Surah Al-An’am Ayat 118-142

 

{118. So eat of that on which Allah’s Name has been mentioned, if you are believers in His Ayat.

 

119. And why should you not eat of that on which Allah’s Name has been mentioned, while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity? And surely, many do lead astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly your Lord knows best the transgressors.}

 

 

 

Allowing What was Slaughtered in the Name of Allah

 

This is a statement of permission from Allah, for His servants, allowing them to eat the slaughtered animals werein His Name was mentioned when slaughtering them. It is understood from it that He has not allowed that over which Allah’s Name was not mentioned when slaughtering. This was the practice of the pagans of Quraysh who used to eat dead animals and eat what was slaughtered for the idols.

 

Allah next encourages eating from the meat of sacrificed animals on which His Name was mentioned upon slaughtering, “And why should you not eat of that on which Allah’s Name has been mentioned, while He has explained to you what is forbidden to you…” meaning, He has explained and made clear to you what He hasprohibited for you in detail, “except under compulsion of necessity.” In which case, you are allowed to eat whatever you can find. Allah next mentions the ignorance of the idolators in their misguided ideas, such as eating dead animals and what was sacrificed while other than Allah’s Name was mentioned when slaughtering them. Allah said, “And surely, many do lead astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly your Lord knows best the transgressors.” He has complete knowledge of their transgression, lies and inventions.

 

 

 

{120. Leave sin, open and secret. Verily, those who commit sin will get due recompense for that which they used to commit.}

 

 

 

Mujahid said that, “Leave evil, open and secret…” refers to all kinds of sins committed in public and secret. (At-Tabari 12:73) Qatadah said that, “Leave sin, open and secret…” encompasses sins committed in public and secret, whether few or many.(At-Tabari 12:72) In another statement, Allah said, “Say: “(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish (evil sins) whether committed openly or secretly.” (7:33) This is why Allah said, “Verily, those who commit sin will get due recompense for that which they used to commit.” Whether the sins they committed were public or secret, Allah will compensate them for these sins. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that An-Nawwas bin Saman said, “I asked Allah’s Messenger about Al-Ithm. He said,

 

“The sin is that which you find in your heart and you dislike that people become aware of it.” (Muslim 4:1980)

 

 

 

{121. Eat not of that on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced, for surely it is disobedience. And certainly, the Shayatin do inspire their friends to dispute with you, and if you obey them, then you would indeed be polytheists.}

 

The Prohibition of what was Slaughtered in other than Allah’s Name

 

This Ayah is used to prove that slaughtered animals are not lawful when Allah’s Name is not mentioned over them – even if slaughtered by a Muslim. The Ayah about hunting game, “So eat of what they (trained hunting dogs or birds of prey) catch for you, but pronounce the Name of Allah over it.” (5:4) supports this. The Ayah here emphasized this ruling, when Allah said, “for surely it is disobedience.” They say that “it” refers to eating it, and others say that it refers to the sacrifice for other than Allah. There are various Hadiths that order mentioning Allah’s Name when slaughtering and hunting. The Hadith narrated by Adi bin Hatim and Abu Thalabah (that the Prophet said)

 

“When you send your trained hunting dog and mention Allah’s Name on releasing it, then eat from whatever it catches for you.”

 

This Hadith was collected in the Two Sahihs.  (Fath Al-Bari 9:524 and Muslim 3:1529) The Rafi bin Khadij narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said;

 

“You can use what would make blood flow (i.e. slaughter) and you can eat what is slaughtered and the Name of Allah is mentioned at the time of slaughtering.”

 

This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.  (Fath Al-Bari 9:546 and Muslim 3:1558) Ibn Masud narrated that Allah’s Messenger said to the Jinns.

 

“(For food) you have every bone on which Allah’s Name was mentioned on slaughtering.” (Muslim 1:332)

 

Jundub bin Sufyan Al-Bajali said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

 

“Whoever slaughtered before he prayed (the Id prayer), let him slaughter another sacrifice in its place. Whoever did not offer the sacrifice before we finished the prayer, let him slaughter and mention Allah’s Name.”

 

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. (Fath Al-Bari 9:546 and Muslim 3:1551)

 

The Devil’s Inspiration

 

Allah said, “And certainly, the Shayatin do inspire their friends to dispute with you,” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Ishaq said that a man said to Ibn Umar that Al-Mukhtar claimed that he received revelation. So Ibn Umar said, “He has said the truth,” and recited this Ayah, “And certainly, the Shayatin do inspire their friends…” (Ibn Abi Hatim 4:1379)

 

Abu Zamil said, “I was sitting next to Ibn Abbas at a time when Al-Mukhtar bin Abi Ubayd was performing Hajj. So a man came to Ibn Abbas and said, ‘O Ibn Abbas! Abu Ishaq (Al-Mukhtar) claimed that he received revelation this night.’ Ibn Abbas said, He has said the truth.’ I was upset and said, Ibn Abbas says that Al-Mukhtar has said the truth’ Ibn Abbas replied, ‘There are two types of revelation, one from Allah and one from the devil. Allah’s revelation came to Muhammad , while the Shaytan’s revelation comes to his friends.’ He then recited, “And certainly, the Shayatin do inspire their friends…” We also mentioned Ikrimah’s commentary on the Ayah, “Inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.” Allah said next, “to dispute with you” Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Abbas commented; “Eat not of that on which Allah’s Name has not been mentioned…” until, “…to dispute with you” “The devils inspire their loyal supporters, ‘Do you eat from what you kill but not from what Allah causes to die’?” As-Suddi said; “Some idolators said to the Muslims, ‘You claim that you seek Allah’s pleasure. Yet, you do not eat what Allah causes to die, but you eat what you slaughter’ Allah said, “and if you obey them…”, and eat dead animals, “then you would indeed be polytheists.” Similar was said by Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and several others among scholars of the Salaf.

