Surah Az-Zukhruf Ayat 36-89 (end)

{36. And whosoever Yashu (turns away blindly) from the remembrance of the Most Gracious, We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.

37. And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright!

38. Till, when (such a one) comes to Us, he says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts (or the east and west) a worst companion (indeed)!”

39. It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.

40. Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error?

41. And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.

42. Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.

43.So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.

44. And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people, and you will be questioned.

45. And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”}

 

The Shaytan is the Companion of the One Who turns away from Ar-Rahman

“And whosoever Yashu (turns away blindly)” means, whoever willfully ignores and turns away “from the remembrance of the Most Gracious,” Al-Asha (the root of Yash) refers to weakness of vision; what is meant here is weakness of insight. “We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.” This is like the Ayat: “And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him” (4:115), “So when they turned away, Allah turned their hearts away” (61:5), and “And We have assigned for them intimate companions, who have made fair seeming to them, what was before them and what was behind them” (41:25). Allah says here: “And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright! Until, when he comes to Us,” meaning, for this person who willfully neglects true guidance, We send to him a Shaytan to lead him astray and show him the path to Hell. When he comes before Allah on the Day of Resurrection, he will complain about the Shaytan who was appointed to accompany him. “He says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts — a worst companion (indeed)!” Some of them recited it; “Till, when they both come to Us.” referring to the companion Shaytan and the one whom he accompanies. Then Allah says: “It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.” means, ‘your being together in the Fire will not help you in the slightest, and you will both partake of the painful punishment.’ Allah says: “Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error?” means, ‘that is not up to you. All you have to do is convey the Message, but you do not have to guide them. Allah guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He is Wise and Just in doing so.’

Allah’s Vengeance upon the Enemies of His Messenger will surely come to pass

Allah further says: “And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.” means, ‘We will inevitably wreak vengeance upon them and punish them, even if you pass away.’ “Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.” means, ‘We are able to do both,’ but Allah will not take His Messenger (in death) until He gives him the joy of seeing his enemies brought low and gives him power and authority over them and their wealth. This was the view of As-Suddi and was the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 21:609)

Encouragement to adhere to the Qur’an

Allah then says; “So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.” means, hold fast to the Qur’an which has been sent down to your heart, for it is truth and what it leads to is truth that shows the way to the straight path that leads to Gardens of Delight and eternal, everlasting goodness. “And verily, this is a Dhikr for you and your people,” It was said that this means, ‘it is an honor for you and your people;’ this was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 21:610, 611)

This means that it is an honour for them in that it was revealed in their language, so they are the people who have the best understanding of it among mankind and hence are obliged to be the most steadfast in adhering to its commandments. This is how the best of them were, the first immigrants and those who emulated them and followed them. It was also said that the meaning of the phrase; “And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people,” was that ‘it was sent to remind you and your people.’ The fact that they are singled out does not exclude others. This is like the Ayat: “Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book in which there is Dhikrukum (your Reminder). Will you not then understand” (21:10) “And warn your tribe of near kindred” (26:214) “and you will be questioned.” means, ‘about this Qur’an, and how you acted upon it and what your response to it was.’ “And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious?” means, ‘all the Messengers called their people to the same as that to which you are calling mankind, namely the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and they forbade the worship of idols and false gods.’ This is like the Ayah: “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.” (16:36) Mujahid said that Abdullah bin Masud recited it: “And ask those whom We sent before you of Our Messengers.” (At-Tabari 21:611) This was narrated by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi from Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him. (At-Tabari 21:611, 612) Yet this appears to be an explanation rather than an alternate version of recitation. And Allah knows best.

{46. And indeed We did send Musa with Our Ayat to Firawn and his chiefs. He said: “Verily, I am a Messenger of the Lord of all that exists.”

47. But when he came to them with Our Ayat, behold, they laughed at them.

48. And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it, and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn.

49. And they said (to Musa): “O you sorcerer! Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has made a pact with you. Verily, We shall guide ourselves.”

50. But when We removed the torment from them, behold, they broke their covenant.}

Musa was sent with the Message of Tawhid to Firawn and His Chiefs

Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and how He sent him to Firawn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers, leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel. Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives. Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who had brought it. “And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it,” but despite that they would not give up their sin, misguidance, ignorance and confusion. Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa, saying, “O you sorcerer!…” meaning, expert or knowledgeable one — this was the view of Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 21:615) The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they thought. On each occasion, they promised Musa that if the torment was lifted from them, they would believe in him and let the Children of Israel go with him, but on each occasion they went back on their word. This is like the Ayat: “So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they broke their word!”‘ (7:133-135)

{51. And Firawn proclaimed among his people (saying): “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then”

52. “Am I not better than this one (Musa) who is despicable and can scarcely express himself clearly”

53. Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him”

54. Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.

