Surah Al-Ahzab Ayat 37-73 (end)

{37. And (remember) when you said to him on whom Allah has bestowed grace and you have done a favor: “Keep your wife to yourself, and have Taqwa of Allah.” But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him. So, when Zayd had completed his aim with her, We gave her to you in marriage, so that there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them. And Allah’s command must be fulfilled.}

Allah’s rebuke to His Messenger and the Story of Zayd and Zaynab

Allah tells what His Prophet said to his freed slave Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the one on whom Allah had bestowed grace, i.e., through Islam and following the Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him. “and you have done a favor [to him]” means, by freeing him from slavery. And he was a great leader, held in high esteem and beloved by the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him. He was known as the beloved, and his son Usamah was known as the beloved son of the beloved. A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “The Messenger of Allah never sent him on a campaign but he appointed him as its commander, and if he had lived after him he would have appointed him as his Khalifah.” This was recorded by Imam Ahmad. (Ahmad 6:227)

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, had given him in marriage to the daughter of his paternal aunt, Zaynab bint Jahsh Al-Asadiyyah, may Allah be pleased with her, whose mother was Umaymah bint Abd Al-Muttalib. For her dowry he gave her ten Dinars, sixty Dirhams, a veil, a cloak and a shirt, fifty Mudds of food and ten Mudds of dates. This was stated by Muqatil bin Hayyan. She stayed with him for a year, more or less, then problems arose between them. Zayd complained about her to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, who told him, “Stay with your wife and have Taqwa of Allah.” Allah says: “But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him.” (At-Tabari 20:274) Ibn Jarir narrated that A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “If Muhammad were to have concealed anything that was revealed to him of the Book of Allah, he would have concealed this Ayah: “But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him.” “So, when Zayd had completed his aim with her, We gave her to you in marriage,” meaning, ‘when her marriage to Zayd was over and he had separated from her, We married her to you,’ and the One Who was her Wali (guardian) in this marriage was Allah Himself, in the sense that He revealed to the Prophet that he should go in unto her without any Wali, contractual agreement, dowry or witnesses among mankind.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Thabit said that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “When Zaynab’s Iddah finished, may Allah be pleased with her, the Messenger of Allah said to Zayd bin Harithah,

“Go to her and tell her about me (that I want to marry her).”

So, he went to her and found her kneading dough. He (Zayd) said, ‘When I saw her I felt such respect for her that I could not even look at her and tell her what the Messenger of Allah had said, so I turned my back to her and stepped aside, and said, ‘O Zaynab! Rejoice, for the Messenger of Allah has sent me to propose marriage to you on his behalf.’ She said, ‘I will not do anything until I pray to my Lord, may He be glorified.’ So she went to the place where she usually prayed. Then Qur’an was revealed and the Messenger of Allah came and entered without permission. We were there when she entered upon the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, and for the wedding feast we offered bread and meat. Then the people left, and some men stayed behind conversing in the house after they had eaten. The Messenger of Allah went out and I followed him. He started to go around all the apartments of his wives, greeting them, and they said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how did you find your (new) wife?’ I do not know whether I or someone else told him that those people had left, so he went and entered the house, and I went to enter after him, but he drew the curtain between himself and I. The ruling of Hijab was revealed and he exhorted the people as Allah had exhorted them: “Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you.” This was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. (Ahmad 3:195)

Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Zaynab bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her, used to boast to the other wives of the Prophet , saying, ‘Your families arranged your marriages, but Allah arranged my marriage from above the seven heavens.”’ (Fath Al-Bari 13:415) In (our Tafsir of) Surat An-Nur we mentioned that Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Jahsh said: “Zaynab and A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with them, were boasting to one another; Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, said, ‘I am the one whose marriage was revealed from above the heaven.’ A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, ‘I am the one whose innocence was revealed from heaven.’ So, Zaynab conceded that, may Allah be pleased with her.” (At-Tabari 19:118) “so that there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them.” means, ‘We permitted you to marry her, and We did that so that there would no longer be any difficulty for the believers with regard to their marrying the ex-wives of their adopted sons.’ Before prophethood, the Messenger of Allah had adopted Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, and he was known as Zayd, the son of Muhammad. Allah put a stop to this when He said: “nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons” until: “Call them after their fathers, that is more just with Allah” (33:4-5). Then this was confirmed and made even clearer by the marriage of the Messenger of Allah to Zaynab bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her, when Zayd bin Harithah divorced her. Allah says in Ayat At-Tahrim: “the wives of your sons from your own loins” (4:23) which specifically excludes adopted sons. This custom (of adopting sons) was widespread among them. “And Allah’s command must be fulfilled.” means, ‘this that has happened was decreed by Allah and was inevitable.’ Allah knew that Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, would become one of the wives of the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him. “And Allah’s command must be fulfilled.” means, ‘this that has happened was decreed by Allah and was inevitable.’ Allah knew that Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, would become one of the wives of the Prophet. “There is no blame on the Prophet in that which Allah has made legal for him.” means, in that which has been permitted for him and which he has been commanded to do, i.e. his marrying Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her,, who had been divorced by his adopted son Zayd bin Harithah, “That has been Allah’s way with those who have passed away of old.” means this is the ruling of Allah for the Prophets who came before him. Allah would not command them to do anything for which they might be blamed. This is a refutation of those hypocrites who imagined that there was anything wrong with his marrying the ex-wife of Zayd, his freed slave and adopted son. “And the command of Allah is a decree determined.” means, His command which He has decreed must inevitably come to pass; nothing can prevent it or avert it, for whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not decree, does not happen.

{39. Those who convey the Message of Allah and fear Him, and fear none save Allah. And sufficient is Allah as a Reckoner.

40. Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.}

Praise for Those Who convey the Message

Allah says: “Those who convey the Message of Allah” meaning, to His creation, and fulfil that with which they have been entrusted. “and fear Him,” means, they fear Him and they do not fear any besides Him, so no threats on the part of anyone can prevent them from conveying the Message of Allah. “And sufficient is Allah as a Reckoner.” means, sufficient is Allah as a Helper and Supporter. The leader of all people in this regard and in all regards is Muhammad the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, for he undertook to convey the Message to the people of the east and of the west, to all kinds of the sons of Adam, so Allah caused his word, his religion and his law to prevail over all other religions and laws. The Prophets before him were sent only to their own peoples, but he was sent to all of mankind, Arabs and non-Arabs alike. “Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah” (7:158). Then his Ummah inherited the task of conveying from him, and the greatest of those who undertook this task after him were his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, who conveyed from him as he had commanded them, describing all his words, deeds and circumstances, night and day, when he was settled and when he was traveling, in private and in public, may Allah be pleased with them. Thereafter each generation inherited from their predecessors until our own time, so those who are guided, follow their example and their way. We ask Allah, the Most Generous Bestower, to make us among their heirs.

The Messenger is not the Father of any Man

Allah states: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men” After this it was not permitted to say Zayd bin Muhammad, i.e., he was not his father even though he had adopted him. No male child of the Prophet lived until puberty. Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her, bore him Al-Qasim, At-Tayyib and At-Tahir, but they died in childhood. Mariyah Al-Qibtiyyah bore him Ibrahim, but he also died in infancy. He also had four daughters from Khadijah: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah, may Allah be pleased with them all. Three of them died during his lifetime, Fatimah lived long enough to be bereaved of him, then she died six months later.

He is the Last of the Prophets “but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.” This is like the Ayah: “Allah knows best with whom to place His Message” (6:124). This Ayah clearly states that there will be no Prophet after him. If there will be no Prophet after him then there will surely be no Messenger after him either, because the status of a Messenger is higher than that of a Prophet, for every Messenger is a Prophet but the reverse is not the case. This was reported in many Mutawatir Hadiths narrated from the Messenger of Allah via a group of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

Imam Ahmad recorded a narration from Ubayy bin Kab, from his father that the Prophet said:

“My parable among the Prophets is that of a man who built a house and did a good and complete job, apart from the space of one brick which he did not put in its place. The people started to walk around the building, admiring it and saying, “If only that brick were put in its place. ” Among the Prophets, I am like that brick.” (Ahmad 5:136)

It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan Sahih.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 10:81)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“Messengership and Prophethood have come to an end, and there will be no more Messengers or Prophets.”

This worried the people, then he said:

“But there will be Al-Mubashshirat.”

