Surah Al Fath Ayat 18-26

{18. Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the pledge to you under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory.

19. And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.}

Good News to the Participants of the Ridwan Pledge of Allah’s Pleasure and earning Spoils of War

Allah declares that He is pleased with the believers who gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. We mentioned the number of these believers as being one thousand and four hundred and that the tree was a Samurah tree, located in the area of Hudaybiyyah. Al-Bukhari narrated from Tariq that Abdur-Rahman said, “I went on Hajj and passed by people praying and asked, ‘What is this Masjid?’ They said, ‘This is the tree where the Messenger of Allah took the pledge of Ar-Ridwan.’ So, I went to Said bin Al-Musayyib and told him. Said said, ‘My father told me that he was among those who gave their pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. My father said: The following year, when we went out, we forgot its place and could not agree which tree it was.’ Said said, ‘The Companions of Muhammad forgot where the tree was, but you know where it is. Therefore, you have better knowledge than them!” (Fath Al-Bari 7:512)

Allah said, “He knew what was in their hearts,” meaning, of truthfulness, trustworthiness, obedience and adherence, “and He sent down As-Sakinah”, calmness and tranquillity, “upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory.” in reference to the goodness that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored caused to happened to the Companions on account of the peace treaty between them and their disbelieving enemies. Ever after that, the Companions gained abundant, general and continuous benefits and accomplishments, leading to the conquest of Khaybar and Makkah and then the various surrounding provinces and areas. They earned tremendous glory, triumphs and an elevated and honorable status in this life and in the Hereafter, just as Allah the Exalted said, “And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.”

{20. Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this, and He has restrained the hands of men from you, that it may be a sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to the straight path.

21. And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah encompasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things.

22. And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs; then they would have found neither a protector nor a helper.

23. That has been the way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the way of Allah.

24. And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah sees what you do.}

Good News of abundant Spoils of War

Mujahid said that Allah’s statement, “Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture,” refers to the spoils that Muslims earned up until this time, while, “and He has hastened for you this,” means, the conquest of Khaybar. (At-Tabari 22:230) Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said, “and He has hastened for you this,” means, “The peace treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah.” (At-Tabari 22:230) Allah said, “and He has restrained the hands of men from you,” meaning, ‘no harm that your enemies had planned against you, both fighting and warfare, touched you. Allah also restrained the hands of men, whom you left behind close to your families and children, from harming them,’ “that it may be a sign for the believers,” with which they take heed and understand. Verily, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored shall help and protect the believers against all enemies, even though the believers are few in number. By doing so, the believers will come to know that Allah is truly the Knower of the consequences of all matters and that the best decisions are those which He prefers for His believing servants, even though these decisions might look unfavorable outwardly, “It may be that you dislike a thing that is good for you” (2:216). Allah said, “and that He may guide you to the straight path” on account of your obeying His commands and adhering by His orders by following the path of His Messenger ,

Good News of continuous Muslim Victories until the Day of Resurrection

The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored, “And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah encompasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things.” Meaning, there are other war spoils and victories to come which are not within your grasp now. However, Allah will make them within your reach and indeed He compasses all these victories for your benefit. Surely, Allah the Exalted provides provisions and sustenance for His servants who have Taqwa, from resources they could never imagine.

Scholars of Tafsir differ over the reference to other war spoils mentioned here. Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said that it refers to the conquest of Khaybar. (At-Tabari 22:233) This meaning is sound according to the Ayah, “and He has hastened for you this.” which refers to the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah. This is view of Ad-Dahhak, Muhammad bin Ishaq and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. (At-Tabari 22:233-234) Qatadah said that this part of the Ayah refers to the conquest of Makkah, and this opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 22:234) Ibn Abi Layla and Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that it refers to victories over the Persians and the Romans, (At-Tabari 22:233) while Mujahid said that it refers to every victory and all spoils of war, until the Day of Resurrection. (At-Tabari 22:233) Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah, “And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah compasses them.”, “They are the victories that are continuing until this day.” (At-Tabari 22:233)

Had Makkah’s Disbelievers fought at Al-Hudaybiyyah, They would have retreated in Defeat