55. So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.

56. And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.}

Firawn’s Address to His People and how Allah punished Him

Allah tells us how Firawn stubbornly persisted in his rebellion and disbelief. He assembled his people and addressed them in a vainglorious fashion, boasting of his dominion over Egypt. “Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me?” Qatadah said, “They had gardens and rivers of flowing water.” (At-Tabari 21:616) “See you not then” means, ‘do you not see my position of might and power’ — implying that Musa and his followers were poor and weak. This is like the Ayah: “Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud, saying: “I am your lord, most high.” So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.” (79:23-25) “Am I not better than this one who is despicable?” As-Suddi said, “He was saying, ‘indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable’.” (At-Tabari 21:616) Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Firawn — may the curse of Allah be upon him — was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of Resurrection. By describing Musa as despicable he meant — as Sufyan said — insignificant. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “He meant, weak.” Ibn Jarir said, “He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.” “and can scarcely express himself clearly” means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well. Firawn’s description of Musa as “despicable” is a lie; rather it is he who was despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms, and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright. “and can scarcely express himself clearly”. This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa’s tongue when he was a child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said: “You are granted your request, O Musa” (20:36). It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though Firawn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said: “Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him…?” meaning, adornments which are placed on the arms. This was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and others. (At-Tabari 21:619) “or angels sent along with him” meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that. Allah says: “Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.” meaning, he confused them and invited them to misguidance, and they responded to him. “Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.” Then Allah says: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said it means: “When they angered Us means, they provoked Our wrath.” (At-Tabari 21:622) Ad-Dahhak said, it means “They made Us angry.” This was also the view of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Said bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and other scholars of Tafsir. (At-Tabari 21:622)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Uqbah bin Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.”

Then he recited: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” (Ahmad 4:145, with a slight difference)

It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said, “I was with Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden death was mentioned. He said, ‘It is a relief for the believer and a source of regret for the disbeliever.’ Then he recited the Ayah: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:384)

Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” “And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.” Abu Mijlaz said, “Precedent for others who do the same as they did.” (Al-Qurtubi 16:102) He and Mujahid said, “An example, i.e., a lesson to those who come after them.” (At-Tabari 21:624) Allah is the One Who guides to the straight path, and unto Him is the final return.

{57. And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.

58.And say: “Are our gods better or is he?” They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.

59. He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.

60. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.

61. And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour. Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path.

62. And let not Shaytan hinder you. Verily, he (Shaytan) to you is a plain enemy.

63. And when Isa came with clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah, and in order to make clear to you some of that in which you differ. Therefore have Taqwa of Allah and obey me.”

64. “Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.”

65. But the sects from among themselves differed. So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day!}

The Contempt of the Quraysh for the son of Maryam, and His true Status with Allah

Allah tells us how the Quraysh persisted in their disbelief and stubborn arguments: “And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.” Several others narrated that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak said, “They laughed, i.e., they were astounded by that.” (Al-Qurtubi 16:103) Qatadah said, “They were repelled by that and they laughed.” (At-Tabari 21:627) Ibrahim An-Nakhai said, “They turned away.” (Al-Qurtubi 16:103)

