack of activity, Who awards each according to their deeds.

{116. And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah’s path. They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie.

117. Verily, your Lord! It is He Who knows best who strays from His way, and He knows best the rightly guided.}

Most People are Misguided

Allah states that most of the people of the earth, are misguided. Allah said in other Ayat, “And indeed most of the men of old went astray before them.” (37:71) and, “And most of mankind will not believe even if you eagerly desire it.” (12:103) They are misguided, yet they have doubts about their way, and they rely on wishful thinking and delusions.“They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie.” Thus, they fulfill Allah’s decree and decision concerning them, “It is He Who knows best who strays from His way.” and facilitates that for him, “And He knows best the rightly guided.” He facilitates that for them, all of them are facilitated for what He created them.

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