They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, what are Al-Mubashshirat?’ He said,

“The dreams of a Muslim man, and they are one of the parts of prophethood.” (Ahmad 3:263)

This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Sahih Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 6:551)

Another Hadith

Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“The parable of myself and the Prophets is that of a man who built a house and did a complete and good job, except for the space of one brick. Whoever entered it would look at that space and say, how good it is, apart from the space of that brick. My position is like that of that brick, and the Prophets – blessings and peace be upon them – end with me.” (Musnad At-Tayalisi 247)

It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and At-Tirmidhi, who said, “It is Sahih Gharib with this chain of narrators.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:645)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Said Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“The parable of myself and the Prophets is that of a man who built a house and completed it apart from the space of one brick. I have come and completed that brick.” (Ahmad 3:9)

This was also recorded by Muslim. (Muslim 4:1791)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“The parable of myself and the Prophets who came before me is that of a man who built houses and made them complete and beautiful apart from the space of a brick in one of the corners. The people started to walk around, admiring the construction and saying, If only you put a brick here, your construction will be complete.”

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“And I am that brick.” (Ahmad 2:312)

It was also recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). (Bukhari no.3535, Muslim 4:371)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“I have been given preference over the other Prophets in six ways: I have been given the ability to speak concisely; I have been aided by fear (cast into the hearts of my enemies); the spoils of war have been made permissible for me; the entire earth has been made a Masjid and a means of purification for me; I have been sent to all of mankind; and the Prophets end with me.” (Muslim 1:371)

This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, “It is Hasan Sahih.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 5:160)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Said Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“The parable of myself and the Prophets who came before me is that of a man who built a house and completed it apart from the space of one brick. I have come and completed that brick.” (Ahmad 3:9)

It was also recorded by Muslim. (Muslim 4:1791)

Another Hadith

Jubayr bin Mutim, may Allah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, say:

“I have several names: I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi (the eradicator) through whom Allah will erase disbelief; I am Al-Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet mankind will gather; and I am Al-Aqib (the final one) after whom there will be no Prophet.” (Ahmad 4:80)

It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs.

And there are many other Hadiths on this topic.

Allah has told us in His Book, and His Messenger has told us in the Mutawatir Sunnah, that there will be no Prophet after him, so that it may be known that everyone who claims this status after him is a liar and fabricator who is misguided and is misguiding others. Even if he twists meanings, comes up with false claims and uses tricks and vagaries, all of this is false and is misguidance as will be clear to those who have understanding. This is what Allah caused to happen in the case of Al-Aswad Al-Ansi in the Yemen and Musaylimah the Liar in Al-Yamamah, whose false miracles and nonsensical words showed everyone who was possessed of understanding that they were liars who were leading people astray; may the curse of Allah be upon them both. This is the case with every false prophet until the Day of Resurrection, until they end with Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the Antichrist). Each of these liars is given by Allah signs which show the people of knowledge and the believers that his message is false – which is part of the perfect kindness of Allah towards His creation. These liars do not enjoin what is good, nor forbid what is evil, unless they do so by coincidence or because it serves an ulterior purpose. They are the utmost in falsehood and immorality, in all that they say and do, as Allah says: “Shall I inform you (O people!) upon whom the Shayatin descend They descend on every lying, sinful person.” (26:221-222) This is in contrast to the Prophets – may blessings and peace be upon them – for they are the utmost in righteousness, truthfulness, wisdom, uprightness and justice in all that they say and do, command and forbid. In addition to this they are supported with miracles and clear and obvious proof. May the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them always, as long as heaven and earth remain.

{41. O you who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.

42. And glorify His praises morning and Asila.

43. He it is Who sends Salah on you, and His angels too, that He may bring you out from darkness into light. And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.

44. Their greeting on the Day they shall meet Him will be “Salam (Peace!)” And He has prepared for them a generous reward.}

 

The Virtue of remembering Allah much

Allah commands His believing servants to remember their Lord much, Who has bestowed upon them all kinds of blessings and favors, because this will bring them a great reward and a wonderful destiny. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Busr said: “Two bedouins came to the Messenger of Allah and one of them said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, which of the people is best?’ He said:

“The one whose life is long and whose deeds are good.”

The other one said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, the laws of Islam are too much for us. Teach me something that I can adhere to.’ He said,

“Keep your tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah, may He be exalted.” (Ahmad 4:190)

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded the second part of this report. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Gharib”. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 6:621)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said,

“No people sit together without mentioning Allah, but they will see that as regret on the Day of Resurrection.” (Ahmad 2:224)

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah: “Remember Allah with much remembrance.” “Allah did not enjoin any duty upon His servants without setting known limits and accepting the excuses of those who have a valid excuse – apart from Dhikr, for Allah has not set any limits for it, and no one has any excuse for not remembering Allah unless he is oppressed and forced to neglect it. Allah says: “Remember Allah standing, sitting down, and (lying down) on your sides” (4:103). By night and by day, on land and on sea, when traveling and when staying home, in richness and in poverty, in sickness and in health, in secret and openly, in all situations and circumstances. And Allah says: “And glorify His praises morning and Asila.” If you do this, He and His angels will send blessings upon you.” (At-Tabari 20:280) There are very many Ayat, Hadiths and reports which encourage the remembrance of Allah, and this Ayah urges us to remember Him much. People such as An-Nasa’i and Al-Mamari and others have written books about the Adhkar to be recited at different times of the night and day. “And glorify His praises morning and Asila” in the morning and in the evening. This is like the Ayah: “He it is Who sends Salah on you, and His angels too,” This is encouragement to remember Allah, i.e., He will remember you, so remember Him. This is like the Ayah: “Similarly, We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, reciting to you Our Ayat and purifying you, and teaching you the Book and the Hikmah, and teaching you that which you used not to know. Therefore remember Me. I will remember you, and be grateful to Me and never be ungrateful to Me” (2:151-152) The Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“Allah says: “Whoever remembers Me to himself, I will remember him to Myself, and whoever remembers Me in a gathering, I will remember him in a better gathering.”

The Meaning of Salah

Allah’s Salah means that He praises His servant before the angels, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Al-Aliyah. This was recorded by Abu Jafar Ar-Razi from Ar-Rabi bin Anas from Anas. Others said: “Allah’s Salah means mercy.” It may be said that there is no contradiction between these two views. And Allah knows best. Salah from the angels means their supplication and seeking forgiveness for people, as Allah says: “Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (saying): “Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent and follow Your way, and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire! Our Lord! And make them enter the `Adn Garden which you have promised them — and to the righteous among their fathers, their wives, and their offspring! Verily, You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. And save them from the sins.” (40:7-9) “that He may bring you out from darkness into light.” means, by means of His mercy towards you, His praise of you and the supplication of His angels for you, He brings you forth from the darkness of ignorance and misguidance into the light of guidance and certain faith. “And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.” means, in this world and in the Hereafter: in this world He guides them to the truth of which others are ignorant, and He shows them the path from which others have gone astray, those who call for disbelief and innovation, and their followers among the wrongdoers. His mercy towards them in the Hereafter means that He will save them from the greater terror (of the Day of Resurrection) and will command His angels to greet them with the glad tidings of Paradise and salvation from the Fire, which will only be because of His love for them and His kindness towards them.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah and a group of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, passed by a young child in the road. When his mother saw the people, she feared that her child may be crushed by the crowd, so she rushed forward, crying, ‘My son, my son!’ She ran and picked him up, and the people said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, she would never throw her child in the Fire.’ The Messenger of Allah convincingly said:

“No, and Allah will not throw His beloved in the Fire.” (Ahmad 3:104)

Its chain of narrators meets the conditions of the Two Sahihs, although none of the authors of the Six Books recorded it. But in Sahih Al-Bukhari it is recorded from the Commander of the faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah saw a woman among the prisoners of war picking up her child, clasping the child to her breast and nursing him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“Do you think that this woman would throw her child into the Fire even though she is (physically) able to do so”

They said, “No.” The Messenger of Allah said:

“By Allah, Allah is more merciful towards His servants than this woman is to her child” (Fath Al-Bari 10:440) .

“Their greeting on the Day they shall meet Him will be “Salam!”