Allah said, “And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs; then they would have found neither a protector nor a helper.” Allah the Exalted and Most Honored delivers the glad tidings to His believing servants that had the idolators fought them, Allah would have given victory to His Messenger and His faithful servants. Then, the army of the disbelievers would have been defeated and would have deserted the battlefield and fled. They would not have found any helper or supporter, because they were fighting Allah, His Messenger and His Faithful Party. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “That has been the way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the way of Allah.” means this is the way Allah deals with His creation. Whenever faith and disbelief meet at any distinguishing juncture, Allah gives victory to faith over disbelief, raises high truth and destroys falsehood. For instance, Allah the Exalted helped His loyal faithful supporters during the battle of Badr and they defeated His idolator enemies, even though the Muslims were few in num- ber and lightly armed, while the idolators were large in number and heavily armed. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah is Ever the All-Seer of what you do.” Allah the Exalted reminds His faithful servants of His favor when He restrained the hands of the idolators, and thereby, no harm touched the Muslims from the idolators. Allah restrained the hands of the believers and they did not fight the idolaters near Al-Masjid Al-Haram. Rather, Allah saved both parties from battle and brought forth a peace treaty that produced good results for the believers, in addition to, earning them the good end in this life and the Hereafter. We stated a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa in which he narrated that when the Muslims brought forth those seventy idolator prisoners, they tied and paraded them before the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who looked at them and said, “Release them, so that they earn the burden of starting hostilities and its infamy.” Thereafter, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored sent down this Ayah about that incident, “And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them…” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “On the day of Hudaybiyyah, eighty armed men from Makkah went down the valley coming from Mount At-Tanim to ambush the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Messenger invoked Allah against them, and they were taken prisoners.” Affan added, “The Messenger pardoned them, and this Ayah was later on revealed, “And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.” (Ahmad 3:122) Muslim, Abu Dawud in his Sunan and At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i, in the Tafsir section of their Sunan, collected this Hadith. (Muslim 3:1442)

{25. They are those who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills – if they had been apart, We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved.

26. When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness – the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, – then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of Taqwa; and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.}

Some of the Benefits gained from the Treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah

Allah the Exalted states that the Arab idolators from Quraysh and their allies who extended help to them against His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “They are those who disbelieved”, they are indeed the disbelievers, “and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram” ‘even though you are its people and more worthy of being responsible for it,’ “and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice.” they prevented, because of transgression and stubbornness, the sacrificial animals from being reached to the place where they would be slaughtered. There were seventy sacrificial camels designated for sacrifice, as we will mention, Allah willing. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “Had there not been believing men and believing women” ‘living among the Makkans hiding their faith for fearing for their safety from the pagans. Otherwise, We would have given you authority over the Makkans and you would have killed them to the brink of extermination. However, there were some faithful believers, men and women, living among them, about whom you had no knowledge of being believers and you might try to kill them.’ Allah’s statement, “whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you” an evil and erroneous act, “without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills” that Allah might delay the punishment of the pagans of Makkah to save the believers who lived among them, and so that many of the idolators might embrace Islam. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “if they had been apart”, if the disbelievers and the believers who were living among them had been apart, “We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved”  ‘We would have given you dominance over the disbelievers and you would have inflicted tremendous slaughter on them.’ Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness — the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance,” when they refused to write (in the treaty document), ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,’ and, ‘These are the terms agreed on by Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger,’ “then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and made them stick to the word of Taqwa” the word of Taqwa refers to sincerity, according to Mujahid. (At-Tabari 22:255) Ata’ bin Abi Rabah commented, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, alone without partners. All the dominion belongs to Him and all praise is due to Him. He is Ever Able to do everything.” (At-Tabari 22:256) Yunus bin Bukayr said that Ibn Ishaq narrated from Az-Zuhri, from Urwah, from Al-Miswar, commenting on, “and made them stick to the word of Taqwa” “La ilaha illallah, alone without partners.”

The Hadiths that tell the Story of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Peace Treaty that followed

Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy with him, recorded in his Sahih in ‘Book of Conditions’ that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan bin Al-Hakam, both narrated attesting to the truthfulness of the other, Allah’s Messenger set out at the time of Al-Hudaybiyyah with several hundred of his Companions. When he reached Dhul-Hulayfah, he had the sacrificial animals garlanded and marked and resumed the state of Ihram for Umrah. He then sent several men from the tribe of Khuzaah to gather news for him and then he proceeded. When he arrived at a village called Al-Ashtat, his advance regiment came back and said, ‘The Quraysh have gathered their forces against you, including Al-Ahabish tribes. They are intent on fighting you, stopping you, and preventing you.’ The Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Give me your opinion, O people! Do you think we should attack the families and offspring of those who seek to prevent us from reaching the House?”

in another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Do you think we should attack the families of those who helped the Quraysh? If they come to defend against us, then Allah would have diminished the idolator forces. Or we leave them to grieve!”

