Surah Al-Isra Ayat 39-58

{39. This is (part) of Al-Hikmah (wisdom) which your Lord has revealed to you. And set not up with Allah any other god lest you should be thrown into Hell, blameworthy and rejected (from Allah’s mercy).}

Everything previously mentioned is Revelation and Wisdom

Allah says: ‘What We have commanded you to do is part of good manners, and what We have forbidden you are evil qualities. We have revealed this to you, O Muhammad, so that you may command the people likewise.’ “And set not up with Allah any other god lest you should be thrown into Hell, blameworthy” meaning, your own self will blame you, as will Allah and His creation. “rejected” means far removed from everything good. Ibn Abbas and Qatadah said: “(It means) cast out.” (At-Tabari 17:452) This is an address to the Ummah via the Messenger , for he is infallible.

{40. Has then your Lord preferred for you sons, and taken for Himself from among the angels daughters Verily, you indeed utter an awful saying.}

Refutation of Those Who claim that the Angels are Daughters of Allah

Allah refutes the lying idolators who claim, may the curse of Allah be upon them, that the angels are the daughters of Allah. They made the angels, who are the servants of Ar-Rahman (the Most Beneficent), females, and called them daughters of Allah, then they worshipped them. They were gravely wrong on all three counts. Allah says, denouncing them: “Has then your Lord preferred for you sons” meaning, has He given only you sons “and taken for Himself from among the angels daughters” meaning, has He chosen for Himself, as you claim, daughters Then Allah denounces them even more severely, and says: “Verily, you indeed utter an awful saying.” meaning, in your claim that Allah has children, then you say that His children are female, which you do not like for yourselves and may even kill them by burying them alive. That is indeed a division most unfair! Allah says: “And they say: “The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a child.” Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins. That they ascribe a son child to the Most Beneficent. But it is not suitable for (the majesty of) the Most Beneficent that he should beget a child. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Beneficent as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And every one of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.” (19:88-95)

{41. And surely, We have explained in this Qur’an that they may take heed, but it increases them in naught save aversion.}

Allah says: “And surely, We have explained in this Qur’an” meaning, ‘We have explained Our warnings so that they may remember the proof, evidence and exhortations contained therein, and be prevented from Shirk, wrong-doing and scandal.’ “but it increases them in naught” the wrong-doers among them “save aversion.” aversion towards the truth; they go further away from it.

{42. Say: “If there had been other gods along with Him as they assert, then they would certainly have sought out a way to the Lord of the Throne. 

43. Glorified and Exalted is He high above what they say!}

Allah says: ‘Say, O Muhammad, to these idolators who claim that Allah has a partner among His creation, and who worship others besides Him that they may bring them nearer to Him: if the matter is as you say, and there is another god besides Him whom you worship in order to draw closer to Him and so that he will intercede for you with Him, then those whom you worship would themselves worship Him and seek means to draw closer to Him. So worship Him alone, just as those on whom you call besides Him worship Him. You have no need of a deity to be an intermediary between you and Him, for He does not like or accept that, rather He hates it and rejects it, and has forbidden that through all of His Messengers and Prophets.’ Then He glorifies and sanctifies Himself far above all that, and says: “Glorified and Exalted is He high above what they say!” meaning these idolators who transgress and do wrong when they claim that there are other gods besides Him. “high above” means, far above. He is Allah, the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need. He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable or coequal unto Him.

{44. The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.}

Everything glorifies Allah

Allah says: the seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, meaning the creatures that dwell therein, sanctify Him, exalt Him, venerate Him, glorify Him and magnify Him far above what these idolators say, and they bear witness that He is One in His Lordship and Divinity.