The apparent meaning – and Allah knows best – is that their greeting, from Allah on the Day that they meet Him, will be Salam, i.e., He will greet them with Salam, as He says elsewhere: “It will be said to them: Salam – a Word from the Lord, Most Merciful.” (36:58) Qatadah claimed that the meaning was that they would greet one another with Salam on the Day when they meet Allah in the Hereafter. This is like the Ayah: “Their way of request therein will be ‘Glory to You, O Allah,’ and ‘Salam’ will be their greetings therein! and the close of their request will be ‘All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all that exits.” (10:10) “And He has prepared for them a generous reward.” means Paradise and everything in it of food, drink, clothing, dwellings, physical pleasure, luxuries and delightful scenes, such as no eye has seen, no ear has heard and has never entered the mind of man.

{45. O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner,

46. And as one who invites to Allah by His leave, and as a lamp spreading light.

47. And announce to the believers the glad tidings, that they will have from Allah a great bounty.

48. And obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and harm them not. And put your trust in Allah, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee.}

 

The Attributes of the Messenger of Allah

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ata’ bin Yasar said that he met Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As, may Allah be pleased with him, and said to him:

“Tell me about the description of the Messenger of Allah in the Tawrah.” He said, “Yes, by Allah, he was described in the Tawrah with some of the qualities with which he was described in the Qur’an: ‘O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner, a saviour to the illiterate. You are My servant and My Messenger and I have called you Al-Mutawakkil (reliant). You are not harsh or severe, or noisy in the marketplaces. You do not repay evil with evil, but you overlook and forgive. Allah will not take your soul until you make straight those who have deviated and they say La ilaha illallah, words with which blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts will be opened’.” (Ahmad 2:174) It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Books of Business and At-Tafsir. (Fath Al-Bari 4:402)

Wahb bin Munabbih said: “Allah revealed to one of the Prophets of the Children of Israel whose name was Shaya’ (Isaiah); ‘Stand up among your people the Children of Israel and I shall cause your tongue to utter (words of) revelation. I shall send an unlettered (Prophet) from among the illiterate (people). He will not be harsh or severe, or noisy in the marketplaces. If he were to pass by a lamp, it would not be extinguished, because of his tranquillity. If he were to walk on reeds no sound would be heard from under his feet. I will send him as a bearer of glad tidings and as a warner, who will never utter immoral speech. Through him I will open blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts. I will guide him to do every good deed and I will bestow upon him every noble characteristic. I will make tranquillity his garment, righteousness his banner, piety his conscience, wisdom his speech, truthfulness and loyalty his nature, tolerance and goodness his character, truth his way, justice his conduct, guidance his leader, Islam his nation. Ahmad is his name and through him I will guide people after they have gone astray, teach them after they have been ignorant, raise their status after they were nothing, make them known after they were unknown, increase the number (of followers of the truth) after they have been few, make them rich after they have been poor, and bring them togther after they have been divided. Through him I will bring together different nations and hearts, and reconcile opposing desires. Through him I will save great numbers of people from their doom. I will make his Ummah the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; they will enjoin good and forbid evil, sincerely believing in Me Alone and accepting as truth all that My Messengers have brought. I shall inspire them to glorify, praise and magnify Me Alone in their places of worship and in their gatherings, when they lie down and when they return home. They will pray to Me standing and sitting. They will fight for the sake of Allah in ranks and armies. They will go forth from their homes by the thousand, seeking My pleasure, washing their faces and limbs, girding their loins. Their sacrifice will be their blood and their holy Book will be in their hearts. They will be like monks by night and like lions by day. Among the members of his family and his offspring I will make those who are foremost (in faith) and believers in the truth and martyrs and righteous people. His Ummah after him will lead people with truth and establish justice therewith. I will give strength to those who support them and help those who pray for them, and I will inflict defeat upon those who oppose them or transgress against them or seek to take something from their hands. I will make them the heirs of their Prophet, calling people to their Lord, enjoining what is good, forbidding what is evil, establishing regular prayer, paying the Zakah and fulfilling their promises. Through them I will complete the goodness which I started with the first of them. This is My bounty which I bestow upon whomsoever I will, and I am the Possessor of great bounty.”’ (Ibn Abi Hatim no.17714)

“as witness” means, a witness to Allah’s Oneness, for there is no God except He, and a witness against mankind for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection. “and We bring you as a witness against these people” (4:41). This is like the Ayah: “that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you” (2:143). “and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.” means, a bearer of glad tidings to the believers of a great reward, and a warner to the disbelievers of a great punishment. “And as one who invites to Allah by His leave,” means, ‘you call mankind to worship their Lord because He has commanded you to do so. ‘ “and as a lamp spreading light.” means, ‘the Message that you bring is as clear as the sun shining brightly, and no one can deny it except those who are stubborn.’ “And obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and harm them not.” means, ‘do not obey them and do not pay attention to what they say.’ “and harm them not.” means, ‘overlook and ignore them, for their matter rests entirely with Allah and He is sufficient for them “to deal with them”.’ Allah says: “And put your trust in Allah, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee.”

{49. O you who believe! When you marry believing women, and then divorce them before you have sexual intercourse with them, no Iddah have you to count in respect of them. So, give them a present, and set them free in a handsome manner.”

A Gift and no (Iddah) for Women Who are divorced before Consummation of the Marriage

This Ayah contains many rulings, including the use of the word Nikah for the marriage contract alone. There is no other Ayah in the Qur’an that is clearer than this on this point. It also indicates that it is permissible to divorce a woman before consummating the marriage with her. “believing women” this refers to what is usually the case, although there is no difference between a believing (Muslim) woman and a woman of the People of the Book in this regard, according to scholarly consensus. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Said bin Al-Musayyib, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ali bin Al-Husayn Zayn-ul-Abidin and a group of the Salaf took this Ayah as evidence that divorce cannot occur unless it has been preceded by marriage, because Allah says, “When you marry believing women, and then divorce them” The marriage contract here is followed by divorce, which indicates that the divorce cannot be valid if it comes first. (At-Tabari 20:283)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “If someone were to say, ‘every woman I marry will ipso facto be divorced,’ this does not mean anything, because Allah says: “O you who believe! When you marry believing women, and then divorce them…..” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 5:392) It was also reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “Allah said, “When you marry believing women, and then divorce them.” Do you not see that divorce comes after marriage?”

A Hadith to the same effect was recorded from Amr bin Shuayb from his father from his grandfather, who said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“There is no divorce for the son of Adam with regard to that which he does not possess.”

This was recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, “This is a Hasan Hadith, and it is the best thing that has been narrated on this matter.” (Ahmad 2:207) It was also recorded by Ibn Majah from Ali and Al-Miswar bin Makhramah, may Allah be pleased with them, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“There is no divorce before marriage.” (Ibn Majah 1:660)

“no Iddah have you to count in respect of them.” This is a command on which the scholars are agreed, that if a woman is divorced before the marriage is consummated, she does not have to observe the Iddah (prescribed period for divorce) and she may go and get married immediately to whomever she wishes. The only exception in this regard is a woman whose husband died, in which case she has to observe an Iddah of four months and ten days even if the marriage was not consummated. This is also according to the consensus of the scholars. “So, give them a present, and set them free in a handsome manner.” The present here refers to something more general than half of the named dowery or a special gift that has not been named. Allah says: “And if you divorce them before you have touched (had a sexual relation with) them, and you have fixed unto them their due (dowry) then pay half of that” (2:237). And Allah says: “There is no sin on you, if you divorce women while yet you have not touched them, nor fixed unto them their due (dowry). But bestow on them gift, the rich according to his means, and the poor according to his means, a gift of reasonable amount is a duty on the doers of good.” (2:236) In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it was recorded that Sahl bin Sad and Abu Usayd, may Allah be pleased with them both, said, “The Messenger of Allah married Umaymah bint Sharahil, and when she entered upon him he reached out his hand towards her, and it was as if she did not like that, so he told Abu Usayd to give her two garments.” (Fath Al-Bari 9:269) Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said “If the dowry had been named, she would not be entitled to more than half, but if the dowry is not been named, he should give her a gift according to his means, and this is the “handsome manner.” (At-Tabari 20:283)

{50. O Prophet! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their due (dowry), and those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses – whom Allah has given to you, and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts who migrated with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her – a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (slaves) whom their right hands possess, in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

