What Surahs and ayat are included in the Sixteenth Juz’?
The Sixteenth Juz’ of Qur’an contains the last part of Surah Al-Kahf (The Cave), from ayah 75 to completion, the whole of Surah Maryam (Mary) and the whole of Surah Ta-Ha .
When were the ayat of this juz’ revealed?
Surah Al-Kahf was revealed in Makkah, most likely after the tenth year of Prophethood. Surah Maryam was also revealed in Makkah before the Migration to Abassinyah, we know this because authentic hadith relate that Ja’far recited ayat 1-40 of this Surah in the court of Negus. Surah Ta-Ha was possibly revealed around the same time, either during the Migration to Abassinyah or just after it. It was revealed before Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, embraced Islam.
“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): “If the sea were ink for (writing) the Words of my Lord, surely the sea would be exhausted before the Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought (another sea) like it for its aid.” (Surah Al Kahf 18:109)
“He [Isa (Jesus)] said: “Verily I am a slave of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet; And He has made me blessed wheresoever I be, and He has enjoined on me Salat (prayer), and Zakat, as long as I live. And dutiful to my mother, and made me not arrogant, unblest. And Salam (peace) be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!'” (Surah Maryam 19:30-33)
“Does not man remember that We created him before, while he was nothing.” (Surah Maryam 19:67)
“But whosoever turns away from My Reminder, verily for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the day of Resurrection.” (Surah Ta-Ha 20:124)
“So bear patiently (O Muhammad) what they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during some hours of the night and at the ends of the day that you may become pleased (with the reward which Allah will give you).” (Surah Ta-Ha 20:130)
What are the main themes of this juz’?
In the last part of Surah Al Kahf, we find the completion of the story of Musa (Moses) peace be upon him, and Al-Khidr, and the story of Dhul-Qarnain and the Yajuj and Majuj (Gog and Magog) people. Al-Khidr announces the parting between the two men due of Musa’s lack of patience with his actions, and explains the hidden wisdom behind each of the seemingly unjust things that he has done (18:78-82). We are told of Dhul-Qarnain, who traveled in the land until he reached a place between two mountains and found a people fearing the Yajuj and Majuj people. He blocked the mountain pass with copper and steel, but warned that they will escape before the Day of Judgment.
Surah Maryam was revealed prior to the migration to Abassinyah, a Christian land, and concerns itself with the stories of Maryam (Mary) her son Isa (Jesus), and Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) peace be upon them all. It opens with the story of the Prophet Zakariyya (Zachariah) peace be upon him, being given glad tidings of the birth of a son, Yayah (John), despite his old age. We are then told of how Maryam withdrew to a place of seclusion where the angel Jibril appeared before her in the form of a man, to announce the birth of a righteous son despite her chastity, and it is a thing easy for Allah. When the baby is born, the people accuse her of sin but she points to baby Isa, peace be upon him, who reveals his first miracle, talking in the cradle, and announces his Prophethood (19:29).Those who say Isa is anything other than a man and a Prophet, sternly warned, “It befits not the majesty Allah that He should beget a son.” (19:35)
The story of Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, now begins, with him as a child questioning why his father worships things that can neither hear him nor avail him. His father threatend to stone him for his obstinance, so he turned away from them. Allah blessed him with Ishaq (Isaac) and Ishaq’s son, Ya’qub (Jacob) and made each of them a Prophet. The Prophets Musa, Harun (Aaron), Ismail (Ishmael), Idris and Nuh (Noah) peace be upon them all, are mentioned as those who enjoined Salah and Zakah and were men of truth. Those who take partners with Allah to attain honour, power and glory or those who say Allah has begotten a son, have ‘brought forth (said) a terrible, evil thing’ (19:89).
Surah Ta-Ha opens with the reminder that this is a book for those who fear Allah. To Him belongs everything that is in the heavens and the earth and under the soil (20:6) It then moves to the story of Musa, peace be upon him, when he was with his family in the desert and he saw a fire burning. He went to fetch a fire brand and heard himself being called by name. Allah then revealed to him that he had chosen him as a Prophet (20:13). He commanded Musa to cast down his staff and it became a snake; and to place his right hand to his left side and it came out shining. Allah then commanded him to go Fir’aun (Pharoah) who had transgressed all limits. Musa, peace be upon him, asked Allah to increase him in confidence and ability for this task and to grant him his brother Harun as a helper.
Fir’aun rejects the call and accuses Musa of magic, challenging him to competition with the best of his magicians. Musa, peace be upon him, is able to overcome the magicians tricks by the power of Allah and, and the magicians fall down prostrate, saying that they believed in the Lord of Harun and Musa (20:70). Musa and his people flee the resulting wrath of Fir’aun and Allah parts the sea for them to escape, using it to envelop and overwhelm Fir’aun as he persues them. But the Children of Israel went astray after they had been saved by worshipping a golden statue of a calf (20:88).
We are then reminded of the Day of Judgement when all faces will be humbled before Allah (20:102-112). We learn a little more about the creation story and how Allah made a covenant with Adam but he had ‘no firm willpower’ (20:115). Shaitan whispered to Adam and his wife that he would lead them to the Tree of Eternity. They both ate from the tree are their shame was revealed , thus did Adam disobey his Lord and go astray. They were cast down to earth and told to follow Guidance when it came (20:123). Those who deny the Guidance will be raised blind on the Day of Resurrection for turning away.