 

Giving Preference to Anyone’s Saying Over the Legislation of Allah is Shirk

 

Allah’s statement, “and if you obey them, then you would indeed be polytheists.” means, when you turn away from Allah’s command and Legislation to the saying of anyone else, preferring other than what Allah has said, then this constitutes Shirk. Allah said in another Ayah, “They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah.”  (9:31) In explanation of this Ayah, At-Tirmidhi recorded that Adi bin Hatim said, “O Allah’s Messenger! They did not worship them.” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

 

“Yes they did. They (monks and rabbis) allowed the impermissible for them and they prohibited the lawful for them, and they followed them in that. That was their worship of them.”

 

{122. Is he who was dead, and We gave him life, and set for him a light, whereby he can walk among men — like him who is in the darkness from which he can never come out Thus it is made fair seeming to the disbelievers that which they used to do.}

 

The Parable of the Disbeliever and the Believer

 

This is an example that Allah has given of the believer who was dead, meaning, wandering in confusion and misguidance. Then, Allah brought life to him, by bringing life to his heart with faith, guiding him to it and guiding him to obeying His Messengers, “And set for him a light whereby he can walk amongst men.” for he became guided to where he should go and how to remain on the correct path. The light mentioned here is the Qur’an, according to Ibn Abbas, as Al-Awfi and Ibn Abi Talhah reported from him. As-Suddi said that the light mentioned here is Islam. Both meanings are correct. “Like him who is in the darkness” of ignorance, desires and various types of deviation, “From which he can never come out” for he is unable to find a way out from what he is in. In Musnad Ahmad, it is recorded that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said;

 

“Allah created creation in darkness, then He showered His Light upon them. Whoever was struck by that light is guided, whoever it missed is astray.” (Ahmad 2:176)

 

Allah said in other Ayat, “Allah is the Guardian of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their friends are Taghut, they bring them out from light into darkness. Those are the dwellers of the Fire, and they will abide therein forever.” (2:257), and “Is he who walks prone on his face, more rightly guided, or he who walks upright on the straight way?” (67:22), and “The parable of the two parties is as the blind and the deaf and the seer and the hearer. Are they equal when compared Will you not then take heed” (11:24), and, “Not alike are the blind and the seeing. Nor are darkness and light. Nor are the shade and the sun’s heat. Nor are the living and the dead. Verily, Allah makes whom He wills to hear, but you cannot make hear those who are in the graves. You are only a warner.” (35:19-23)

 

There are many other Ayat on this subject. We explained before why Allah mentioned the light in the singular sense and the darkness in the plural sense when we explained the Ayah at the beginning of the Surah, “And originated the darknesses and the light.” (6:1) Allah’s statement, “Thus it is made fair seeming to the disbelievers that which they used to do.” means, We made their ignorance and misguidance appear fair to them, as Allah decreed out of His wisdom, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him alone without partners.

 

 

 

{123. And thus We have set up in every town great ones of its wicked people to plot therein. But they plot not except against themselves, and they perceive (it) not.

 

124. And when there comes to them a sign they say: “We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah received.” Allah knows best with whom to entrust His Message. Humiliation and disgrace from Allah and a severe torment will overtake the criminals for that which they used to plot.}

 

 

 

Evil Plots of the Leaders of the Criminals and their Subsequent Demise

 

Allah says: Just as We appointed chiefs and leaders for the criminals who call to disbelief, hinder from the path of Allah, and oppose and defy you in your town, O Muhammad. Such was also the case with the Messengers before you, who were tested with the same. But the good end was always theirs.’ Allah said in other Ayat, “Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.” (25:31) Allah said, “And when We decide to destroy a town, We send a definite order to those among them who lead a life of luxury, and they transgress therein.” (17:16) meaning, We command them to obey Us, but they defy the command and as a consequence, We destroy them. It was also said that, “We send a definite order”, in the last Ayah means, “We decree for them,” as Allah stated here “to plot therein.” Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas explained the Ayah “…great ones of its wicked people to plot therein.”“We give the leadership to these wicked ones and they commit evil in it. When they do this, We destroy them with Our torment.” Mujahid and Qatadah said that in the Ayah,“great ones” refers to leaders.

 

I say that this is also the meaning of Allah’s statements, “And We did not send a warner to a township, but those who were given the worldly wealth and luxuries among them, said: “We believe not in what you have been sent with.” And they say: “We have too much wealth and too many children and we are not going to suffer punishment.” (34:34-35) And, “And similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town but the luxurious ones among them said: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.” (43:23) ‘Plot’ in the Ayah (6:123) refers to beautified speech and various actions with which the evil ones call to misguidance. Allah said about the people of Prophet Nuh, peace be upon him, “And they have plotted a mighty plot.”(71:22) Allah said, “But if you could see when the wrongdoers will be made to stand before their Lord, how they will cast the (blaming) word one to another! Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers.” And those who were arrogant will say to those who were deemed weak: “Did we keep you back from guidance after it had come to you Nay, but you were criminals.” Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals for Him!” (34:31-33).

 

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Ibn Abi Umar said that Sufyan said, “Every ‘plot’ mentioned in the Qur’an refers to actions.” Allah’s statement, “But they plot not except against themselves, and they perceive (it) not.” means, the harm of their wicked plots, as well as misguiding those whom they lead astray, will only strike them. Allah said in other Ayat, “And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own.” (29:13) and, “And also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge. Evil indeed is that which they shall bear!” (16:25). Allah said; “And when there comes to them a sign they say: “We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah received.”When there comes to them a sign they say, “We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah received.” until the angels bring us the Message from Allah, just as they brought it to the Messengers.