In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“If they remain where they have gathered, they do so in grief, fatigued and depressed. If they save their families, it would be a neck that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has cut off. Or, should we head towards the House and if anyone prevents us from reaching it we would fight them.”

Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “O, Allah’s Messenger! You only intended to visit the House, not to kill anyone or start a war. Therefore, head towards the House and whoever stands in our way, then we will fight him.” In another narration, Abu Bakr said, “Allah and His Messenger know that we only came to perform Umrah not to fight anyone. However, anyone who tries to prevent us from reaching the House, we will fight him.” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Go forth then.” In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Go forth, in the Name of Allah, the Exalted.”

When they proceeded for a distance, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Khalid bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh forming the front of the army, so take the path on the right.”

By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims until the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, then he turned back hurriedly to inform the Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing until he reached the Thaniyyah (i. e., a mountainous way) through which he could reach them. The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause her to rise, but it was in vain. So, they said, ‘Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn!’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Al-Qaswa’ has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant.”

Then he said,

“By the Name of Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, the Exalted, I will grant it to them.”

The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his direction, until he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaybiyyah. There was a pit containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and after a short time the people exhausted all its water and complained of thirst to Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Prophet took an arrow out of his quiver and ordered them to put the arrow in the pit. By Allah, the water started flowing and continued sprouting until all the people quenched their thirst and returned satisfied. While they were still in that state, Budayl bin Warqa Al-Khuzai came with some people from his tribe, Khuzaah. They were the advisers of Allah’s Messenger who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihamah. Budayl said, I left (the tribes of) Kab bin Luay and Amir bin Lu’ay residing at the abundant water of Al-Hudaybiyyah. They had milk camels with them, intending to wage war against you and prevent you from visiting the Kabah.’ Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform Umrah. No doubt, war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses. So if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and others. If I have victory over those infidels, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish. They will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause until I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious.”

Budayl said, ‘I will inform them of what you have said.’ So, he set off until he reached Quraysh and said, ‘We have come from that man whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you, if you should like.’ Some of the fools among the Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, ‘Relate what you heard him saying.’ Budayl said, ‘I heard him saying such and such,’ relating what the Prophet had told him. ‘Urwah bin Masud stood up and said, ‘O people! Aren’t you the sons’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He added, `Am I not the father’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Do you mistrust me’ They said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Don’t you know that I invited the people of ‘Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Well, this man has offered you a reasonable proposal, it is better for you to accept it and allow me to meet him.’ They said, ‘You may meet him.’ So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet said the same to him as he had to Budayl bin Warqa. Then Urwah said, ‘O Muhammad! Won’t you feel any qualms by exterminating your relations? Have you ever heard of anyone among the Arabs annihilating his relatives before you On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, by Allah, I do not see dignified people here, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.’ Hearing that, Abu Bakr verbally abused him and said, ‘Go suck Al-Lat’s womb! Are you saying we would run and leave the Prophet alone’ Urwah said, ‘Who is that man’ They said, ‘He is Abu Bakr.’ Urwah said to Abu Bakr, ‘By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would rebuke you.’ Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet’s beard as he was talking, while Al-Mughirah bin Shubah was standing near the head of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say, ‘Remove your hand from the beard of Allah’s Messenger.’ Urwah raised his head and asked, ‘Who is that?’ The people said, ‘He is Al-Mughirah bin Shubah.’ Urwah said, ‘O treacherous (one)! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery?’ Before embracing Islam, Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people. He killed them, took their property and came (to Al-Madinah) to embrace Islam. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to him,

“As regards to your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it.”

Urwah then started looking at the Companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. By Allah, whenever Allah’s Messenger spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them, who would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry his orders immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. Urwah returned to his people and said, ‘O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi. Yet, by Allah! I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers, as much as, Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spat, the spittle would fall into the hand of one of them and he would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.’ A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, ‘Allow me to go to him,’ and they allowed him. When he approached the Prophet and his Companions, Allah’s Messenger said,

“He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the sacrificial camels. So, bring the sacrificial camels before him.”

So, the sacrificial camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, ‘Glorified is Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Kabah.’ When he returned to his people, he said, ‘I saw the sacrificial camels garlanded and marked. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Kabah.’ Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs stood up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad , and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man.”

Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhayl bin Amr came.” Mamar said that Ayyub said to him that Ikrimah said, “When Suhayl bin Amr came, the Prophet said,

“Now the matter has become easy for you.”

Mamar said that Az-Zuhri narrated, “When Suhayl bin Amr came, he said to the Prophet , ‘Please conclude a peace treaty with us.’ So, the Prophet called Ali bin Abi Talib and said to him,

“Write: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.”

Suhayl bin Amr said, ‘As for Ar-Rahman, by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name, O Allah, as you used to write previously.’ The Muslims said, ‘By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said,

“Write: “In Your Name O Allah.”

Then he dictated,

“This is a peace treaty, which Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger has concluded.”

Suhayl said, ‘By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would not prevent you from visiting the Kabah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad bin Abdullah.’ The Prophet said to him,

“By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if your people do not believe me. Write: “Muhammad bin Abdullah.”

Az-Zuhri continued, “The Prophet accepted all those things, since he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, the Exalted.” The Hadith continues, “The Prophet said to Suhayl,

“On the condition that you allow us to visit the House so that we may perform Tawaf around it.”

Suhayl said, ‘By Allah, we will not, so as not to give the Arabs a chance to say that we have yielded to your pressure, but we will allow you next year.’ So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhayl said, ‘We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.’ The Muslims protested, ‘Glorified be Allah! How can a person be returned to the idolators after he has become a Muslim’ While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhayl bin Amr came from the valley of Makkah staggering with his chains and fell down among the Muslims. Suhayl said, ‘O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you, that is, you shall return Abu Jandal to me.’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said,

“The peace treaty has not been written yet.”

Suhayl said, ‘Then by Allah, I will never conduct peace with you.’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Release him to me,”

and Suhayl responded, ‘I will never allow you to keep him.’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Yes, do.”

He said, ‘I will not.’ Mikraz said, ‘We allow you (to keep him).’ Abu Jandal said, ‘O, Muslims! Will I be returned to the idolators although I have come as a Muslim Don’t you see how much I have suffered’ Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. Umar bin Al-Khattab said, ‘I went to the Prophet and said: Aren’t you truly the Messenger of Allah?’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Yes, indeed.”

I said, ‘Isn’t our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust’ He said,

“Yes.”

I said, ‘Then why should we be humble in our religion’ He said,

“I am Allah’s Messenger and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.”

I said, ‘Didn’t you tell us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it’ He said,

“Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Kabah this year.”

I said, ‘No.’ He said,

“So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.”

Umar further said, ‘I went to Abu Bakr and said: O Abu Bakr! Isn’t he truly Allah’s Prophet’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Is not our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why should we be humble in our religion’ He said, ‘O you man! Indeed, he is Allah’s Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him for, by Allah, he is on the right path.’ I said, ‘Was he not telling us that we would go to the Kabah and perform Tawaf around it’ He said, ‘Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Kabah this year’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘You will go to the Kabah and perform Tawaf around it.’ Az-Zuhri said, “Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.’ ” “When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to his Companions,

“Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and have your heads shaved.”

By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salamah and told her of the people’s attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don’t say a word to anybody until you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head.’ The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, went out and did not talk to anyone until he did what she suggested, slaughtered the sacrifice and shaved his head. Seeing that, the Companions got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another. There was so much of a rush – and sadness – that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came and Allah the Exalted and most Honored revealed the following Ayat, “O you who believe! When believing women come to you” (60:10), until, “Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives.” Umar then divorced two of his wives, who were disbelievers. Later on Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umayyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Al-Madinah, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from the Quraysh, came to him. The disbelievers sent two men in pursuit who said to the Prophet , ‘Abide by the promise you gave us.’ So, the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out (of Al-Madinah) until they reached Dhul-Hulayfah where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, ‘By Allah, O, so-and-so, I see you have a fine sword.’ The other drew it out (of its sheath) and said, ‘Yes, by Allah, it is very fine and I have tried it many times.’ Abu Basir said, ‘Let me have a look at it.’ When the other gave the sword to Abu Basir, he struck him with it until he died. His companion ran away until he reached Al-Madinah, entering the Masjid running. When Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saw him he said,

“This man appears to have been frightened.”

When he reached the Prophet he said, ‘My companion has been murdered, by Allah, and I would have been murdered too.’ Abu Basir came and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger, by Allah! Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by returning me to them, but Allah the Exalted has saved me from them.’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Woe to his mother! What an excellent war kindler he would be, if he only have supporters.”

