Surah Al-Ahqaf Ayat 1-20

Surah Al-Ahqaf

(The Wind-Curved Sandhills) 

Chapter 46

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

{1. Ha Mim.

2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.

3. We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for a specified term. But those who disbelieve, turn away from that whereof they are warned.

4. Say: “Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah? Show me what have they created of the earth? Or have they a share in (the creation of) the heavens? Bring me a scripture prior to this or some trace of knowledge, if you are truthful!”

5. And who is more astray than those who invoke besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them?

6. And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worship.}

The Qur’an is a Revelation from Allah and the Universe is His True Creation

Allah informs that He has revealed the Book to His servant and Messenger Muhammad — may Allah’s blessings be upon him until the Day of Judgement. Allah then describes Himself as being of unimaginable glory, possessing ultimate wisdom in His statements and actions. Allah then says, “We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except in truth,” meaning, not in idle play and falsehood. “and for a specified term.” meaning, for a fixed and specified duration that will not increase or decrease. Allah continues, “But those who disbelieve, turn away from that of which they are warned.” Meaning, the disbelievers are distracted from what is intended for them. Allah has indeed revealed to them a Book and sent to them a Messenger. Yet, they obstinately turn away from all of that. Therefore, they will soon realize the consequence of their behavior.

Refuting the Idolators

Allah then says, “Say” meaning, to these idolators who worship others besides Allah. “Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah Show me what they have created of the earth” (46:4) meaning, ‘show me the place that they have independently created from the earth.’ “Or have they a share in the heavens” which means that they are not partners in anything in the heavens, nor on earth. They do not own even the thin membrane covering a date’s pit. The dominion and control only belong to Allah, Exalted is He. ‘How then would you worship others or join them as partners with Him Who guided you to that Who called you to that Did He command you to do it, or is it something that you suggested yourselves’ Thus, He says, “Bring me a scripture prior to this” meaning, ‘bring a book from among the Books of Allah that have been revealed to the Prophets, that commands you to worship these idols.’ “or some trace of knowledge,” meaning, ‘some clear evidence justifying this way you have chosen.’ “if you are truthful!” meaning, ‘you have absolutely no evidence for that — neither textual (from revelation) nor rational.’ For this reason, some recited it; “or something inherited from knowledge” (At-Tabari 22:94) meaning, ‘or true knowledge that you have inherited from anyone before you.’ This is similar to Mujahid’s statement when he said, “or some trace of knowledge.” “Or anyone who has inherited any knowledge.” Allah then says, “And who is more astray than those who invokes besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them” meaning, no one is more misguided than those who invoke idols instead of Allah, asking them for things that they cannot give — until the Day of Judgment. They (the idols) are unaware of what he asks, they can neither hear, see, or act. This is because they are inanimate, senseless stones. Allah then says, “And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worship.” This is similar to Allah’s saying: “They have taken gods beside Allah, that they might give them dignity. No! They will deny their worship of them, and will be opponents to them.” (19:81, 82) meaning, they will betray them when they need them the most. (Ibrahim) Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, said: “You have taken only idols besides Allah! The love between you is only in the life of this world. On the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helpers.” (29:25)

{7. And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them, the disbelievers say of the truth when it reaches them: “This is plain magic!”

8. Or say they: “He has fabricated it.” Say: “If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you! And He is the Oft–Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”