 

In another Ayah, Allah said, “And those who expect not a meet ing with Us said: “Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord?”(25:21). Allah’s statement, “Allah knows best with whom to entrust His Message.” means, He knows best with whom His Message should be given and which of His creatures are suitable for it. Allah said in other Ayat, “And they say: “Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns?” Is it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord?” (43:31-32). They said, why was not this Qur’an revealed to a mighty, respectable leader, honored by us, “…from one of the two towns” Of Makkah and At-Ta’if. This is because they, may Allah curse them, belittled the Messenger out of envy, transgression, rebellion and defiance. Allah described them, “And when they see you, they only mock: “Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a Messenger” (25:41) and “And when those who disbelieved see you, they only mock at you: “Is this the one who talks about your gods” While they disbelieve at the mention of the Most Gracious (Allah).” (21:36), and, “Indeed Messengers were mocked before, but the scoffers were surrounded by that, whereat they used to mock.” (21:41)

 

The Disbelievers Admit to the Prophet’s Nobility of Lineage

 

The disbelievers did all of this although they admitted to the Prophet’s virtue, honorable lineage, respectable ancestry and purity of household and upbringing, may Allah, His angels, and the believers send blessings upon him. The disbelievers used to call the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, before he received revelation, ‘Al-Amin’ – the Truthful. The leader of the Quraysh disbelievers, Abu Sufyan, had to admit to this fact when Heraclius, emperor of Rome, asked him, “How honorable is his (the Prophet’s) ancestral lineage among you?” Abu Sufyan answered, “His ancestry is highly regarded among us.” Heraclius asked, “Do you find that he lied, before he started his mission?” Abu Sufyan replied, “No.” The emperor of Rome relied on the honor and purity of the Prophet to recognize the truth of his prophethood and what he came with. Imam Ahmad recorded that Wathilah bin Al-Asqa said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

 

“Verily, Allah has chosen Ismail from the offspring of Ibrahim, Bani Kinanah from the offspring of Ismail, Quraysh from Bani Kinanah, Bani Hashim from Quraysh and, He has chosen me from Bani Hashim.”(Ahmad 4:107)

 

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

 

“I was chosen from a succession of the best generations of the Children of Adam, until the generation I was sent in.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:653)

 

Allah’s said, “Humiliation and disgrace from Allah and a severe torment will overtake the criminals…” This is a stern threat and sure promise from Allah for those who arrogantly refrain from obeying His Messengers and adhering to what they came with. On the Day of Resurrection, they will suffer humiliation and eternal disgrace before Allah, because they were arrogant in the worldly life. This is why it is befitting that they earn disgrace on the Day of Resurrection. Allah said in another Ayah, “Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”(40:60) disgrace and dishonor. Allah said next, “and a severe torment for that which they used to plot.” Since plotting usually takes place in secret and involves treachery and deceit, the disbelievers were recompensed with severe torment from Allah on the Day of Resurrection, as a just reckoning, “And your Lord treats no one with injustice” (18:49) Allah said in another Ayah, “The Day when all the secrets will be examined.” (86:9) Meaning, the secrets, hidden thoughts and intentions will be exposed. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

 

“A banner will be raised for every deceitful person from his anus on the Day of Resurrection, and it will say; ‘This is the treacherous plot of so-and-so, son of so-and-so, son of so-and-so.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:327 and Muslim 4:1361)

 

The wisdom in this is that since a plot occurs in secret, and people are usually unaware of it, then on the Day of Resurrection the plot itself will become public news testifying to the actions of those who committed it.

 

 

 

{125. And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those who believe not.}

 

 

 

Allah said, “And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam” He makes Islam easy for him and strengthens his resolve to embrace it, and these are good signs. Allah said in “Is he whose breast Allah has opened to Islam, so that he is in light from His Lord (as he who is a non-Muslim)” (39:22) and,“But Allah has endeared the faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts, and has made disbelief, wickedness and disobedience hated by you. Such are they who are the rightly guided.” (49:7) Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, “And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam”, “Allah says that He will open his heart to Tawhid and faith in Him.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 3:356) This is the same as was reported from Abu Malik and several others, and it is sound.

 

Allah’s statement, “and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted” refers to inability to accept guidance, thus being deprived of beneficial faith. “…as if he is climbing up to the sky.” because of the heaviness of faith on him. Said bin Jubayr commented that in this case, “(Islam) finds every path in his heart impassable.” (At-Tabari 12:105)

 

Al-Hakam bin Aban said that Ikrimah narrated from Ibn Abbas that he commented on:“…as if he is climbing up to the sky”, “Just as the Son of Adam cannot climb up to the sky, Tawhid and faith will not be able to enter his heart, until Allah decides to allow it into his heart.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 3:356)

 

Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir commented: “This is a parable that Allah has given for the heart of the disbeliever, which is completely impassable and closed to faith. Allah says, the example of the disbeliever’s inability to accept faith in his heart and that it is too small to accommodate it, is the example of his inability to climb up to the sky, which is beyond his capability and power.” (At-Tabari 12:109) He also commented on Allah’s statement, “Thus Allah puts the Rijs (wrath) on those who believe not.” “Allah says that just as He makes the heart of whomever He decides to misguide, closed and constricted, He also appoints Shaytan for him and for his likes, those who refused to believe in Allah and His Messenger. Consequently, Shaytan lures and hinders them from the path of Allah.” (At-Tabari 12:110) Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that, Rijs, refers to Shaytan, (At-Tabari 12:111) while Mujahid said that it refers to all that does not contain goodness. (At-Tabari 12:111) Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that, Rijs, means, ‘torment’.