When Abu Basir heard this from the Prophet, he understood that he would return him to the idolators again, so he set off until he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhayl also got himself released from the disbelievers and joined Abu Basir. Thereafter, whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir until they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of the Quraysh heading towards Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), they stopped it, attacked and killed the disbelievers and took their properties. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever among them came to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, would be secure. So, the Prophet sent for them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed the following Ayat, “And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah”, until, “the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance,” Their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess that Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah, refused to write, ‘In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim,’ and prevented Muslims from visiting the Kabah.” (Fath Al-Bari 5:388) This is the narration Al-Bukhari collected in the Book of Tafsir, (Fath Al-Bari 5:451) Umrat Al-Hudaybiyyah, Hajj, and so forth.(Fath Al-Bari 5:518)  Allah is the Only One sought for help, all reliance is on Him alone and there is no might or strength except from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.

Al-Bukhari narrated in the Book of Tafsir that Habib bin Abi Thabit said that he went to Abu Wa’il asking him about something and he said, “We were at Siffin, when a man said, ‘Do you not see those who call to Allah’s Book’ Ali bin Abi Talib said, ‘Yes.’ Sahl bin Hunayf said, ‘Do not feel certain in the reliability of your own opinions! On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the day the treaty of peace was signed between the Prophet and idolators, had we found a chance to fight, we would have done so.’ Umar came (to the Prophet) and said, ‘Are we not on the true cause and theirs is the false cause Are not our killed in Paradise and theirs in the Fire’ He said, ‘Yes.’ Umar said, ‘Why then should we be humble with regards to the cause of our religion Why should we go back before Allah decides in the matter between us (between Muslims and the idolators.)’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“O son of Al-Khattab! I am Allah’s Messenger and He will never abandon me.”

Umar left while feeling angry and soon went to Abu Bakr and said,’O Abu Bakr! Are we not on the true cause and they are on falsehood?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘O son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah’s Messenger and Allah will never abandon him.’ Surat Al-Fath was later revealed.”’ Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several other parts of his Sahih, and so did Muslim and An-Nasa’i using various chains of narration from Abu Wa’il, Sufyan bin Salamah, from Sahl bin Hunayf. Some of these narrations read, “O people! Accuse sheer opinion (of being imperfect)! On the day Abu Jandal came, I saw myself willing to reject the command of Allah’s Messenger , had I had the chance.” In yet another narration, “Surat Al-Fath was revealed and the Messenger of Allah called Umar bin Al-Khattab and recited it to him.” (Fath Al-Bari 5:451)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, “Quraysh resorted to peace with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Suhayl bin Amr was among the idolators then. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to Ali,

“Write: “In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”

Suhayl said, ‘We do not know the meaning of: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim. However, write what we do know: In Your Name, O Allah!’ The Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Write: “From Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger,”

and Suhayl said, ‘If we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would have followed you. However, write your name and the name of your father.’ The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Write: “From Muhammad son of Abdullah.”

They set the terms with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that, ‘If anyone comes from your side to us, we will not send him back to you. If anyone from among us came to you, you send him back to us.’ Ali said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Should I write this,’ and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”Yes. Surely, those who revert from our side and go to them, then may Allah cast them away.” (Ahmad 3:268)

Muslim also collected this Hadith.” (Muslim 3:1411) Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Abbas said, “When Al-Haruriyyah rebelled, they set a separate camp for their group. I said to them, ‘On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah agreed to conduct peace with the idolators. He said to Ali,

“Write, O Ali: “These are the terms agreed to by Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger.”

The idolators said, ‘If we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would not have fought you.’ Allah’s Messenger said,

“O Ali! Erase it. O Allah! You know that I am Your Messenger. O Ali! Erase it and write instead: “These are the peace terms agreed to by Muhammad bin Abdullah.”

By Allah, Allah’s Messenger is better than Ali, and the Messenger erased his title. However, erasing his title did not mean that he was erased from being a Prophet. Have I given you sufficient proof in this.’ They said, Yes.”’ (Ahmad 1:342) Abu Dawud also collected a similar narration. (Abu Dawud 3:317)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Abbas said, “On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah slaughtered seventy sacrificial camels, including a camel that belonged to Abu Jahl. When the camel was prevented from coming to the House, she cried just as she would cry when seeing her offspring.” (Ahmad 1:314)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 148-170 

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