The fifth juz’ of the Qur’an contains most of Surah An-Nisa‘, the fourth chapter of the Quran, starting from ayah 24 and continuing to ayah 147.
The ayat of this section were largely revealed in the early years after the migration to Madinah, most likely during years 3-5 AH. Much of this section relates directly to the Muslim community’s defeat at the Battle of Uhud, including sections about orphans and the distribution of inheritance which specifically date to that time.
From the Virtues of Surah An Nisa’
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “Ask me about Surah An Nisa’, for I learned the Qur’an when I was still young.” (Al-Hakim 2:301)
“Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbours who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (slaves) whom your right hand possess. Verily, Allah loves not like such as are proud and boastful.” (Surah An-Nisa’ 4:36)
“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.” (Surah An-Nisa’ 4:59)
“There is no good in most of their secret talks save (in) him who orders Sadaqah, or goodness, or conciliation between mankind; and he who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall give him a great reward.” (Surah An Nisa’ 4:114)
“Oh you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector than both. So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice; and if you Talwu or Tu’ridu (distort your testimony and change it) it, verily Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.” (Surah An Nisa’ 4:135).
As its title suggests, Surah An Nisa’ (The Women) deals with many issues regarding women, including family life, marriage, and divorce.
One theme is continued from the previous section: the relationship between Muslims and the ‘People of the Book’, the Christians and Jews. The Qur’an warns Muslims not to follow in the footsteps of those who divided their faith, added things to it, and went astray from the teachings of their Prophets.
Protocols for divorce are explained, including a series of steps which ensure the rights of both husband and wife.
A major theme of this section is the unity of the Muslim community. Allah encourages the believers to engage in commerce with each other and warns us not to covet things that belong to another person (4:32). Muslims are also warned against hypocrites, who pretend to be among those who have faith, but secretly plot against them. At the time of this revelation, there was a group of hypocrites who plotted to destroy the Muslim community from within. The Qur’an instructs believers to attempt to reconcile with them, and to honor treaties made with them, but to fight them vigorously if they betray and fight against the Muslims (4:89-90).
Above all, Muslims are called upon to be fair and to stand up for justice.