The Women who are Lawful for the Prophet

Allah says, addressing His Prophet that He has made lawful for him of women his wives to whom he has given the dowery, which is what is meant by “their due”, which is used here, as was stated by Mujahid and others. (At-Tabari 20:284) The dowery which he gave to his wives was twelve and half Uqiyah (measures of gold) so they all received five hundred Dirhams except for Umm Habibah bint Abi Sufyan, to whom An-Najashi, may Allah have mercy on him, gave four hundred Dinars (on behalf of the Prophet) Safiyyah bint Huyay, whom he chose from among the prisoners of Khaybar, then he set her free, making her release her dowery. A similar case was that of Juwayriyah bint Al-Harith Al-Mustalaqiyyah – he paid off the contract to buy her freedom from Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas and married her. May Allah be pleased with them all. “those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses whom Allah has given to you,” means, ‘the slave-girls whom you took from the war booty are also permitted to you.’ He owned Safiyyah and Juwayriyah, then he manumitted them and married them, and he owned Rayhanah bint Shamun An-Nadariyyah and Mariyah Al-Qibtiyyah, the mother of his son Ibrahim, upon him be peace; they were both among the prisoners, may Allah be pleased with them. “and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts” This is justice which avoids going to either extreme, for the Christians do not marry a woman unless there are seven grandfathers between the man and the woman (i.e., they are very distantly related or not at all), and the Jews allow a man to marry his brother’s daughter or his sister’s daughter. So the pure and perfect Shariah came to cancel out the extremes of the Christians, and permitted marriage to the daughter of a paternal uncle or aunt, or the daughter of a maternal uncle or aunt, and forbade the excesses of the Jews who allowed marriage to the daughter of a brother or sister which is an abhorrent thing. “and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her – a privilege for you only,” means, ‘also lawful for you, O Prophet, is a believing woman if she offers herself to you, to marry her without a dowery, if you wish to do so.’ This Ayah includes two conditions.

Imam Ahmad recorded from Sahl bin Sad As-Saidi that a woman came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Messenger of Allah, verily, I offer myself to you (for marriage).” She stood there for a long time, then a man stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah, marry her to me if you do not want to marry her.” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Do you have anything that you could give to her as a dowry?”

He said, “I have only this garment of mine.” The Messenger of Allah said:

“If you give her your garment, you will be left with no garment. Look for something.”

He said, “I do not have anything.” He said:

“Look for something, even if it is only an iron ring.”

So he looked, but he could not find anything. Then the Messenger of Allah said to him:

“Do you have [know] anything of the Qur’an?”

He said, “Yes, Surah such and such and Surah and such,” he named the Surahs. So, the Messenger of Allah said:

“I marry her to you with what you know of the Qur’an.” (Ahmad 5:336)

It was also recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) from the Hadith of Malik. (Fath Al-Bari 9:97)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded a narration from his father that A’ishah said: “The woman who offered herself to the Prophet was Khawlah bint Hakim.” (Al-Bayhaqi 7:55) Al-Bukhari recorded that A’ishah said, “I used to feel jealous of those women who offered themselves to the Prophet and I said, ‘Would a woman offer herself?’ When Allah revealed the Ayah: “You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you” I said, ‘I see that your Lord hastens to confirm your desires.”’ (Fath Al-Bari 8:385)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah did not have any wife who offered herself to him.” This was recorded by Ibn Jarir. In other words, he did not accept any of those who offered themselves to him, even though they were lawful for him -a ruling which applied to him alone. The matter was left to his own choice, as Allah says: “and (if) the Prophet wishes to marry her” meaning, if he chooses to do so. “a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers.” Ikrimah said: “This means, it is not permissible for anyone else to marry a woman who offers herself to him; if a woman offers herself to a man, it is not permissible for him (to marry her) unless he gives her something.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:631) This was also the view of Mujahid, Ash-Shabi and others. (At-Tabari 20:286) In other words, if a woman offers herself to a man, when he consummates the marriage, he has to give her a dowry like that given to any other woman of her status, as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, ruled in the case of Barwa bint Washiq when she offered herself in marriage; the Messenger of Allah ruled that she should be given a dowry that was appropriate for a woman like her after her husband died. Death and consummation are the same with regard to the confirmation of the dowry, and the giving of a dowery appropriate to the woman’s status in the case of those who offer themselves to men other than the Prophet is an established ruling. With regard to the Prophet himself, he is not obliged to give a dowery to a woman who offers herself to him, even if he consummated the marriage, because he has the right to marry without a dowery, Wali (representative) or witnesses, as we have seen in the story of Zaynab bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her. Qatadah said, concerning the Ayah: “a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers.” no woman has the right to offer herself to any man without a Wali or a dowry, except to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. (At-Tabari 20:286) “Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (servants) whom their right hands possess,” Ubayy bin Kab, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn Jarir said, concerning the Ayah: “Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives” means, ‘concerning the limiting of their number to four free women (At-Tabari 20:290), and whatever they wish of slave-girls, and the conditions of a representative, dowery and witnesses to the marriage. This is with regard to the Ummah (the people), but We have granted an exemption in your case and have not imposed any of these obligations upon you.’ “in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

This is the end of Volume 7 la hawlah wa la quwatta illah billah

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Vol 7 (Abridged) Pages 695-724

{51. You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you: that is better that they may be comforted and not grieved, and may all be pleased with what you give them. Allah knows what is in your hearts. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.}

 

The Prophet has the Choice of either accepting or rejecting Women who offer Themselves to Him

Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, used to feel jealous of the women who offered themselves to the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him. She said, “Would a woman not feel shy to offer herself without any dowry?” Then Allah revealed the Ayah, “You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will.” She said, “I think that your Lord is hastening to confirm your desire.” (Ahmad 6:158) We have already stated that Al-Bukhari also recorded this. (Fath Al-Bari 8:385) This indicates that what is meant by the word: (postpone) is delay, and “whom you will of them” means, ‘of those who offer themselves to you.’ “and you may receive whom you will.” means, ‘whoever you wish, you may accept, and whoever you wish, you may decline, but with regard to those whom you decline, you have the choice of going back to them later on and receiving them.’ Allah says: “And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you (to receive her again).” Others said that what is meant by: “You can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them,” means, ‘your wives: there is no sin on you if you stop dividing your time equally between them, and delay the turn of one of them and bring forward the turn of another as you wish, and you have intercourse with one and not another as you wish.’ This was narrated from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Abu Razin, Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others.

Nevertheless, the Prophet used to divide his time between them equally, hence a group of the scholars of Fiqh among the Shafi’s and others said that equal division of time was not obligatory for him and they used this Ayah as their evidence.

Al-Bukhari recorded that A’ishah said: “The Messenger of Allah used to ask permission of us (for changing days) after this Ayah was revealed: “You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you.” I (the narrator) said to her: “What did you say?” She said, “I said, ‘If it were up to me, I would not give preference to anyone with regard to you, O Messenger of Allah!” (Fath Al-Bari 8:385)

This Hadith indicates that what is meant in this Hadith from A’ishah is that it was not obligatory on him to divide his time equally between his wives. The first Hadith quoted from her implies that the Ayah was revealed concerning the women who offered themselves to him. Ibn Jarir prefered the view that the Ayah was general and applies both to the women who offered themselves to him and to the wives that he already had, and that he was given the choice whether to divide him time among them or not. (At-Tabari 20:304) This is a good opinion which reconciles between the Hadiths.

Allah says: “that is better that they may be comforted and not grieved, and may all be pleased with what you give them.” meaning, ‘if they know that Allah has stated that there is no sin on you with regard to dividing your time. If you wish, you may divide you time and if you do not wish, you need not divide your time, there is no sin on you no matter which you do. Therefore if you divide your time between them, this will be your choice, and not a duty that is enjoined upon you, so they will feel happy because of that and will recognize your favor towards them in sharing your time equally among them and being fair to all of them.’ “Allah knows what is in your hearts.” means, ‘He knows that you are more inclined towards some of them than others, which you cannot avoid.’ Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah said: “The Messenger of Allah used to divide his time between his wives fairly and treat them equally, then he said:

“O Allah, I have done as much as I can with regard to what is under my control, so do not blame me for that which is under Your control and not mine.” (Ahmad 6:144)

It was also recorded by the four Sunan compilers. After the words “so do not blame me for that which is under Your control and not mine,” Abu Dawud’s report adds the phrase: “So do not blame me for that which is under Your control and not mine.” meaning matters of the heart. (Abu Dawud 2:601) Its chain of narration is Sahih, and all the men in its chain are reliable.

Then this phrase is immediately followed by the words, “And Allah is Ever All-Knowing,” i.e., of innermost secrets, “Most Forbearing.” meaning, He overlooks and forgives.

