The tenth juz’ of the Qur’an contains the last part of Surah Al-Anfal (The Spoils of War) from ayah 41 (8:41) through to the first part of Surah At-Tawbah (The Repentance) up to ayah 93 (9:93).
Surah Al-Anfal and Surah At-Tawbah were both revealed in Madinah. Surah Al-Anfal was revealed after the Battle of Badr in 2 A.H. Surah At-Tawbah was revealed in 9 A.H. It comprises three discourses: the first, in ayat 1-37 were revealed around the month of Dhul Qa’adah, and related to the declaration made to the polytheists during the Hajj in that year; the second, containing ayat 38-72 were sent down in Rajab around the time the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was making prepartions for the Campaign of Tabuk; and the third discourse, covering ayat 73-129, was revealed after the return from Tabuk.
“That is so because Allah will never change a grace which He has bestowed on a people until the change what is in their ownselves. And verily, Allah is All-Hearer and All-Knower.” (Surah Al-Anfal 8:53)
“Do you think that you shall be left alone while Allah has not yet tested those among you who have striven hard and fought and have not taken other than Allah and His Messenger as helpers. Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.” (Surah At-Tawbah 9:16)
“As-Sadaqat (here it means zakat) are only for the Fuqara (the poor), and Al-Masakin (the needy) and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah’s Cause; and for the wayfarer; a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is the All-Knower the All-Wise.” (Surah At-Tawbah 9:60)
“Allah has promised the believers – men and women – Gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein forever, and beautiful mansions in Gardens of ‘Adn (Eden, Paradise). But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme success.” (Surah At-Tawbah 9:72)
The main theme of this juz’ is warfare, with the revelations coming after the Battle of Badr and before and after Tabuk. Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the hearts of men. They may feel fear or apprehension at the prospect of battle, but Allah commands the believers to stand firm when they meet the enemy in battle and to remember Allah so that they may be successful (8:45). The Prophet, peace be upon him, is instructed to discard covenants with those from whom he fears treachery (8:58), but if they incline towards peace, then the Muslims should incline towards peace also (8:61).
Ultimatums are given to the polytheists (Mushrikun) who have violated their oaths and broken the rules of their covenants with the Muslims. They are advised to fear Allah and repent, and if they do not then they will face the wrath of Allah and His believers. Those who seek the protection of the Muslims should be grated it so that they may hear the word of Allah (9:6).
Believers are ordered not to take as supporters and helpers those who prefer disbelief to belief, even if they be family members. The believers are helpers and supporters of one another; they enjoin the good and forbid evil, and pray and give charity. The Jews and the Christian have taken their priests and rabbis as their Lords, because they have made lawful things unlawful and unlawful things lawful through their own words and desires, and the people have followed what they said and not the word of Allah (9:31). Allah makes it clear that He has no partners, and those who take partners with Him in worship have made a grave error.
The call to battle separates the true believers from those who have doubt in their hearts. Those hypocrites “cling heavily to the earth” (9:38) and Allah asks if they are pleased with this life or the Hereafter. The hypocrites call the people to forbidden things and forbid them from doing good. They are Fasiqun, rebellious and disobedient to Allah, and their punishment will be the Fire (9:68).
The categories for those who may receive zakat are outlined (9:60 see above). We are are reminded of the stories of the people of Nuh (Noah) Ibrahim (Abraham) and Lut (Lot) and how they rejected the call to worship Allah and wronged themselves. Paradise is promised to the believers with gardens underneath which rivers flow and beautiful mansions.