In everything there is a sign of Allah indicating that He is One. As Allah says: “Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins, That they ascribe child to the Most Beneficent” (19:90-91). “and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise.” there is no created being that does not celebrate the praises of Allah. “But you understand not their glorification.” means, ‘You do not understand them, O mankind, because it is not like your languages.’ This applies to all creatures generally, animal, inanimate and botanical. This is the better known of the two opinions according to the most reliable of two opinions. It was reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari that Ibn Masud said: “We used to hear the Tasbih of the food as it was being eaten. ” (Fath Al-Bari 6:679)

Imam Ahmad recorded that [Muadh bin Anas said that] the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, came upon some people who were sitting on their mounts and talking to one another. He said to them:

“Ride them safely then leave them safely. Do not use them as chairs for you to have conversations in the streets and marketplaces, because the one that is ridden may be better than the one who rides it, and may remember Allah more than he does.” (Ahmad 3:439)

An-Nasa’i recorded in his Sunan that Abdullah bin Amr said: “The Messenger of Allah forbade us from killing frogs.” (An-Nasai 7:210) “Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.” means, He does not hasten to punish those who disobey Him, rather He gives them time and waits, then if they persist in their stubborn Kufr, He seizes them with a punishment of the All-Mighty, All-Capable. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that:

“Allah will let the wrongdoer carry on until, when He does seize him, He will never let him go.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:205)

Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, recited:

“Such is the punishment of your Lord when He seizes the (population of) towns while they are doing wrong.” (11:02)

Allah says:“And many a township did I give respite while it was given to wrongdoing.” (22:45) until the end of two Ayat. “And many a township did We destroy while they were given to wrongdoing.” (22:48)

Whoever gives up his disbelief and disobedience, and turns back to Allah in repentance, Allah will accept his repentance, as He says: “And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness” (4:110) Here, Allah says: “Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.” At the end of Surah Fatir, He says: “Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving…” until His saying; “And if Allah were to punish men” (35:41-45)

{45. And when you recite the Qur’an, We put between you and those who believe not in the Hereafter, an invisible veil. 

46. And We have put Akinnah over their hearts, lest they should understand it, and in their ears deafness. And when you make mention of your Lord Alone in the Qur’an, they turn on their backs, fleeing in extreme dislike.}

The Veil over the Hearts of the Idolators

Allah says to His Messenger Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him: ‘When you recite Qur’an to these idolators, We put an invisible veil between you and them.’ Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said, “It is coverings over their hearts,” (At-Tabari 17:457) as Allah says: “And they say: “Our hearts are under coverings (screened) from that to which you invite us; and in our ears is deafness, and between us and you is a screen” meaning, there is something that is stopping and preventing your words from reaching us. “an invisible veil.” meaning something which covers, or that cannot be seen, so there is a barrier between them and guidance. This is the interpretation that Ibn Jarir (may Allah have mercy on him) thought was correct.

Al-Hafiz Abu Yala Al-Mawusili recorded that Asma bint Abi Bakr (may Allah be pleased with her) said, “When the Ayah, “Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!” (111:1) was revealed, the one-eyed woman Umm Jamil [the wife of Abu Lahab] came with a stone pestle in her hand, screaming, ‘What was sent to us is somebody blameworthy, or, we reject somebody blameworthy [Abu Musa – one of the narrators – said, it is I who am not sure what was said] we shun his religion and disobey whatever he commands!’ The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, was sitting with Abu Bakr by his side. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘This woman has come and I am afraid she will see you.’ The Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Certainly she will not see me.”

and he recited Qur’an through which he was protected from her: “And when you recite the Qur’an, We put between you and those who believe not in the Hereafter, an invisible veil.” She came and found Abu Bakr, but she did not see the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him. She said, ‘O Abu Bakr, I have heard that your companion is lampooning me.’ Abu Bakr said, ‘No, by the Lord of this House [the Kabah], he is not lampooning you.’ Then she went away, saying, ‘The Quraysh know that I am the daughter of their master.”’ (Musnad Abu Yala 1:53)

“And We have put coverings over their hearts”

Akinnah (coverings) is the plural of Kinan, which covers the heart. “lest they should understand it” means, lest they should understand the Qur’an. “and in their ears deafness” something that will stop them from hearing the Qur’an in such a way that they will understand it and be guided by it. “And when you make mention of your Lord Alone in the Qur’an” means, when you declare Allah to be One in your recitation, and say La Ilaha Illallah, “they turn” means they turn away “on their backs, fleeing in extreme dislike.”