{52. It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this, nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you, except those whom your right hand possesses. And Allah is Ever a Watcher over all things.}

The Reward of His Wives for choosing to stay with the Messenger

More than one of the scholars, such as Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd, Ibn Jarir and others (At-Tabari 20:297) stated that this Ayah was revealed as a reward to the wives of the Prophet expressing Allah’s pleasure with them for their excellent decision in choosing Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, when the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave them the choice, as we have stated above. When they chose the Messenger of Allah their reward was that Allah restricted him to these wives, and forbade him to marry anyone else or to change them for other wives, even if he was attracted by their beauty – apart from slave-girls and prisoners of war, with regard to whom there was no sin on him. Then Allah lifted the restriction stated in this Ayah and permitted him to marry more women (Ahmad 6:41), but he did not marry anyone else, so that the favor of the Messenger of Allah towards them would be clear.

Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “The Messenger of Allah did not die until Allah permitted (marriage to other) women for him.” (See Surat Al-Ahzab 33:50) It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i in their Sunans. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:78)

On the other hand, others said that what was meant by the Ayah, “It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this,” means, ‘after the description We have given of the women who are lawful for you, those to whom you have given their dowery, those whom your right hand possesses, and daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, maternal uncles and aunts, and those who offer themselves to you in marriage – other kinds of women are not lawful for you.’ This view was narrated from Ubayy bin Kab, from Mujahid in one report which was transmitted from him, and others.

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah was forbidden to marry certain kinds of women apart from believing women who had migrated with him, in the Ayah, “It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this, nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you, except those whom your right hand possesses.” Allah has made lawful believing women, and believing women who offered themselves to the Prophet for marriage, and He made unlawful every woman who followed a religion other than Islam, as Allah says: “And whosoever disbelieves in faith, then fruitless is his work” (5:5). Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy on him, stated that this Ayah is general in meaning and applies to all the kinds of women mentioned and the women to whom he was married, who were nine. What he said is good, and may be what many of the Salaf meant, for many of them narrated both views from him, and there is no contradiction between the two. And Allah knows best. “nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you,” He was forbidden to marry more women, even if he were to divorce any of them and wanted replace her with another, except for those whom his right hand possessed (slave women).

{53. O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.

54. Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.}

 

The Etiquette of entering the Houses of the Prophet and the Command of Hijab

This is the Ayah of Hijab, which includes several legislative rulings and points of etiquette. This is one of the cases where the revelation confirmed the opinion of Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, as it was reported in the Two Sahihs that he said: “My view coincided with that of my Lord in three things. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, why do you not take Maqam Ibrahim as a place of prayer’ Then Allah revealed: “And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer” (2:125) And I said, `O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people enter upon your wives, so why do you not screen them’ Then Allah revealed the Ayah of Hijab. And I said to the wives of the Prophet when they conspired against him out of jealousy, “It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you” (66:5), and this is what Allah revealed.” (Fath Al-Bari 1:60)

In a report recorded by Muslim, the prisoners of Badr are mentioned, and this is a fourth matter (in which the view of Umar coincided with that of his Lord). (Muslim 4:1765)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said: “Umar bin Al-Khattab said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people enter upon you, so why not instruct the Mothers of the believers to observe Hijab’ Then Allah revealed the Ayah of Hijab.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:387)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “When the Messenger of Allah married Zaynab bint Jahsh, he invited the people to eat, then they sat talking. When he wanted to get up, they did not get up. When he saw that, he got up anyway, and some of them got up, but three people remained sitting. The Prophet wanted to go in, but these people were sitting, then they got up and went away. I came and told the Prophet that they had left, then he came and entered. I wanted to follow him, but he put the screen between me and him. Then Allah revealed, “O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse…” (Fath Al-Bari 8:387)

Al-Bukhari also recorded this elsewhere. It was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. (Muslim 2:1050)

Then Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said: “The Prophet married Zaynab bint Jahsh with (a wedding feast of) meat and bread. I sent someone to invite people to the feast, and some people came and ate, then left. Then another group came and ate, and left. I invited people until there was no one left to invite. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I cannot find anyone else to invite.’ He said,

“Take away the food.”

There were three people left who were talking in the house. The Prophet went out until he came to the apartment of A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, and he said,

“May peace be upon you, members of the household, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.”

She said, ‘And upon you be peace and the mercy of Allah. How did you find your (new) wife, O Messenger of Allah May Allah bless you.’ He went round to the apartments of all his wives, and spoke with them as he had spoken with A’ishah, and they spoke as A’ishah had spoken. Then the Prophet came back, and those three people were still talking in the house. The Prophet was extremely shy, so he went out and headed towards A’ishah’s apartment. I do not know whether I told him or someone else told him when the people had left, so he came back, and when he was standing with one foot over the threshold and the other foot outside, he placed the curtain between me and him, and the Ayah of Hijab was revealed.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:388)

This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari among the authors of the Six Books, apart from An-Nasa’i, in Al-Yaum wal-Laylah. (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:75) “Enter not the Prophet’s houses,” the believers were prohibited from entering the houses of the Messenger of Allah without permission, as they used to do during the Jahiliyyah and at the beginning of Islam, until Allah showed His jealousy over this Ummah and commanded them to seek permission. This is a sign of His honoring this Ummah. Hence the Messenger of Allah said: “Beware of entering upon women…” (Muslim 4:1711) Then Allah makes an exception, when He says: “unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation.” Mujahid, Qatadah and others said: “This means, without waiting for the food to be prepared.” (At-Tabari 20:306) In other words, do not watch the food as it is being cooked to see if it is nearly ready, then come and enter the house, because this is one of the things that Allah dislikes and condemns. This indicates that it is forbidden to watch out for food being prepared, which is what the Arabs called Tatfil “being an uninvited guest”. Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi wrote a book condemning those who watch out for food being prepared, and mentioned more things about this topic than we can quote here. Then Allah says: “But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse” In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that Ibn Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“When anyone of you invites his bother, let him respond, whether it is for a wedding or for any other reason.” (Muslim 2:1053)

Allah says: “without sitting for a talk.” meaning, as those three people did who stayed behind and chatted, and forgot themselves to such an extent that this caused inconvenience for the Messenger of Allah as Allah says: “Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go)” It was said that what was meant was, your entering his houses without permission causes him inconvenience and annoyance, but he did not like to forbid them to do so because he felt too shy,’ until Allah revealed that this was forbidden. Allah says: “but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth.” meaning, ‘this is why He is forbidding and prohibiting you from doing that.’ Then Allah says: “And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen,” meaning, ‘just as it is forbidden for you to enter upon them, it is forbidden for you to look at them at all. If anyone of you has any need to take anything from them, he should not look at them, but he should ask for whatever he needs from behind a screen.

Prohibition of Annoying the Messenger and the Statement that His Wives are Unlawful for the Muslims

“And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said concerning the Ayah; “And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger,” “This was revealed concerning a man who wanted to marry one of the wives of the Prophet after he died. A man said to Sufyan, ‘Was it A’ishah?’ He said, ‘That is what they said.”’ (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:643) This was also stated by Muqatil bin Hayyan and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. He also reported with his chain of narration from As-Suddi that the one who wanted to do this was Talhah bin Ubaydullah, may Allah be pleased with him, until this Ayah was revealed forbidding that. Hence the scholars were unanimous in stating that it was forbidden for anyone to marry any of the women who were married to the Messenger of Allah at the time when he died, because they are his wives in this world and in the Hereafter, and they are the Mothers of the believers, as stated previously.

Allah regarded that as a very serious matter, and issued the sternest of warnings against it, as He said: “Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.” Then He said: “Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.” meaning, ‘whatever you conceal in your innermost thoughts, it is not hidden from Him at all.’ “Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal.” (40:19).