 

{126. And this is the path of your Lord leading straight. We have detailed Our Ayat for a people who take heed.

 

127. For them will be the abode of peace with their Lord. And He will be their Wali because of what they used to do.}

 

After Allah mentioned the way of those who were themselves led to stray from His path and who hindered others from it, He emphasized the honor of the guidance and religion of truth that He sent His Messenger with. Allah said next, “And this is the path of your Lord leading straight.” that is, Islam, that We have legislated for you, O Muhammad, by revealing this Qur’an to you, is Allah’s straight path. “We have detailed Our Ayat…” We have explained the Ayat and made them clear and plain,“for a people who take heed” those who have sound comprehension and understand what Allah and His Messenger convey to them, “For them will be the abode of peace”Paradise, “with their Lord.” on the Day of Resurrection. Allah described Paradise as ‘the abode of peace’, because its residents are safe due to their access to the straight path, which conforms to the way of the Prophets. And just as their way was not wicked, they earned the abode of peace [which is free from all wickedness]. “And He will be their Wali” Protector, Supporter and Helper, ”because of what they used to do” As reward for their good deeds, Allah has favored them and been generous with them, and awarded them Paradise.

 

 

 

{128. And on the Day when He will gather them together (and say): “O you assembly of Jinn! Many did you mislead of men,” and their friends among the people will say: “Our Lord! We benefited one from the other, but now we have reached our appointed term which You did appoint for us. ” He will say: “The Fire be your dwelling place, you will dwell therein forever, except as Allah may will. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.”}

 

 

 

Allah says, ‘Mention, O Muhammad, in what you convey and warn,’ that, “on the Day when He will gather them (all) together.” gather the Jinns and their loyal supporters from mankind who used to worship them in this life, seek refuge with them, obey them and inspire each other with adorned, deceitful speech. Allah will proclaim then, “O you assembly of Jinn! Many did you mislead of men” So the Ayah; “Many did you mislead of men) refers to their misguiding and leading them astray. Allah also said; “Did I not command you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you. And that you should worship Me. That is the straight path. And indeed he (Shaytan) did lead astray a great multitude of you. Did you not, then, understand” (36:60-62), and “and their friends among the people will say: “Our Lord! We benefited one from the other…”

 

The friends of the Jinns among humanity will give this answer to Allah, after Allah chastises them for being misguided by the Jinns. Al-Hasan commented, “They benefited from each other when the Jinns merely commanded and mankind obeyed.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 3:357)

 

Ibn Jurayj said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, a man would reach a land and proclaim, ‘I seek refuge with the master (Jinn) of this valley,’ and this is how they benefited from each other. They used this as an excuse for them on the Day of Resurrection.” (At-Tabari 12:116) Therefore, the Jinns benefit from humans since humans revere the Jinns by invoking them for help. The Jinns would then proclaim, “We became the masters of both mankind and the Jinns.” ”but now we have reached our appointed term which You did appoint for us.” meaning, death, according to As-Suddi. ”He (Allah) will say: “The Fire be your dwelling place…” where you will reside and live, you and your friends, “you will dwell therein forever.” and will never depart except what Allah may will.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 3 Pages 448-468

{129. And thus We do make the wrongdoers supporters of one another, because of that which they used to earn.}

 

The Wrongdoers Are the Supporters of Each other

Mamar said that Qatadah commented on this Ayah, “Allah makes the wrongdoers supporters for each other in the Fire by following one another into it.” (Abdur-Razzaq 2:218) Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on Allah’s statement, “And thus We do make the wrongdoers supporters of one another.”

“It refers to the wrongdoers of the Jinns and mankind.” (At-Tabari 12:119) He then recited, “And whosoever turns away blindly from the remembrance of the Most Gracious (Allah), We appoint for him Shaytan to be a companion to him.” (43:36) He said next – concerning the meaning of the Ayah; “We appoint the wrongdoer of the Jinns over the wrongdoer of mankind.” A poet once said, “There is no hand, but Allah’s Hand is above it, and no wrongdoer but will be tested by another wrongdoer.”

The meaning of this honorable Ayah thus becomes: ‘Just as We made this losing group of mankind supporters of the Jinns that misguided them, We also appoint the wrongdoers over one another, destroy them by the hands of one another, and take revenge from them with one another. This is the just recompense for their injustice and transgression.’

 

{130. O you assembly of Jinn and humans! “Did not there come to you Messengers from amongst you, reciting unto you My verses and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours” They will say: “We bear witness against ourselves.” It was the life of this world that deceived them. And they will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers.}

 

Chastising the Jinns and Humans after their Admission that Allah Sent Messengers to Them

Allah will chastise the disbelieving Jinns and humans on the Day of Resurrection, when He asks them, while having better knowledge, if the Messengers delivered His Messages to them, “O you assembly of Jinn and humans! Did not there come to you Messengers from among you?” We should note here that the Messengers are from among mankind only, not vice versa, as Mujahid, Ibn Jurayj and others from the Imams of Salaf and later generations have stated. (At-Tabari 12:122) The proof for this is that Allah said, “Verily, We have sent the revelation to you as We sent the revelation to Nuh and the Prophets after him.” (4:163), until, “Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the (coming of) Messengers.” (4:165)

Allah said, concerning the Prophet Ibrahim, “And We ordained among his offspring prophethood and the Book” (29: 27), thus sending the prophethood and the Book exclusively through the offspring of the Prophet Ibrahim. No one has claimed that there were Prophets from among the Jinns before the time of Ibrahim, but not after that. Allah said, “And We never sent before you any of the Messengers but verily, they ate food and walked in the markets.” (25:20), and, “And We sent not before you any but men unto whom We revealed, from among the people of townships.” (12:109)