The reason for this was mentioned by Muhammad bin Ishaq in As-Sirah. He said, “According to what I have heard, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, sat down one day with Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah in the Masjid, and An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came and sat down with them. There were also other men from the Quraysh in the gathering. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, spoke, then An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came up to him and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, spoke to him until he defeated him in argument. Then he recited to him and to them, “Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.” (21:98) Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, got up and went to sit with Abdullah bin Al-Zabari At-Tamimi. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said to him, ‘By Allah, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith could not match the son of Abd Al-Muttalib in argument. Muhammad claims that we and these gods that we worship are fuel for Hell.’ Abdullah bin Az-Zabari said, ‘By Allah, if I meet with him I will defeat him in argument. Ask Muhammad whether everyone that is worshipped instead of Allah will be in Hell with those who worshipped him, for we worship the angels, and the Jews worship Uzayr, and the Christians worship the Messiah Isa bin Maryam.’ Al-Walid and those who were sitting with him were amazed at what Abdullah bin Az-Zabari said, and they thought that he had come up with a good point. He said this to the Messenger of Allah , who said: “Everyone who likes to worship something other than Allah will be with the one whom he worshipped, for indeed they are worshipping the Shaytan and whomever told them to worship that person.” Then Allah revealed the words: “Verily, those for whom the good has preceded from Us, they will be removed far therefrom (Hell)” (21:101), meaning that Isa, Uzayr and rabbis and monks who were also worshipped, who spent their lives in devotion towards Allah. The misguided people who came after them took them as lords instead of Allah. Concerning the notion of worshipping the angels as daughters of Allah, the following words were revealed: “And they say: “The Most Gracious has begotten a son (or children).” Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.” (21:26) Concerning Isa bin Maryam, the fact that he is worshipped instead of Allah, and to the amazement of Al-Walid and the others who were present at the argument, the following was revealed: “And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.” meaning, they take this argument as a basis for rejecting your message. Then Allah mentions ‘Isa bin Maryam and says: “He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth. And he (Isa) shall be a known sign for the Hour.” meaning, the miracles and signs that happened at his hands, such as raising the dead and healing the sick, are sufficient as signs of the approach of the Hour. “Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path.”(Ibn Hisham 1:396-398)

Ibn Jarir mentioned that Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah: “And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.” “This means the Quraysh, when it was said to them: “Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.” (21:98) The Quraysh said to him: ‘What about Isa bin Maryam’ He said: “He is the servant and Messenger of Allah.” They said, ‘By Allah, he means that we should take him as a lord just as the Christians took Isa son of Maryam as a lord.’ Then Allah said: “They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.”(At-Tabari 21:625)“And say: “Are our gods better or is he?”. Qatadah said, “They were saying, ‘Our gods are better than him’.” Qatadah said; “Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him, recited it. “Are our gods better or is this (person)?” they mean Muhammad . “They quoted not the above example except for argument.” means, for the sake of stubborn argument, for they knew that he (Isa) was not included in the Ayah (21:98), because that would not make sense. The words, “Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell!” (21:98) are addressed to the Quraysh, for they used to worship idols and false gods — they did not worship the Messiah so why should he be included in what the Ayah says What they said was only for the sake of argument; they did not really believe in it.

Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“No people go astray after having been guided, but they resort to (futile) argument.”

Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, recited this Ayah: “They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.” (Ahmad 5:256) It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih, we do not know it except from the Hadith of Hajjaj bin Dinar…” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:130) “He (Isa) was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him,” means, Isa, peace be upon him; he was no more than one of the servants of Allah whom Allah blessed with prophethood and messengership. “and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.” means, ‘a sign, proof and evidence of Our power to do whatever We will.’ “And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.” As-Suddi said, “They would have taken your place on (the earth). ” (At-Tabari 21:631) Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Qatadah said, “They would have succeeded one another just as you succeed one another.” (At-Tabari 21:630) This view is implied by the former veiw. Mujahid said, “They would have populated the earth instead of you.” (At-Tabari 21:630)

Allah’s saying: “And he (Isa) shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.” The correct view concerning this phrase is that it refers to his descent before the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says: “And there is none of the People of the Scripture but must believe in him before his death” (4:159). — meaning before the death of Isa, peace be upon him — And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them (4:159). This meaning has the support from an alternate recitation of the Ayat “And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.” means, evidence that the Hour will surely come. Mujahid said: “And he shall be a sign for (the coming of) the Hour.” means, sign and “One of the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of Isa son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection.” (At-Tabari 21:632) Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Abu Malik, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. (At-Tabari 21:632) Many Mutawatir Hadiths report that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said that Isa will descend before the Day of Resurrection as a just ruler and fair judge. “Therefore have no doubt concerning it.” means, do not doubt that it will surely come to pass. “And follow Me.” means, ‘in what I tell you about it.’ “This is the straight path. And let not Shaytan hinder you.” means, from following the truth. “Verily, he (Satan) to you is a plain enemy. And when `Isa came with (Our) clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah…”, meaning prophethood: “and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) in which you differ.” Ibn Jarir said, “This means religious matters, not worldly matters.” (At-Tabari 21:635) What he said is good. “Therefore have Taqwa of Allah” means, ‘with regard to what I command you to do.’ “and obey me.” means, ‘in what I bring to you.’ “Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.” means, ‘you and I are enslaved to Him, in need of Him and we commonly share in the worship of Him Alone, associating none with Him.’ “This is the straight path” means, ‘what I have brought to you is the straight path, which is the worship of the Lord, may He exalted, Alone.’ “But the sects from among themselves differed.” means, they differed and became parties and factions, some who stated that he (Isa) was the servant and Messenger of Allah — which is true – while others claimed that he was the son of Allah or that he himself was Allah — glorified be Allah far above what they say. Allah says: “So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day!”