{55. It is no sin on them before their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or the sons of their sisters, or their own (believing) women, or their (female) slaves. And (O ladies) have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Witness over everything.}

Relatives before Whom a Woman does not need to observe Hijab

When Allah commands women to observe Hijab in front of men to whom they are not related, He explains who are the relatives before whom they do not need to observe Hijab. This is like the exceptions stated in Surat An-Nur, where Allah says: “And not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands’ fathers, or their sons, or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or their right hand possessions, or the Tabi`in among men who do not have desire, or small children who are not aware of the nakedness of women.” (24:31). The Ayah contains more detail than this, which we have already discussed in the Tafsir of the Ayah and do not need to repeat here.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Ash-Shabi and Ikrimah said concerning the Ayah, “It is no sin on them before their fathers…” I said, “What about the paternal uncle and the maternal uncle – why are they not mentioned” He said: “Because they may describe her to their sons, so it is disliked for a woman to remove her covering in front of her paternal uncle or maternal uncle.” (At-Tabari 20:318) “or their own women” means that they do not have to observe Hijab in front of other believing women. “or their (female) slaves.” Said bin Al-Musayyib said: “This means female slaves only.” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. “And (O ladies) have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Witness over everything.” means, and fear Him in private and in public, for He witnesses all things and nothing is hidden from Him, so think of the One Who is always watching.

{56. Allah sends His Salah on the Prophet, and also His angels (do so). O you who believe! Send your Salah on him, and greet him with Taslim.}

The Command to say Salah upon the Prophet

Al-Bukhari said: “Abu Al-Aliyah said: “Allah’s Salah is His praising him before the angels, and the Salah of the angels is their supplication.” Ibn Abbas said: “They send blessings.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:392) Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi said: “This was narrated from Sufyan Ath-Thawri and other scholars, who said: ‘The Salah of the Lord is mercy, and the Salah of the angels is their seeking forgiveness.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwaddhi 2:610)

There are Mutawatir Hadiths narrated from the Messenger of Allah commanding us to send blessings on him and how we should say Salah upon him. We will mention as many of them as we can, if Allah wills, and Allah is the One Whose help we seek.

In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Kab bin Ujrah said, “It was said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, with regard to sending Salam upon you, we know about this, but how about Salah’ He said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are the Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. O Allah, send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:392)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abi Layla said that Kab bin Ujrah met him and said, “Shall I not give you a gift? The Messenger of Allah came out to us and we said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! We know how to send Salam upon you, but how can we send Salah?’ He said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are the Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. O Allah, send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.”

This Hadith has been recorded by the Group in their books with different chains of narration.

Another Hadith

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Said Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, this is the Salam upon you, but how do we send Salah upon you?’ He said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad, Your servant and Messenger, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim.”

Abu Salih narrated that Layth said:

“Upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim.”

Ibrahim bin Hamzah told that, Ibn Abi Hazim and Ad-Darawardi told, that Yazid, i.e., Ibn Al-Had said:

“As You sent Your Salah upon Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:392)

This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah. (An-Nasai 3:49)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Humayd As-Saidi that they said: “O Messenger of Allah, how can we send Salah upon you?” He said,

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and his wives and offspring, as You sent Your Salah upon Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and his wives and offspring, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.”’ (Ahmad 5:424)

It was also recorded by the rest of the Group, apart from At-Tirmidhi. (Fath Al-Bari 11:157)

Another Hadith

Muslim recorded that Abu Masud Al-Ansari said: “We came to the Messenger of Allah and we were with Sad bin Ubadah. Bashir bin Sad said to him, ‘Allah has commanded us to send Salah upon you, O Messenger of Allah. How can we send Salah upon you?’ The Messenger of Allah remained quiet for so long that we wished that he had not asked him, then the Messenger of Allah said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim among all people, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.” And the Salam is as you know.” (Muslim 1:305)

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “It is Hasan Sahih.” (Abu Dawud 1:600)

Saying Salah upon the Prophet before the Supplication

Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi reported the following Hadith and graded it Sahih; An-Nasai, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban recorded in their Sahihs that Fadalah bin Ubayd, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah heard a man making supplication in his prayer when he had not praised Allah or said Salah upon the Prophet . The Messenger of Allah said:

“This man is rushing.”

Then he called him over and said, to him or to someone else,

“When any one of you supplicates, let him start by praising and glorifying Allah, may He be exalted, then let him send Salah upon the Prophet, and after that let him make supplication as he wishes.” (Ahmad 6:18)

The Virtue of saying Salah upon the Prophet

 

Another Hadith

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ubayy bin Kab said: “When two thirds of the night had passed, the Messenger of Allah would get up and say,

“O people, remember Allah, remember Allah, the first blast of the Trumpet has come and will be followed by the second blast, death has come with all its horrors, death has come with all its horrors.”

Ubayy said, “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I send a lot of Salah upon you, how much of my prayer should be Salah upon you?’ He said,

“Whatever you want.”

I said, ‘A quarter?’ He said,

“Whatever you want, but if you increase it, it will be better for you.”

I said, ‘Half?’ He said,

“Whatever you want, but if you increase it, it will be better for you.”

I said, ‘Two thirds?’ He said,

“Whatever you want, but if you increase it, it will be better for you.”

I said, ‘Should I make my whole prayer for you?’ He said,

“This would be sufficient to relieve your distress and earn you forgiveness of your sins.”

Then he said: “This is a Hasan Hadith.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:152)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Talhah said that the Messenger of Allah came one day looking happy. They said, “O Messenger of Allah, we see that you look happy.” He said,

“The angel came to me and told me, “O Muhammad, would it not please you if your Lord, may He be glorified, says: ‘No member of your Ummah sends Salah upon you but I send Salah upon him tenfold, and no member of your Ummah sends greetings of Salam upon you but I send greetings of Salam upon him tenfold”’ I said, “Of course.” (Ahmad 4:30)

This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i. (An-Nasai 3:44)

Another Chain of Narration

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Talhah Al-Ansari said: “One morning the Messenger of Allah was in a cheerful mood and looked happy. They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, this morning you are in a cheerful mood and look happy.’ He said,

“Of course, just now someone [an angel] came to me from my Lord and said, “Whoever among your Ummah sends Salah upon you, Allah will record for him ten good deeds and will erase for him ten evil deeds, and will raise his status by ten degrees, and will return his greeting with something similar to it.” (Ahmad 4:29)

This is also a good chain, although they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not report it.

Another Hadith

Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“Whoever sends one Salah upon me, Allah will send ten upon him.”

At-Tirmidhi said: “This is a Sahih Hasan Hadith. On the same topic, narrations come from Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, Amir bin Rabiah, Ammar, Abu Talhah, Anas and Ubayy bin Kab.” (Muslim 1:306)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:

“Send Salah upon me, for this is Zakah for you, and ask Allah to grant me Al-Wasilah, for it is a position in the highest part of Paradise which only one man will attain, and I hope that I will be the one.”

This was recorded only by Ahmad. (Ahmad 2:365)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Husayn bin Ali said that the Messenger of Allah said:

“The miser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned, then he does not send Salah upon me.”

Abu Said said:

“…and he does not send Salah upon me.” (Ahmad 1:201)

This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who then said: “This Hadith is Hasan Gharib, Sahih.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:531)

Another Hadith

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“May he be humiliated, the man in whose presence I am mentioned and he does not send Salah upon me; may he be humiliated, the man who sees the month of Ramadan come and go, and he is not forgiven; may he be humiliated, the man whose parents live to old age and they do not cause him to be granted admittance to Paradise.”

Then he (At-Tirmidhi) said: “Hasan Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:530)

Occasions for saying Salah upon Him

It is reported that we should send blessings upon him on many occasions, such as following the call to prayer, as in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As, who said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say:

“When you hear the Mu’adhdhin, repeat what he says, then send Salah upon me, for whoever sends Salah upon me, Allah will send Salah upon him tenfold. Then ask Allah to grant me Al-Wasilah, which is a status in Paradise to which only one of the servants of Allah will be entitled, and I hope that I will be the one. Whoever asks Allah for Al-Wasilah for me, it will be permitted for me to intercede for him.” (Ahmad 2:168)

This was recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i. (Muslim 1:288)

Other occasions when we should send Salah upon the Prophet include when entering or exiting the Masjid, because of the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah who said: “When the Messenger of Allah entered the Masjid, he would send Salah and Salam upon Muhammad, and say,

“O Allah, forgive me my sins and open for me the gates of Your mercy”

When he exited, he would send Salah and Salam upon Muhammad, and say,

“O Allah, forgive me my sins and open for me the gates of Your bounty.” (Ahmad 6:282)

We should also send Salah upon him during the Funeral prayer. The Sunnah is to recite Surat Al-Fatihah following the first Takbir, to send Salah upon the Prophet during the second Takbir, to make supplication for the deceased during the third Takbir, and in the fourth Takbir to say, “O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward, and do not test us after him.”