9.Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am but a plain warner.”}

Refuting Claims of the Idolators about the Qur’an and the Messenger

Concerning the disbelief and rebellion of the idolators, Allah says that when the clear Ayat of Allah are recited to them they say; “This is plain magic!” meaning, simple magic. In this statement of theirs, they have lied, invented a falsehood, went astray and disbelieved. “Or they say: “He has fabricated it.”  They are referring to Muhammad . Allah responds saying, “Say: “If I have fabricated it, you have no power to support me against Allah…” which means, ‘if I lie against Allah and falsely claim that He sent me when He actually had not, then He would punish me with a severe punishment. No one on the earth — you or anyone else — would then be able to protect me from Him.’ It is similar to Allah’s saying, “Say: “None can protect me from Allah, nor would I find a refuge except in Him. (My duty) is only to convey from Allah and (deliver) His Messages. ” (72:22-23) Allah says, “And if he made up a false saying concerning Us, We surely would have seized him by the right hand. Then we would have cut off his life artery. And none of you could withhold Us from (punishing) him.” (69:44-47) Thus, Allah says here, “Say: “If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it (i.e. this Qur’an)! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you!…” This is a severe threat, intimidation and warning for them. Allah then says, “And He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” This is an encouragement for them to repent and turn to Allah. It means, ‘despite all of this, if you turn back and repent, Allah will accept your repentance, pardon you, forgive you, and have mercy upon on.’ This is similar to Allah’s saying in Surat Al-Furqan, “And they say: “(This Book is) legends of the ancients that he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.” Say: “It has been sent down by the One Who knows every secret within the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful.” (25:5-6) Allah then says, “Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers…” which means, ‘I am not the first Messenger who ever came to the world. Rather, Messengers came before me. Therefore, I am not an unprecedented incident that should cause you all to reject me and doubt my being sent to you. Indeed, Allah has sent before me all of the Prophets to various nations.’

Allah then says, “nor do I know what will be done with me or with you.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas that he said, “It (this Ayah) was followed in revelation by, “That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future”. (At-Tabari 22:99) Similarly, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said that this Ayah was abrogated by the Ayah; “That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future”. They said that when the latter Ayah was revealed, one of the Muslims said to Allah’s Messenger , “Allah has declared what He will do for you. But what will He do for us” Then Allah revealed; “That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow”. (At-Tabari 22:99,100) This is what they said. That which has been confirmed in the Sahih is that the believers said, “May you enjoy that, O Allah’s Messenger! But what do we get?” So Allah revealed this Ayah. (Fath Al-Bari 7:516)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Kharijah bin Zayd bin Thabit, reported that Umm Al-Ala’ – a woman from the Ansar who had given her pledge of loyalty to Allah’s Messenger – said,

“When the Ansar drew lots regarding taking in the Muhajirun to dwell with them, our lot was to have Uthman bin Mazun. Later, Uthman fell sick in our house, so we nursed him until he died, and we wrapped him in his garments (for burial). Allah’s Messenger then came in, and I said, ‘O Abu As-Sa’ib! May Allah have mercy on you. I bear witness that Allah has indeed honored you.’

Allah’s Messenger asked,

“How do you know that Allah has honoured him?”

I said, ‘I do not know — may my father and mother both be ransomed for you!’ Allah’s Messenger then said,

“As for him, certainty (death) has reached him from his Lord, and I surely wish well for him. But by Allah, even though I am Allah’s Messenger, I do not know what will happen to me (after death).”

I then said, ‘Never will I claim a person to be pious after this.’ This incident caused me some distress, and I went to sleep thereafter. I saw in my dream that Uthman owned a running water spring. I went to Allah’s Messenger and told him about that. Allah’s Messenger said,

“That was his (good) deeds.” (Ahmad 6:436)

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith but Muslim did not. In one of the narrations, Allah’s Messenger said,

“Even though I am Allah’s Messenger, I do not know what will happen to him.” (Fath Al-Bari 3:137)

This and similar texts indicate that it is not allowed to declare that a specific person will enter Jannah except for those who were distinctly indicated by Allah or his Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. Examples of those are the Ten [Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Talhah, Az-Zubayr, Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, Sad bin Abi Waqqas, Said bin Zayd, and Abu Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah], Ibn Sallam, Al-Ghumaysa’ [Better known as Umm Sulaym, may Allah be pleased with her, the mother of Anas bin Malik], Bilal, Suraqah, Abdullah bin Amr bin Haram (Jabir’s father), the Seventy Recitors (of Qur’an) who were assassinated near the Well of Maunah, Zayd bin Harithah, Jafar, Ibn Rawahah, and other similar individuals, may Allah be pleased with them.