{66. Do they only wait for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not?

67. Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.

68. My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve,

69. (You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.

70. Enter Paradise, you and your wives, in happiness.

71. Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them; (there will be) therein all that their souls desire, and all that eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever.

72. This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.

73. Therein for you will be fruits in plenty, of which you will eat (as you desire).}

 

The Resurrection will come suddenly, and Enmity will arise between close Friends among the Disbelieve

Allah says, ‘do these idolaters who disbelieve in the Messengers wait’ “only for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not” means, for it is real and will inevitably come to pass, and these negligent people are unprepared for it. When it comes, it will catch them unawares, and on that Day they will feel the utmost regret when regret will not benefit them in the slightest and will not afford them any protection. “Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.” means, every friendship that exists for a purpose other than for the sake of Allah will turn to enmity on the Day of Resurrection, except for that which is for the sake of Allah, which will last forever. This is like the statement of Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to his people: “You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.” (29:25)

Good News for Those with Taqwa on the Day of Resurrection, and Their entry into Paradise

“My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.” Then He will give them the glad tidings: “(You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.” means, their hearts believed and they submitted inwardly and outwardly to the Laws of Allah.

Al-Mutamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said: “When the Day of Resurrection comes and the people are resurrected, there will be no one left who will not be filled with terror. Then a caller will cry out: “My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.” So all the people will be filled with hope, but this will be followed by the words: “(You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.” Then all of mankind will be filled with despair apart from the believers.” (At-Tabari 21:639)

“Enter Paradise,” means, they will be told to enter Paradise. “you and your wives,” means, your counterparts “in happiness (Tuhbarun).” means, in delight and joy. “Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them” means, fine vessels of gold containing food and drink, without spouts or handles. “(there will be) therein all that their souls could desire”. “Some of them recited: “that their souls desire,” “and all that eyes could delight in” means, of good food, delightful fragrances and beautiful scenes. “and you will therein” means, in Paradise “abide forever” means, you will never leave it or want to exchange it.

Then it will be said to them, as a reminder of the blessing and favour of Allah: “This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.” means, the righteous deeds which were the cause of your being included in the mercy of Allah. For no one will be admitted to Paradise by virtue of their deeds alone; that will be by the mercy and grace of Allah. But the varying ranks and degrees of Paradise will be attained according to one’s righteous deeds. “Therein for you will be fruits in plenty,” means, of all kinds. “of which you will eat.” means, whatever you choose and desire. When food and drink are mentioned, fruit is also mentioned to complete the picture of blessing and joy. And Allah knows best.

{74. Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever.

75. (The torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein.

76. We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.

77. And they will cry: “O Malik (keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord make an end of us.” He will say: “Verily, you shall abide forever.”

78. Indeed We have brought the truth to you, but most of you have a hatred for the truth.

79. Or have they plotted some plan? Then We too are planning.

80. Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel? Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.}

The Punishment of the Doomed

The description of the state of the blessed is followed by a description of the state of the doomed. “Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. It will not be lightened for them,” meaning, not even for one moment. “and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein,” means, they will despair of any goodness. “We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.” means, by their committing wrong actions after proof had been established against them and Messengers had been sent to them, but they rejected them and rebelled, so they are to be punished accordingly. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants. “And they will cry: “O Malik…” who is the keeper of Hell. Al-Bukhari said, “Hajjaj bin Minhal told us, Sufyan bin Uyaynah told us, from Amr bin Ata, from Safwan bin Yala that his father, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting on the Minbar: “And they will cry: “O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:431) meaning, ‘let Him destroy our souls and give us some respite from our predicament.’ But it will be as Allah says: “Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them” (35:36). “But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die (to be in rest) nor live (a good living).” (87:11-13). When they ask to be allowed to die, Malik will answer them: He will say: Verily, you shall abide forever. meaning, you will have no way out from it and no refuge. Then the reason why they are doomed will be given, which is their stubborn resistance to the truth. Allah says: “Indeed We have brought the truth to you,” meaning, ‘We have explained it to you clearly and in detail.’ “but most of you have a hatred for the truth.” means, ‘but your nature could not accept it and did not seek it; on the contrary, you followed and venerated falsehood, and you stood in the way of truth and refused it, and despised its followers.’ So they will blame themselves and will feel regret at the time when regret will not be of any benefit to them. Then Allah says: “Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.” Mujahid said, “They wanted to plot some evil, but We are also planning.” (At-Tabari 21:146) What Mujahid said is like the Ayah: “So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not.” (27:50). The idolators were trying their utmost to find ways of refuting the truth with falsehood, but Allah planned it so that the consequences of that would backfire on them. He said in refutation: “Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel” meaning, what they say secretly and openly. “Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.” means, ‘We know what they are doing, and the angels are also recording their deeds, major and minor.’