As Allah says: “And when Allah Alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the Hereafter are filled with disgust (from the Oneness of Allah).” (39:45) “And when you make mention of your Lord Alone in the Qur’an”

Commenting on this Ayah, Qatadah said that when the Muslims said La Ilaha Illallah, the idolators disliked this and found it intolerable. Iblis and his troops hated it, but Allah insisted on supporting it so that it would prevail over those who opposed it. Whoever uses it against his opponent will prevail, and whoever fights for it will be victorious. Only the Muslims of the Arabian Peninsula, which can be traversed by a rider in a few nights, knew it and accepted it, out of all mankind. (At-Tabari 17:458)

{47. We know best of what they listen to, when they listen to you. And when they take secret counsel, then the wrongdoers say: “You follow none but a bewitched man.” 

48. See what examples they have put forward for you. So they have gone astray, and never can they find a way.}

The Secret Counsel of Quraysh after hearing the Qur’an

Allah tells His Prophet about what the leaders of Quraysh discussed when they came and listened to him reciting Qur’an in secret, without their people knowing about it. They said that he was Mashur which according to the better-known view means someone affected by magic (Sihr); it may also mean a man who has a lung, i.e., a mere human being, as if they were saying that if you follow Muhammad, you will only be following a human being. This second suggestion does not sound correct, because what they meant here was that he was under the influence of Sihr (magic) which made him see dreams in which he learned these words that he recited. Some of them said he was a poet, or a soothsayer, or crazy, or a sorcerer. Allah says: “See what examples they have put forward for you. So they have gone astray, and never can they find a way.” meaning, they will never be guided to the truth and will never find a way to reach it. Muhammad bin Ishaq said in As-Sirah: “Muhammad bin Muslim bin Shihab Az-Zuhri told me that it happened that Abu Sufyan bin Harb, Abu Jahl bin Hisham and Al-Akhnas bin Shurayq bin Amr bin Wahb Ath-Thaqafi, the ally of Bani Zahrah, went out one night to listen to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, when he was praying at night in his house. Each one of them took up a position for listening, and none of them knew that the others were also there. They stayed listening to him all night until dawn came. When they left, they met up on the road, each of them blaming the others, saying to one another; ‘Do not come back again, lest you give the wrong impression [i.e., that you like what you hear].’ Then they went away until the second night came, when each of them came back to his place and spent the night listening. When dawn came they left, then when they met up on the road, each of them blamed the others, saying the same as they had said the previous night. Then they went away until the third night came, when each of them came back to his place and spent the night listening. When dawn came they left, then when they met up on the road, they said to one another, ‘Let us not leave until we promise not to come back,’ so they made a promise to that effect, and went their separate ways. In the morning, Al-Akhnas bin Shurayq took his stick and went to the house of Abu Sufyan bin Harb, where he said, `Tell me, O Abu Hanzalah [i.e., Abu Sufyan], what do you think of what you have heard from Muhammad’ Abu Sufyan said, `O Abu Thalabah [i.e., Al-Akhnas], by Allah, I have heard something I understand and I know what is meant by it, and I have heard things I do not understand and do not know what is meant by it.’ Al-Akhnas said: ‘Me too, by the One by Whom you swore.’ Then he left and went to Abu Jahl, and entered his house. He said, ‘O Abu Al-Hakam [i.e., Abu Jahl], what do you think of what you have heard from Muhammad’ He said, ‘What did you hear?’ He said, ‘We and Banu Abd Manaf competed for honor and position: they fed people so we fed people, they engaged in battle so we engaged in battle, they gave so we gave, until we were neck and neck, like race horses. Then they said, we have a Prophet among us who receives revelation from heaven. How could we compete with that By Allah we will never believe in him.’ Then Al-Akhnas got up and left him.” (Ibn Hisham 1:337)

{49. And they say: “When we are bones and fragments (destroyed), should we really be resurrected (to be) a new creation?”