Allah then says, “I only follow that which is revealed to me,” which means, ‘I only follow what Allah has revealed to me of the revelation.’ “and I am but a plain warner.” meaning, ‘my warnings are obvious to every person with sound intellect and reason.’ And Allah knows best.

{10. Say: “Tell me! If it was from Allah and you disbelieved it, (at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you rejected (the truth)!” Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

11. And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been a good thing, they (the poor believers) would not have preceded us to it!” And when they have not been guided by it, they say: “This is ancient falsehood!”

12. And before this was the Scripture of Musa as a guide and a mercy. And this is a Book confirming in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.

13. Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allah,” and thereafter stand firm, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

14. Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) – a reward for what they used to do.}

The Qur’an is Allah’s True Speech and the Position of the Disbelievers and the Muslims towards it

Allah says, “Say” meaning, ‘O Muhammad to these idolators who disbelieve in the Qur’an.’ “Tell me! If it was” meaning, this Qur’an. “from Allah, and you disbelieved in it” meaning, `what do you think that Allah will do to you if this Book that I have come to you with is actually revealed to me from Him in order that I convey it to you, and yet you disbelieve in it and deny it “(at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar” meaning, ‘the previous Scriptures that were revealed to the Prophets before me all testify to its truthfulness and authenticity. They have prophecied, well in advance, about things similar to that which this Qur’an informs of.’ Concerning Allah’s statement, “and believed” ‘this person who testified to its truthfulness from the Children of Israel, due to his realization that it was the truth.’ “while you rejected (the truth)!” ‘whereas you have arrogantly refused to follow it.’ Masruq said: “That witness believed in his Prophet and Book, while you disbelieved in your Prophet and Book.” (At-Tabari 22:103-104) “Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.” The witness here refers to any witness in general. It includes Abdullah bin Salam [The Jewish scholar who accepted Islam] and other from them as well. For indeed, this Ayah was revealed in Makkah before Abdullah bin Salam had accepted Islam. This is similar to the statement of Allah, “And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed, even before it we have been Muslims.” (28:53) It is also similar to Allah’s saying, “Verily! Those who were given knowledge before it – when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, and they say: “Exalted is our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord has been fulfilled.” (17:107-108) It has been narrated from Sad, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said, “I have not heard Allah’s Messenger say about anyone walking on the surface of the earth that he is of the people of Jannah – except for Abdullah bin Salam. Concerning him the following Ayah was revealed, “(at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar” This has been recorded in the Two Sahihs and An-Nasa’i. (At-Tabari 22:104) Similarly, Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ikrimah, Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Salam, Hilal bin Yasaf, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas and Ibn Zayd all said that this refers to Abdullah bin Salam. (At-Tabari 22:104-105)

Allah then says, “And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” which means that those who disbelieve say of those who believe in the Qur’an: “Had it (the Qur’an) been any good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” By that, they meant Bilal, Ammar, Suhayb, Khabbab, may Allah be pleased with them, and others like them of the weak, the male servants, and female servants. The pagans said this only because they thought that they held a high status with Allah, and that He took special care of them. By that, they made a great and obvious error, as Allah says: “Thus have We tried some of them with others, that they might say: “Is it these whom Allah has favoured from among us?” (6:53) meaning, they wonder how could those weaklings be the ones who were guided from among them. Thus, Allah says, “Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” Contrary to this is the position of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah: They say about any act or saying that has not been reported from the Companions: “It is an innovation. If there was any good in it, they would have preceded us in doing it, because they have not left off any of the good characteristics except that they hurried to perform them.” Allah continues, “And when they have not been guided by it,” meaning, the Qur’an. “they say: “This is an ancient falsehood!” meaning, an old lie. They mean by this that the Qur’an has been quoted and taken from the ancient people, thereby belittling the Qur’an and its followers. This is clear arrogance, as Allah’s Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“(Arrogance is) rejecting the truth and belittling the people.” (Muslim 1:93) 