Therefore, concerning prophethood, the Jinns follow mankind in this regard and this is why Allah said about them, “And (remember) when We sent towards you a group of the Jinn, listening to the Qur’an. When they stood in the presence thereof, they said: “Listen in silence!” And when it was finished, they returned to their people, as warners. They said: “O our people! Verily, we have heard a Book sent down after Musa, confirming what came before it, it guides to the truth and to the straight way. O our people! Respond to Allah’s caller, and believe in him. He (Allah) will forgive you your sins, and will save you from a painful torment (i.e. Hell-fire). And whosoever does not respond to Allah’s caller, he cannot escape on earth, and there will be no helpers for him besides Allah. Those are in manifest error.” (46:29-32)

A Hadith collected by At-Tirmidhi stated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, recited Surat Ar-Rahman, to these Jinns, in which Allah said, “We shall attend to you, O you two classes (Jinn and men)! Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both (Jinn and men) deny” (55:31-32) (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:177) Allah said in this honorable Ayah, “O you assembly of Jinn and humans! “Did not there come to you Messengers from amongst you, reciting unto you My verses and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?” They will say: “We bear witness against ourselves.” meaning, we affirm that the Messengers have conveyed Your Messages to us and warned us about the meeting with You, and that this Day will certainly occur. Allah said next, “It was the life of this world that deceived them.” and they wasted their lives and brought destruction to themselves by rejecting the Messengers and denying their miracles. This is because they were deceived by the beauty, adornment and lusts of this life. “And they will bear witness against themselves” on the Day of Resurrection, “that they were disbelievers…” in this worldly life, rejecting what the Messengers, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on them, brought them.

{131. This is because your Lord would not destroy the (populations of) towns for their wrongdoing while their people were unaware.

132. For all there will be degrees according to what they did. And your Lord is not unaware of what they do.}

Allah said, “This is because your Lord would not destroy the (populations of) towns for their wrongdoing while their people were unaware.” meaning: ‘We sent the Messengers and revealed the Books to the Jinns and mankind, so that no one has an excuse that he is being punished for his wrongs although he did not receive Allah’s Message. Therefore, We did not punish any of the nations, except after sending Messengers to them, so that they have no excuse.’ Allah said in other Ayat, “And there never was a nation but a warner had passed among them.” (35:24), and “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and stay away from At-Taghut (all false deities).” (16:36), and “And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger.” (17:15), and, “Every time a group is cast therein, its keeper will ask: “Did no warner come to you” They will say: “Yes, indeed a warner did come to us, but we belied him.” (67:8-9)

There are many other Ayat on this subject. At-Tabari said, “Allah’s statement, “For all there will be degrees according to what they did.” means, every person who obeys Allah or behaves disobediently, has grades and ranks according to their works, which Allah gives them as recompense, good for good and evil for evil.” I say, it is possible that Allah’s statement, “For all there will be degrees according to what they did.” refers to the disbelievers of the Jinns and mankind who will earn a place in the Fire according to their evil deeds. Allah said, “He will say: “For each one there is double (torment).” (7:38), and, “Those who disbelieved and hinder (others) from the path of Allah, for them We will add torment to the torment because they used to spread corruption.” (16:88) Allah said next, “And your Lord is not unaware of what they do.”

Ibn Jarir commented, “All these deeds that they did, O Muhammad, they did while your Lord is aware of them, and He collects and records these deeds with Him, so that He recompenses them when they meet Him and return to Him. (At-Tabari 12:125)

 

{133. And your Lord is Al-Ghani, full of mercy; if He wills, He can destroy you; and in your place make whom He wills as your successors, as He raised you from the seed of other people.

134. Surely, that which you are promised, will verily come to pass, and you cannot escape.

135. Say: “O my people! Work according to your way, surely, I too am working, and you will come to know for which of us will be the (happy) end in the Hereafter. Certainly the wrongdoers will not be successful.”}

 

If They Disobey, They Will Perish

Allah said, “And your Lord…”, O Muhammad, “is Al-Ghani” Rich, free from needing His creatures in any way or form, while they stand in need of Him in all situations, “Truly, Allah is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind.” (2:143) “if He wills, He can destroy you.” if you defy His commandments, “And in your place make whom He wills as your successors,” who behave obediently, “full of mercy” towards creation. Allah said in another Ayah, “As He raised you from the seed of other people.” and surely, He is able to do this, and it is easy for Him. And just as Allah has destroyed the earlier nations and brought their successors, He is able to do away with these generations and bring other people in their place. Allah has also said; “If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever Capable over that.” (4:133), “O mankind! It is you who stand in need of Allah. But Allah is Rich (free of all needs), Worthy of all praise. If He willed, He could destroy you and bring about a new creation. And that is not hard for Allah.” (35:15-17), and, “But Allah is Rich (free of all needs), and you are poor. And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes.” (47:38).

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Yaqub bin Utbah said that he heard Aban bin Uthman saying about this Ayah, “As He raised you from the seed of other people.” ‘The seed’ means the offspring and the children.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 3:361) Allah’s statement, “Surely, that which you are promised, will verily, come to pass and you cannot escape.” means, tell them, OMuhammad, that what they have been promised of Resurrection will surely occur, “and you cannot escape.” from Allah. Rather, He is able to resurrect you even after you become dust and bones. Certainly, Allah is able to do all things and nothing ever escapes His power.