{81. Say: “If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.”

82. Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).

83. So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense and play until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.

84. It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.

85. And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned.

86. And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession — except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.

87. And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away

88. And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”

89. So turn away from them, and say: Salam (peace!) But they will come to know.}

Allah has no Offspring

Allah says: “Say” — `O Muhammad’ — “If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.” meaning, ‘if this were so, then I would worship Him on that basis, because I am one of His servants; I obey all that He commands me and I am not too arrogant or proud to worship Him.’ This conditional phrase does not mean that what is described could happen nor that is possible as Allah says: “Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.” (39:4). Allah says here: “Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).” meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be the Creator of all things far above having any offspring, for He is Unique, One and Eternally Self-Sufficient. There is none equal to Him or like Him, and He does not have any offspring. “So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense” means, in their ignorance and misguidance, “and play” in their world, “until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.” which is the Day of Resurrection, i.e., then they will come to know what their end and destination will be on that Day.

The Uniqueness of the Lord

“It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth.” means, He is the God of those who are in the heavens and the God of those who are on earth; all of them worship Him and are humbled before Him. “And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.” This Ayah is like the Ayah: “And He is Allah in the heavens and on the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.” (6:3) which means, He is the One who is called Allah in the heavens and on the earth. “And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them,” means, He is their Creator and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling them with none to resist or oppose His rule. Blessed and exalted be He far above the notion of His having a child. He is eternally free of all faults and shortcomings, because He is the Lord, the Exalted, the Almighty, the Sovereign of all things, Who is in control of all affairs. “and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour,” means, no one knows when it will happen except Him. “and to Whom you (all) will be returned.” means, and each person will be requited for his deeds; if they are good, then he will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then he will be punished.

The Idols have no Power of Intercession

“And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power” means, the idols and false gods. “of intercession” means, they are not able to intercede for them. “except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.” This means, but the one who bears witness to the truth has knowledge and insight, so his intercession with Allah will avail, by His leave.

The Idolators admit that Allah Alone is the Creator

“And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away” means, ‘if you ask these idolators who associate others in worship with Allah,’ “who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” means, they will admit that He Alone is the Creator of all things and He has no partner in that. Yet despite that they still worship others alongside Him who have nothing and are able to do nothing. This is the utmost foolishness and stupidity. Allah says: “How then are they turned away?”

The Prophet’s Complaint to Allah

“And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!” means, Muhammad said this; he complained to his Lord about his people who did not believe in him, and said, `O Lord, these people do not believe.’ This is like the Ayah: “And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur’an.” (25:30). This is the view of Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid and Qatadah, and this is how Ibn Jarir interpreted it. (At-Tabari 21:656)

Al-Bukhari said: “Abdullah — meaning Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him — recited (Ayah 88 of Az-Zukhruf): “And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord!” (Fath Al-Bari8:431) Mujahid said concerning the Ayah: “And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!” “Allah is stating what Muhammad said.” (At-Tabari 21:656) Qatadah said, “These are the words of your Prophet , when he complained about his people to his Lord.” (At-Tabari 21:656) “So turn away from them,” means, from the idolators. “and say Salam (peace!)” means, ‘do not respond to them in the same evil manner in which they address you; but try to soften their hearts and forgive them in word and deed.’ “But they will come to know.” This is a warning from Allah for them. His punishment, which cannot be warded off, struck them, and His religion and His word was supreme. Subsequently Jihad and striving were prescribed until the people entered the religion of Allah in crowds, and Islam spread throughout the east and the west. And Allah knows best.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Az-Zukhruf.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 636-668

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