Ash-Shafi, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah bin Sahl bin Hunayf was told by one of the Companions of the Prophet that the Sunnah in the funeral prayer is for the Imam to pronounce the Takbir, then to recite Surat Al-Fatihah silently after the first Takbir, then to send Salah upon the Prophet then to offer sincere supplication for the deceased, but not to recite any Qur’an in any of the Takbirs, then to conclude by saying Salam silently. (Musnad Ash-Shafi p210) An-Nasa’i also recorded this from Abu Umamah, who said, “This is from the Sunnah,” and he mentioned it. (An-Nasai 4:75) According to the correct view, such a statement reported from a Companion carries the ruling of Marfu. [Here the meaning is that the statement; “this is from the Sunnah” coming from a Companion means that it carries the ruling of having come from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, himself.]

It is recommended to conclude supplications with Salah upon the Prophet. At-Tirmidhi recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said: “A supplication remains suspended between heaven and earth and does not ascend any further until you send Salah upon your Prophet.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 2:610)

This was also narrated by Muadh bin Al-Harith from Abu Qurrah from Said bin Al-Musayyib from Umar, as a saying of the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. (Takhrij Al-Kashshaf by Ibn Hajar p137) It was also recorded by Razin bin Muawiyah in his book, where he also attributed it to the Prophet reporting that he said:

“A supplication remains suspended between heaven and earth and does not ascend any further until a person sends Salah on me. Do not treat me like a spare water container, send Salah upon me at the beginning of your supplication, at the end and in the middle.” (Jami Al-Usul 4:155)

Sending Salah upon the Prophet is even more strongly encouraged in the Qunut supplication. Ahmad, the Sunan compilers, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim recorded that Al-Hasan bin Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah taught me some words to say during Al-Witr:

“O Allah, guide me along with those whom You have guided, grant me health along with those to whom You have granted health, be an ally to me along with those to whom You are an ally, and bless me for that which You have bestowed. Protect me from the evil You have decreed, for verily You decree and none can decree over You. Verily, he whom You show allegiance to is never abased and he whom You take as an enemy is never honored and mighty, O our Lord, blessed and Exalted are You.”

In his Sunan, An-Nasa’i has the addition, “and may Allah bless Muhammad.” at the end of this Qunut. (Ahmad 1:199) It is also recommended to say plenty of Salah upon him on Friday and on the eve of Friday. (Thursday night) Imam Ahmad recorded that Aws bin Aws Ath-Thaqafi, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“One of the best of your days is Friday; on this day Adam was created and died, on this day the Trumpet (Sur) will be blown and all will have swoon away. So on this day send plenty of Salah upon me, for your Salah will be presented to me.”

They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how will they be shown to you after your body has dispersed into the earth’ He said,

“Allah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets.” (Ahmad 4:8)

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, and it was graded Sahih by Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibban, Ad-Daraqutni and An-Nawawi in Al-Adhkar. (Abu Dawud 1:635)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 17-42

{57. Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in this world and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating torment.

58. And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, they bear the crime of slander and plain sin.}

Whoever annoys Allah and His Messenger, is cursed in this World and the Hereafter

Here, Allah warns and threatens those who annoy Him by going against His commands and doing that which He has forbidden, and who persist in doing so, and those who annoy His Messenger by accusing him of having faults or shortcomings – Allah forbid. Ikrimah said that the Ayah: “Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger” was revealed concerning those who make pictures or images. (At-Tabari 20:322)

In The Two Sahihs, it is reported that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“Allah says: “The son of Adam annoys Me by inveighing against time, but I am time, for I cause the alternation of night and day.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:437)

The meaning of this Hadith is that in the Jahiliyyah they used to say, “How bad time is, it has done such and such to us!” They used to attribute the deeds of Allah to time, and inveigh against it, but the One Who did that was Allah, may He be exalted. So, He forbade them from this. Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah, “Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger,” was revealed about those who slandered the Prophet over his marriage to Safiyyah bint Huyay bin Akhtab. (At-Tabari 20:323)

The Ayah appears to be general in meaning and to apply to all those who annoy him in any way, because whoever annoys him annoys Allah, just as whoever obeys him obeys Allah.

The Threat to Those Who fabricate Slander

“And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly,” means, they attribute to them things of which they are innocent, which they do not know and do not do. “they bear the crime of slander and plain sin.” This is the most serious slander, to tell or transmit things about the believing men and women that they have not done, in order to bring shame upon them and accuse them of shortcomings. Among those to whom the description most applies are those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, followed by the Rafidites who accuse the Companions of shortcomings and faults of which Allah has stated that they are innocent, and describe them as the opposite of what Allah has said about them. Allah, may He be exalted, has told us that He is pleased with the Migrants and Ansar, and has praised them, but these foolish and ignorant people inveigh against them and accuse them of shortcomings, and say things about them that they did not do and could never have done. In reality, their hearts are misguided, for they condemn those who deserve praise and praise those who deserve condemnation. Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that it was said: “O Messenger of Allah, what is backbiting (Ghibah)?” He said,

“It is when you mention something about your brother that he dislikes.”

It was asked, “But what if what I say about my brother is true?” He said,

“If it is true, then you have committed backbiting (Ghibah) about him, and if it is not true, then you have slandered him.”

This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih.” (Abu Dawud 5:192)

{59. O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their Jalabib over their bodies. That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

60. If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah stop not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but a little while.

61. Accursed, they shall be seized wherever found, and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.

62. That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old, and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.}

The Command of Hijab

Here Allah tells His Messenger to command the believing women – especially his wives and daughters, because of their position of honour – to draw their Jilbabs over their bodies, so that they will be distinct in their appearance from the women of the Jahiliyyah and from slave women. The Jilbab is a Rida’, worn over the Khimar. This was the view of Ibn Masud, Ubaydah, Qatadah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Said bin Jubayr, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ata’ Al-Khurasani and others. It is like the Izar used today. Al-Jawhari said: “The Jilbab is the outer wrapper.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that Allah commanded the believing women, when they went out of their houses for some need, to cover their faces from above their heads with the Jilbab, leaving only one eye showing. (At-Tabari 20:324) Muhammad bin Sirin said, “I asked Ubaydah As-Salmani about the Ayah: “to draw their Jalabib over their bodies.” He covered his face and head, with just his left eye showing.” (At-Tabari 20:325) [There are also other interpretations that are not elaborated upon in this text] “That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed.” means, if they do that, it will be known that they are free, and that they are not servants or whores. “And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” means, with regard to what happened previously during the days of Jahiliyyah, when they did not have any knowledge about this.

A Stern Warning to the Evil Hypocrites

Then Allah issues a warning to the hypocrites, those who make an outward display of faith while concealing their disbelief, “those in whose hearts is a disease,” Ikrimah and others said that this refers to adulterers in this instance. (At-Tabari 20:326) “and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah” means, those who say that the enemy has come and war has started, which is a lie and a fabrication. Unless they give up these actions and return to the truth, “We shall certainly let you overpower them,” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “We will give you power over them.” (At-Tabari 20:328) Qatadah said: “We will incite you against them.” (At-Tabari 20:328) As-Suddi said: “We will inform you about them.” “then they will not be able to stay in it” means, in Al-Madinah, “but a little while. Accursed…” this describes their state while they are in Al-Madinah for this short time before they are expelled and sent far away.’ “they shall be seized wherever found,” means, ‘they will be attacked, because they are so weak and so few,’ “and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.” Then Allah says: “That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old,” meaning, this is how Allah dealt with the hypocrites when they persisted in hypocrisy and disbelief and did not give it up; He incited the believers against them and caused them to prevail over them. “and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.” means, the way in which Allah deals with this does not alter or change.

{63.People ask you concerning the Hour, say: “The knowledge of it is with Allah only. What do you know It may be that the Hour is near!”

64. Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers, and has prepared for them a flaming Fire.

65. Wherein they will abide forever, and they will find neither a a protector nor a helper.

66. On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: “Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger.”

67. And they will say: “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way.”

68. “Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!”}

No-one knows when the Day of Resurrection will come except Allah

Here Allah tells His Messenger that he cannot know when the Hour will come, and if people ask him about that, He instructs him to refer the matter to Allah, may He be exalted, as Allah says in Surat Al-Araf, even though that was revealed in Makkah and this Surah was revealed in Al-Madinah. Allah continues to tell him to refer this matter to the One Who knows about it, but He tells him that it is at hand, as He says: “What do you know It may be that the Hour is near!” This is like the Ayat: “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.” (54:1) “Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.” (21:1) “The Event (the Hour) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it” (16:1).