Allah said “Say: “O my people! Work according to your way, surely, I too am working and you will come to know.” This contains a stern warning and a sure promise, saying; remain on your way, if you think that you are rightly guided, for I will remain on mine. Allah said in another Ayah, “And say to those who do not believe: “Act according to Makanatikum, We are acting (in our way). And you wait! We (too) are waiting.” (11:121-122).

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that, “according to Makanatikum…” means, your way. (At-Tabari 12:129) “And you will come to know for which of us will be the (happy) end in the Hereafter. Certainly the wrongdoers will not be successful” (6:135), You will come to know if the happy end will be mine (Muhammad’s) or yours (the disbelievers). Allah has indeed kept His promise and allowed Muhammad to prevail in the land and rise above those who defied him. He conquered Makkah for him and made him triumphant over his people who rejected and showed enmity towards him. The Prophet’s rule soon spread over the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen and Bahrain, and all this occurred during his lifetime. After his death, the various lands and provinces were conquered during the time of his successors, may Allah be pleased with them all. Allah also said, “Allah has decreed: “Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.” Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty.” (58:21) “Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to the wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.” (40:51- 52) and, “And indeed We have written in the Zabur after the Dhikr that My righteous servants shall inherit the land.” (21:105) [There are different explanations of this Ayah. See the Tafsir of Surat Al-Anbiya no.105 for its commentary.]

 

{136. And they assign to Allah a share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: “This is for Allah,” according to their claim, “and this is for our partners.” But the share of their “partners” reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their “partners”! Evil is the way they judge!}

 

Some Acts of Shirk

Allah chastises and criticizes the idolators who invented innovations, Kufr and Shirk, and called on partners and rivals with Allah among His creation, although He created every thing, all praise is due to Him. This is why Allah said, “And they assign to Allah from that which He has created,” “of the tilth” meaning, fruits and produce, “and of the cattle a share” meaning a part and a section. “and they say: “This is for Allah,” according to their claim, “and this is for our partners.” Allah said next, “But the share of their “partners” reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their “partners”!

Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-Awfi narrated that Ibn Abbas said; “When they, the enemies of Allah, would cultivate the land or collect produce, they would assign a part of it to Allah and another part to the idol. They would keep the share for the idol, whether land, produce or anything else, and preserve its division to such an extent that they would collect anything that accidentally falls from the share they assigned to Allah and add it to the share of the idol. If the water that they assigned for the idol irrigated something (a section of land, for instance) that they assigned for Allah, they would add whatever this water irrigated to the idol’s share! If the land or produce that they assigned for Allah was accidentally mixed with the share that they assigned for the idol, they would say that the idol is poor. Therefore, they would add it to the share they assigned for the idol and would not return it to the share they assigned for Allah. If the water that they assigned for Allah irrigated what they assigned for the idol they would leave it (the produce) for the idol. They also made some of their other property sacred, like the Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah and Ham, assigning them to the idols, claiming that they do so as way of seeking a means of approach to Allah. Allah said, “And they assign to Allah a share of the tilth and cattle which He has created…” (At-Tabari 12:131-132)

Similar was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others. (At-Tabari 12:133) Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented; “Every type of slaughter that they would assign for Allah, would never be eaten unless they mentioned the names of their idols when slaughtering it. Yet for what they sacrificed in the names of the idols, they would not mention Allah’s Name when slaughtering it.” He then recited the Ayah (6:136) until he reached, “Evil is the way they judge!” (At-Tabari 12:134) This Ayah means, evil is that which they determined, for they committed error in the division. Certainly, Allah is the Lord, Owner and Creator of all things and His is the dominion. All things are His property and under His supreme control, will and decree. There is no deity worthy of worship, or Lord, except Him. And even when  the polytheists made this evil division, they did not preserve it, but cheated in it. Allah said in other Ayat, “And they assign daughters unto Allah – glory be to Him – and unto themselves what they desire.” (16:57), and “Yet, they assign to some of His servants a share with Him. Verily, man is indeed a manifest ingrate!” (43:15), and, “Is it for you the males and for Him the females? That indeed is a division most unfair!” (53:21- 22).

 

{137. And so to many of the idolators, their “partners” have made fair seeming the killing of their children, in order to lead them to their own destruction and cause confusion in their religion. And if Allah had willed, they would not have done so. So leave them alone with their fabrications.}

 

Shaytan Lured the Idolators to Kill Their Children

Allah says, just as the Shayatin lured the idolators to assign a share for Allah from what He created of agriculture and cattle – and a share for the idols, they also made it seem fair for them to kill their children, for fear of poverty, and burying their daughters alive, for fear of dishonour.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas that he commented “And so to many of the idolators, their “partners” have made fair seeming the killing of their children…” “They make killing their children attractive to them.” (At-Tabari 12:136) Mujahid said, “Idolators’ partners among the devils ordered them to bury their children for fear of poverty.” (At-Tabari 12:136) As-Suddi said, “The devils commanded them to kill their daughters so that they, “lead them to their own destruction”, and to, “cause confusion in their religion.” (At-Tabari 12:137) Allah said, “And if Allah had willed, they would not have done so.” meaning, all this occurred by Allah’s leave, will and decree, but He dislikes these practices, and He has the perfect wisdom in every decree. He is never questioned about what He does, but they all will be questioned. “So leave them alone with their fabrications.” meaning, avoid and abandon them and what they do, for Allah will judge between you and them.