Allah then says, “And before this was the Scripture of Musa” and it was the Tawrah. “as a guide and mercy. And this is a Book” meaning, the Qur’an. “confirming” meaning, that which came before it of the previous Books. “in the Arabic tongue,” means that it is eloquent and clear. “to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.” meaning, it contains a warning to the dis- believers and glad tidings for the belie- vers. Allah then says: “Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allah,” and thereafter stand firm,” The explanation of this has been discussed earlier in Surat As-Sajdah. [See 41:30] Allah then says, “on them shall be no fear,” meaning, con- cening their future. “nor shall they grieve.” meaning, over what they have left behind. Allah continues, “Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) – a reward for what they used to do.” meaning, the deeds are a cause for their attaining the mercy and their being engulfed by it – and Allah knows best.

{15. And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship. And she delivers him with hardship. And (the period of) his gestation and the weaning of him is thirty months, till when he attains full strength and reaches forty years, he says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You, and make my offspring good. Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.”

16. They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise. That is a promise of truth that they had been promised.}

Allah’s Advice about the Parents

After mentioning that one must confess His Oneness, worship Him with sincerity, and remain upright in obeying Him, Allah follows that by giving instructions regarding the parents. These appear together in many places of the Qur’an, such as Allah’s saying, “Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents.” (17:23) Allah says, “Be grateful to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.” (31:14) There are many other Ayat like this as well. Here Allah says, “And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.” (46:15) meaning, ‘We have commanded him to treat them well and show compassion towards them. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Sad bin Abi Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, that his mother said to him: “Hasn’t Allah commanded that you obey your parents? Then I will not eat any food or drink any drink until you disbelieve in Allah.” Thus she stubbornly abstained from eating and drinking, until they had to open her mouth with a stick. Then this Ayah was revealed, “And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.” (Musnad At-Tayalisi: 28) This was also recorded by Muslim and the Sunan compilers, except for Ibn Majah. (Muslim 4:1878)

Allah continues, “His mother bears him with hardship.” which means that the mother suffers hardship because of her child, such as fatigue, sickness, vomiting, heaviness, distress, and other forms of hardship that the pregnant women suffer. “And she delivers him with hardship.” meaning, she also delivers him with hardship, suffering the pains of labor and their severity. “And (the period of) his gestation and weaning is thirty months,” Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, used this Ayah along with the following two Ayat to prove that the minimum period of pregnancy (gestation) is six months: “And his weaning is in two years.” (31:14) and “The mothers suckle their children two complete years – for those who desire to complete the term of suckling.” (2:233) This is a strong and valid conclusion, and it was approved by Uthman and a number of the Companions.

Ibn Abi Hatim related from his father that Farwah bin Abi Al-Maghra’ told them that Ali bin Mushir narrated to them from Dawud bin Abi Hind, who narrated from Ikrimah that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When a woman delivers after nine months, the baby will only need twenty-one months of suckling. When she delivers after seven months, the baby will need twenty-three months of suckling. When she delivers after six months, the baby will need two full years of suckling, because Allah says, “and his gestation and weaning is thirty months, till when he attains full strength.” (Al-Bayhaqi 7:332) meaning, he becomes strong, youthful, and attains full ability. “and reaches forty years,” meaning, his complete intellect, understanding, and patience reach the level of maturity. It has also been said that usually one will not change his ways once he reaches the age of forty. “He says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability” meaning, ‘inspire me.’ “that I may be grateful for Your favour which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You,” meaning, in the future. “and make my offspring good.” meaning, my offspring and descendants. “Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.” This contains an instruction for anyone who reaches forty years of age to renew his repentance and turn to Allah with strong resolution. Allah then says, “Those are the ones from whom We shall accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise.” meaning, those to whom applies the above description – those who repent to Allah, turn back to Him, and rectify their shortcomings through repentance and seeking forgiveness – those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. Many of their errors will be forgiven and Allah will accept from them a modest amount of deeds. “among the dwellers of Paradise.” which means that they will be among the dwellers of Paradise. That is Allah’s ruling concerning them, as He has promised for those who repent and turn to Him. Thus, He says, “That is the promise of truth that they had been promised.”