The Curse on the Disbelievers and its Eternity and their Regret

Then Allah says: “Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers,” means, He has distanced them from His mercy. “and has prepared for them a flaming Fire (Hell).” means, in the Hereafter.  “Wherein they will abide forever,” means, they will stay there forever and ever, never leaving or finding relief from it. “and they will find neither a a protector nor a helper.” means, they will have no saviour to help them or rescue them from their predicament. Then Allah says: “On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: “Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger.” means, they will be dragged into the Fire on their faces and their faces will be contorted in Hell, and in that state they will wish that they had been among those who had obeyed Allah and His Messenger in this world. Allah describes how they will be in the Hereafter: “And the Day when the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: “Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger. Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as an intimate friend! He indeed led me astray from the Reminder after it had come to me. And Shaytan is to man ever a deserter in the hour of need.” (25:27-29) “How much would those who disbelieved wish that they had been Muslims.” (15:2) And here too, Allah tells us that when they are in this state, they will wish that they had obeyed Allah and His Messenger in this world: “And they will say: “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way.” Tawus said: ” ‘Our chiefs’ means their nobles and ‘our great ones’ means their scholars.” “Our Lord! Give them double torment” means, ‘for their disbelief and because they mislead us.’ Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani recorded from Abu Rafi that among the names of those who fought with Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, was Al-Hajjaj bin Amr bin Ghaziyah, and he was the one who, when they met, said; “O people of the Ansar! Do you want to say when we meet our Lord: “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way. Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!”

{69. O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa, but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable before Allah.}

The Fabrications of the Jews against Musa

Al-Bukhari recorded in the Book of Hadiths about the Prophets, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Musa, peace be upon him, was a shy and modest man who would never show anything of his skin because of his shyness. Some of the Children of Israel annoyed him by saying: “He only keeps himself covered because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia or some other defect.” Allah, may He be glorified, wanted to clear Musa, peace be upon him, of what they were saying. One day Musa was alone, so he took off his garment and put it on a rock, then he took a bath. When he had finished, he turned back to pick up his garment, but the rock moved away, taking his garment with it. Musa picked up his stick and chased the rock, saying, “My garment, O rock! My garment, O rock!” Until he reached a group of the Children of Israel, who saw him naked and found that he was the best of those whom Allah had created. Thus he was cleared of what they had said about him. Then the rock stood still, so he took his garment and put it on. He started hitting the rock with his stick, and by Allah, the marks of that beating were left on the rock, three or four or five. This is what is referred to in the Ayah: “O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa, but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable before Allah.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:502)

This Hadith is one of those which were recorded by Al-Bukhari but not Muslim.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah (bin Masud) said: “One day, the Messenger of Allah distributed some booty and a man among the Ansar said, ‘This division was not done for the sake of Allah.’ I said, ‘O enemy of Allah! I am going to tell the Messenger of Allah what you have said.’ So, I told the Prophet about it. His face reddened and he said,

“May Allah have mercy on Musa. He was annoyed with worse than this, yet he remained patient.”

This was recorded in the Two Sahihs. (Ahmad 1:380, Bukhari 3405, Muslim 1062)

“and he was honorable before Allah.” means, he had a position of status and honor before his Lord, may He be exalted and glorified. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: “His supplications would be answered by Allah.” Some of them said that part of his great standing before Allah was that he interceded for his brother Harun, asking Allah to send him with him as a Messenger, and Allah granted his request and said: “And We granted him his brother Harun, (also) a Prophet, out of Our mercy.” (19:53)

{70. O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and speak (always) the truth.

71. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great victory.}

The Command to the Believers to have Taqwa and speak the Truth

Here Allah commands His servants to have Taqwa of Him, worshipping Him as if they can see Him, and to “speak (always) the truth.” meaning, to speak in a straightforward manner, with no crookedness or distortion. He promises them that if they do that, He will reward them by making their deeds righteous, i.e., enabling them to do righteous deeds, and He will forgive them their past sins. With regard to whatever sins they may commit in the future, He will inspire them to repent from them. Then He says: (And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great victory.) meaning, he will be saved from the fire of Hell and will enjoy everlasting delights (in Paradise).

{72. Truly, We did offer the Amanah to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it. But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.

73. So that Allah will punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the men and women who are idolators. And Allah will pardon the believers, men and women. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

 

How Man bore the Amanah

Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Al-Amanah means obedience. This was offered to them before it was offered to Adam, and they could not bear it. Then Allah said to Adam: ‘I have offered the Amanah to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, and they could not bear it. Will you take it on’ He said, ‘O Lord, what does it involve?’ He said, ‘If you do good, you will be rewarded, and if you do evil, you will be punished.’ So Adam took the Amanah and bore it, and this is what is referred to in the Ayah: “But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.” (At-Tabari 20: 338) Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Al-Amanah means Al-Fara’id ‘the obligatory duties’. Allah offered them to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, “on the grounds that” if they fulfilled them, He would reward them; and if they failed, He would punish them. But they did not want to do that, and they were afraid of it, not because their intention was sinful, but because of their respect for the religion of Allah, in case they could not fulfill the obligations involved. Then Allah offered it to Adam, and he accepted it with all that it entailed. This is what is referred to in the Ayah: “But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.” meaning, he underestimated the command of Allah.” (At-Tabari 20: 337) This was also the view of Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and others that Al-Amanah means Al-Fara’id. (At-Tabari 20: 337) Others said that it meant obedience. Al-Amash narrated from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq that Ubayy bin Kab said: “Part of Al-Amanah means that woman was entrusted with her own chastity.” (At-Tabari 20: 338) Qatadah said: “Al-Amanah means religion, obligatory duties and prescribed punishments.” (At-Tabari 20: 339) Malik narrated that Zayd bin Aslam said: “Al-Amanah means three things: prayer, fasting and performing Ghusl to cleanse oneself from sexual impurity.”

There is no contradiction between all of these views; they are all in agreement and all refer to responsibility and the acceptance of commands and prohibitions with their attendant conditions, which is that the one who fulfills this responsibility, will be rewarded; while the one who neglects it, will be punished. Man accepted this despite the fact that he is weak, ignorant and unjust – except for those whom Allah helps, and Allah is the One Whose help we seek.

One of the reports which deal with Al-Amanah is the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah told us two Hadiths, one of which I have seen and the other I am still waiting to see. He told us that Al-Amanah is deeply rooted in the heart of man, then the Qur’an was revealed and they know it from the Qur’an and from the Sunnah. Then he told us that Al-Amanah will be taken away. He said,

“A man may sleep and Al-Amanah will be taken from his heart, leaving nothing but a trace like a blister left by a coal if you were to roll it over your leg — you will see it protruding but there is nothing inside.”

Then he took a pebble and rolled it over his leg, then he said:

“Then the people will start buying and selling, and hardly anyone will be paying attention to Al-Amanah, until it will be said that among the tribe of so-and-so there is a trustworthy man, and it will said of a man, ‘How strong he is, how nice and how wise,’ and there is not even a mustard seed of faith in his heart.”

No doubt, there came upon me a time when I did not mind dealing (bargaining) with anyone of you, for if he was a Muslim, his Islam would compel him to pay me what is due to me, and if he was a Christian, or Jew, the Muslim official would compel him to pay me what is due to me, but today, I do not deal except with such and such person among you.” (Ahmad 5:383) It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs from the Hadith of Al-Amash. (Fath Al-Bari 11:341, Muslim 1:126)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“There are four things, if you attain them, then whatever you miss in this world will not matter: preserving trust, speaking the truth, being of good character and moderation in eating.” (Ahmad 2:177)

The Result of taking on the Amanah

“So that Allah will punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the men and women who are idolators.” means, because the sons of Adam have undertaken to fulfill the Amanah, which means duties, Allah will punish the men and women among them who are hypocrites, who are those who make an outward display of faith because they fear the believers, but in their hearts they conceal disbelief and in fact are followers of the disbelievers. “and the men and women who are idolators.”These are the ones who both outwardly and inwardly associate others in worship with Allah and go against His Messengers. “And Allah will pardon the believers, men and women.” means, He will show mercy to the believers among mankind, who believe in Allah and in His angels, Books and Messengers, and who obey Him. “And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

This is end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahzab.

Allah’s is the praise and thanks.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 42-57

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