 

{138. And according to their claim, they say that such and such cattle and crops are Hijr (forbidden), and none should eat of them except those whom we allow. And (they say) there are cattle forbidden to be used for burden, and cattle on which (at slaughtering) the Name of Allah is not pronounced; lying against Him (Allah). He will recompense them for what they used to fabricate.}

 

The Idolators Forbade Certain Types of Cattle

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Hijr refers to what they forbade, such as the Wasilah, and the like.” (At-Tabari 12:143)

Similar was said by Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others. (At-Tabari 12:143) Qatadah commented on, “They say that such and such cattle and crops are Hijr” “It is a prohibition that the Shayatin appointed for their wealth, and a type of exaggeration and extremism that did not come from Allah.” [Abdur-Rahman] Ibn Zayd bin Aslam said that, “Hijr” refers to what the idolators designated for their deities. (At-Tabari 12:143) As-Suddi said that the Ayah, “And none should eat of them except those whom we allow, they claimed…” means, “They said, only those whom we choose can eat of them., and the rest are prohibited from eating them.” (At-Tabari 12:143) Similar to this honorable Ayah, Allah said, “Say: “Tell me, what provision Allah has sent down to you! And you have made of it lawful and unlawful.” Say: “Has Allah permitted you (to do so), or do you invent a lie against Allah” (10:59), and, “Allah has not instituted things like Bahirah or a Sa’ibah or a Wasilah or a Ham. But those who disbelieve invent lies against Allah, and most of them have no understanding.” (5:103)

As-Suddi said that cattle forbidden to be used for burden were the Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah and Ham, as well as cattle for which the idolators did not mention Allah’s Name when slaughtering them nor when they were born. Abu Bakr bin Ayyash said that Asim bin Abi An-Najud said, “Abu Wa’il said to me, ‘Do you know the meaning of the Ayah, “And (they say) there are cattle forbidden to be used for burden, and cattle on which the Name of Allah is not pronounced.” I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘It is the Bahirah, which they would not use to for Hajj (either by riding it or carrying things on it).”’ (At-Tabari 12:144) Mujahid also said that they were some of the camels belonging to idolators on which Allah’s Name was not mentioned when riding, milking, carrying things, copulation or any other action. (At-Tabari 12:145) “lying against Him.” against Allah. The idolators indeed lied when they attributed this evil to Allah’s religion and Law; He did not allow them to do that nor did He approve of it, “He will recompense them for what they used to fabricate.” against Him, and falsely attribute to Him.

 

{139. And they say: “What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone, and forbidden to our females, but if it is born dead, then all have shares therein.” He will punish them for their attribution (of such false orders to Allah). Verily, He is All-Wise, All-Knower.}

 

Abu Ishaq As-Subayi narrated that Abdullah bin Abi Al-Hudhayl reported that Ibn Abbas said that, “And they say: “What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone…” refers to milk. Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said about this Ayah, “And they say: “What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone…” “It is about milk, which they prohibited for their females and allowed only their males to drink. When a sheep would give birth to a male sheep, they would slaughter it and feed it to their males, but not to their females. If the newly born lamb was a female, they would not slaughter it, but if it was stillborn, they would share in it (with their females)! Allah forbade this practice.” (At-Tabari 12:147) Similar was said by As-Suddi. (At-Tabari 12:148)

Ash-Shabi said, “The Bahirah’s milk was only given to the men. But if any cattle from the Bahirah died, both men and women would share in eating it.” Similar was said by Ikrimah, Qatadah and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.

Mujahid commented; “And they say: “What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone, and forbidden to our females…” “It refersto the Sa’ibah and the Bahirah.” (At-Tabari 12:148) Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid and Qatadah said that Allah’s statement, “He will punish them for their attribution.” means, uttering such falsehood. (At-Tabari 12:152) This is explained by Allah’s statement, “And say not concerning that which your tongues falsely utter: “This is lawful and this is forbidden.” so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper.” (16:116) Allah said, “Verily, He is All-Wise.” in His actions, statements, Law and decree, “All-Knower”, in the actions of His servants, whether good or evil, and He will recompense them for these deeds completely.

 

{140. Indeed lost are they who have killed their children, foolishly, without knowledge, and (they) have forbidden that which Allah has provided for them, inventing a lie against Allah. They have indeed gone astray and were not guided.}

 

Allah says that those who committed these evil acts have earned the loss of this life and the Hereafter. As for this life, they lost when they killed their children and made it difficult for themselves by prohibiting some types of their wealth, as an act of innovation that they invented on their own. As for the Hereafter, they will end up in the worst dwellings, because they used to lie about Allah and invent falsehood about Him. Allah also said, “Say: “Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah will never be successful.” (A brief) enjoyment in this world! And then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve.” (10:69-70)

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded that Ibn Abbas commented, “If it pleases you to know how ignorant the Arabs used to be, then recite the Ayat beyond Ayah one hundred and thirty in Surat Al-Anam, “Indeed lost are they who have killed their children, foolishly, without knowledge, and [they] have forbidden that which Allah has provided for them, inventing a lie against Allah. They have indeed gone astray and were not guided.”

Al-Bukhari also recorded this in the section of his Sahih on the virtues of the Quraysh. (Fath Al-Bari 6:636)

 

{141. And it is He Who produces gardens Marushat and not Marushat , and date palms, and crops of different shape and taste, and olives, and pomegranates, similar, and different. Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest, and waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not the wasteful.