{17. But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised up when generations before me have passed?” While they invoke Allah for help: “Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.” But he says: “This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.”

18. They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away. Verily, they are ever the losers.

19. And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did, so that He might fully recompense for their deeds. And they will not be wronged.

20. On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein. Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah’s command.}

Mention of the Undutiful Children and Their End

In the previous Ayat, Allah mentions the dutiful offspring who supplicate for their parents and treat them with kindness. He describes the success and salvation He has prepared for them. Here He connects to that discussion the situation of the wretched offspring who are undutiful toward their parents. Allah says, “But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! …” As for the saying “Uff” in this Ayah, it is a general description applying to anyone who says it to his parents. Some people claim that it was revealed about Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr. But this claim is weak and rejected, because Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr embraced Islam after this was revealed. His adherence to Islam was excellent, and he was among the best of his contemporaries. Al-Bukhari recorded from Yusuf bin Mahak that Marwan (bin Al-Hakam) was governor of Hijaz (Western Arabia), appointed by Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan. He (Marwan) delivered a speech in which he mentioned Yazid bin Muawiyah and urged the people to give a pledge of allegiance after his father. Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr said something to him in response to that, upon which Marwan commanded his men: “Arrest him!” But he entered Aishah’s house, and they were not able to capture him. Marwan then said: “This is the one about whom Allah revealed: “But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised – when generations before me have passed”’ From behind the curtain, Aishah responded: “Allah did not reveal any Qur’an in our regard (i.e. the children of Abu Bakr), except for the declaration of my innocence.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:439)

In another report recorded by An-Nasa’i, Muhammad bin Ziyad reported that when Muawiyah was soliciting people to pledge allegiance to his son, and Marwan declared: “This follows the tradition of Abu Bakr and Umar.” On hearing this, Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr said: “Rather, this is the tradition of Heraclius and Caesar.” Marwan responded: “This is the one about whom Allah revealed, “But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you!” When that was conveyed to A’ishah, she said: “Marwan is lying! By Allah, that was not revealed about him. If I wish to name the person meant by it, I could. On the other hand, Allah’s Messenger placed a curse on Marwan’s father (Al- Hakam bin Abi Al-‘As) when Marwan was still in his loins, so Marwan (bin Al-Hakam) is an outcome of Allah’s curse.” (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:458) As for Allah’s statement: “Do you promise me that I will be raised?” meaning, resurrected. “when generations before me have passed” meaning, generations of people have already passed away, and none of them has ever returned to tell “what happened to them” “While they invoke Allah for help” meaning, they ask Allah to guide him, and they say to their son, “Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.” But he says: “This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.” Allah then says, “They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away.Verily, they are ever the losers.” This indicates that all such people will be among their likes and their peers among the disbelievers, who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Allah’s saying, “Those are” after He said, “But he who says” confirms what we have mentioned above that the latter is a general description of a type of people including all those who fall under that description. Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said, “This applies to the disbelieving, sinful person who is undutiful to his parents and who denies resurrection.” (At-Tabari 22:118) Allah then says, “And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did,” meaning that there will be degrees of punishment for each of them according to what they did. “so that He might fully recompense them for their deeds, and they will not be wronged.” which means Allah will not be unjust to them even in the amount of a speck of dust or less. Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “The levels of the Fire descend, and those of Paradise ascend.” (At-Tabari 22:119) Allah then says, “On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein…” which means that this will be said to them by way of blame and reprimand. The Commander of the faithful, Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave up many of the joys of food and drink and refrained from them while saying, “I am afraid of being like those whom Allah has reproached and condemned by saying, “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein.” Abu Mijlaz said: “Some people will lose good deeds that they had in the worldly life, and they will be told, “You received your good things in the life of the world.” Then Allah says, “Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah’s command.” which indicates that their punishment will be of a type comparable to their deeds. They enjoyed themselves, were arrogant in their denial of the truth, and were involved in sinning and disobedience. Thus, Allah punishes them with extreme humiliation, disgrace, severe pains, continued sorrow, and positions in the terrible depths of Hell – may Allah protect us from all of that.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 42-66

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