142. And of the cattle (are some) for burden and (some smaller) for Farsh. Eat of what Allah has provided for you, and follow not the footstepsof Shaytan. Surely, he is to you an open enemy.}

 

Allah Created the Produce, Seed Grains and Cattle

Allah states that He created everything, including the produce, fruits and cattle that the idolators mishandled by their misguided ideas, dividing them into various designated parts, allowing some and prohibiting some. Allah said, “And it is He Who produces gardens Marushat and not Marushat”

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented, “Marushat refers to what the people trellise, while ‘not Marushat’ refers to fruits (and produce) that grow wild inland and on mountains.” (At-Tabari 12:156) Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that Ibn Abbas said, “Marushat are the grapevines that are trellised, while ‘not Marushat’ refers to grapevines that are not trellised.” As-Suddi said similarly. As for these fruits being similar, yet different, Ibn Jurayj said, “They are similar in shape, but different in taste.” (At-Tabari 12:157) Muhammad bin Kab said that the Ayah, “Eat of their fruit when they ripen” means, “(Eat) from the dates and grapes they produce.” (At-Tabari 12:157) Allah said next, “but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest,”

Mujahid commented, “When the poor people are present (on the day of harvest), give them some of the produce.” (At-Tabari 12:163) Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Mujahid commented on the Ayah, “but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest.” “When planting, one gives away handfuls (of seed grains) and on harvest, he gives away handfuls and allows them to pick whatever is left on the ground of the harvest.” (Abdur-Razzaq 2:219) Ath-Thawri said that Hammad narrated that Ibrahim An- Nakhai said, “One gives away some of the hay.” (At-Tabari 12:165) Ibn Al-Mubarak said that Shurayk said that Salim said that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented “but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest”

“This ruling, giving the poor the handfuls (of seed grains) and some of the hay as food for their animals, was before Zakah became obligatory.”

Allah has chastised those who harvest, without giving away a part of it as charity. Allah mentioned the story of the owners of the garden in Surat Nun, “When they swore to pluck the fruits of the (garden) in the morning. Without saying: “If Allah wills.” Then there passed by on the (garden) a visitation (fire) from your Lord at night, burning it while they were asleep. So the (garden) became black by the morning, like a pitch dark night (in complete ruins). Then they called out one to another as soon as the morning broke. Saying: “Go to your tilth in the morning, if you would pluck the fruits.” So they departed, conversing in secret low tones (saying). “No poor person shall enter upon you into it today.” And they went in the morning with strong intention, thinking that they have power (to prevent the poor taking anything of the fruits therefrom). But when they saw the (garden), they said: “Verily, we have gone astray.” (Then they said): “Nay! Indeed we are deprived of (the fruits)!” The best among them said: “Did I not tell you, why say you not: `If Allah wills’.” They said: “Glory to Our Lord! Verily, we have been wrongdoers.” Then they turned one against another, blaming. They said: “Woe to us! We have transgressed. We hope that our Lord will give us in exchange a better (garden) than this. Truly, we turn to our Lord.” Such is the punishment (in this life), but truly, the punishment of the Hereafter is greater if they but knew.” (68:18-33).

Prohibiting Extravagance

Allah said, And waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not the wasteful.”

It was said that the extravagance prohibited here refers to excessive charity beyond normal amounts. Ibn Jurayj said, “This Ayah was revealed concerning Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas, who plucked the fruits of his date palms. Then he said to himself,  ‘This day, every person who comes to me, I will feed him from it.’ So he kept feeding (them) until the evening came and he ended up with no dates. Allah sent down, ‘‘And waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not the wasteful.”

Ibn Jarir recorded this statement from Ibn Jurayj. However, thhe apparent meaning of this Ayah, and Allah knows best, is that; “Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest, and waste not…” refers to eating, meaning, do not waste in eating because this spoils the mind and the body. Allah said in another Ayah, “And eat and drink but waste not by extravagance.” (7: 31) In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded a Hadith without a chain of narration; “Eat, drink and clothe yourselves without extravagance or arrogance.” [The Book of Clothing, the first chapter, with slightly different wording. It was recorded with a complete chain by Ibn Majah, An-Nasai, and others.]

 Therefore, these Ayat have the same meaning as this Hadith. and Allah knows best.

Benefits of Cattle

Allah’s statement, And of the cattle (are some) for burden and (some smaller) for Farsh.” means, He created cattle for you, some of which are suitable for burden, such as camels, and some are Farsh. Ath- Thawri narrated that Abu Ishaq said that Abu Al-Ahwas said that Abdullah said that animals for burden’ are the camels that are used for carrying things, while, ‘Farsh’, refers to small camels. Al-Hakim recorded it and said, “Its chain is Sahih and they did not record it.” (Al-Hakim 2:317) Abdur- Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that animals for burden’ refers to the animals that people ride, while, ‘Farsh’ is that they eat (its meat) and milk it. The sheep is not able to carry things, so you eat its meat and use its wool for covers and mats (or clothes). (At-Tabari 12:181) This statement of Abdur- Rahman is sound, and the following Ayat testify to it, “Do they not see that We have created for them of what Our Hands have created, the cattle, so that they are their owners. And We have subdued them unto them so that some of them they have for riding and some they eat.” (36:71-72), and, “And verily, in the cattle, there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies, from between excretions and blood, pure milk; palatable to the drinkers.” (16:66), until, “And of their wool, fur and hair, furnishings and articles of convenience, comfort for a while.” (16:80).

Eat the Meat of These Cattle, But Do Not Follow Shaytan’s Law Concerning Them

Allah said, “Eat of what Allah has provided for you” of fruits, produce and cattle. Allah created all these and provided you with them as provision. “and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan.” meaning, his way and orders, just as the idolators followed him and prohibited fruits and produce that Allah provided for them, claiming that this falsehood came from Allah. “Surely, he is to you” meaning; Shaytan, O people, is to you, “an open enemy” and his enmity to you is clear and apparent. Allah said in other Ayat, “Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy. He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire.” (35:6) and, “O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytan deceive you, as he got your parents out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment, to show them their private parts.” (7:27) and, “Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.” (18:50) There are many other Ayat on this subject.

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