 50. Say: “Be you stones or iron,” 

51. “Or some created thing that is yet greater (or harder) in your breasts.” Then, they will say: “Who shall bring us back (to life)” Say: “He Who created you first!” Then, they will shake their heads at you and say: “When will that be” Say: “Perhaps it is near!” 

52. On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with (words of) His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed (in this world) but a little while!}

Refutation of Those Who do not believe in Life after Death

Allah tells us about the disbelievers who think it very unlikely that the Resurrection will happen and who say, in a tone of denial, “When we are bones and fragments.” meaning earth. This was the view of Mujahid. Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas that it means dust. “should we really be resurrected (to be) a new creation” meaning, on the Day of Resurrection after we have disintegrated and become nothing, and have been forgotten. Allah tells us about them elsewhere: “They say: “Shall we indeed be returned to (our) former state of life Even after we are crumbled bones” They say: “It would in that case, be a return with loss!” (79:10-12). And, “And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation.” until the end of two Ayat. (36:78-79)

Allah commands His Messenger to respond to them, so He says: “Say (O Muhammad): “Be you stones or iron,” – which are more difficult to restore than bones and fragments, “Or some created thing that is yet greater (or harder) in your breasts.”

Ibn Ishaq narrated from Ibn Abi Najih from Mujahid: “I asked Ibn Abbas about that, and he said: ‘This is death.”’ Atiyah reported that Ibn Umar explained of this Ayah: “If you were dead I would still resurrect you.” (At-Tabari 17:463) This was also the view of Said bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. (At-Tabari 17:463) This means that if you were to assume that you would become dead, which is the opposite of living, Allah will resurrect you when He wills, for nothing can stop Him when He wills a thing. “Or some created thing that is yet greater (or harder) in your breasts.” Mujahid said: “This means the heavens, earth and mountains.” According to another report, “Whatever you want to be, go ahead, Allah will still resurrect you after you die.” “Then, they will say: “Who shall bring us back (to life)” meaning, who will resurrect us if we are stones or iron or some other strong created thing “Say: “He Who created you first!” meaning, He Who created you when you were nothing, then you became human beings, walking about. He is able to create you anew, no matter what you have become. “And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.” (30:27) “Then, they will shake their heads at you” Ibn Abbas and Qatadah said, “They will move their heads in a gesture of mockery.” (At-Tabari 17:467) This view expressed by Ibn Abbas and Qatadah is what the Arabs understand from the language, because the word used Fasayunghidun indicates an up-and-down movement Nughad. A word derived from the same root, Naghd, is used to refer to the young of the ostrich, because when it walks, it walks quickly and moves its head. The same word is used to describe a tooth when it becomes loose and is detached from its place. “and say: “When will that be” This shows that they thought it very unlikely that it would happen, as Allah says: “And they say: “When will this promise (i.e. Resurrection) be fulfilled, if you are truthful” (36:48) “Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it [the Hour]” (42:18) “Say: “Perhaps it is near!” meaning, beware of it, for it is at hand and will no doubt come to you, and what will be will be. “On the Day when He will call you” meaning the Lord, may He be blessed and exalted: “When He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth” (30:25) meaning, when He commands you to come out from the earth, for nothing can oppose Him or prevent His command from being fulfilled. Rather, it is as He says: “And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye” (54:50) “Verily, Our Word unto a thing when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: “Be!” – and it is” (16:40) “But it will be only a single Zajrah. [See the explanation of Surat An-Naziat 79:13-14] When behold, they find themselves (on the surface of the earth) alive (after their death).” (79:13-14), meaning, it will be just one definitive command, then the people will have come out from the inside of the earth to its surface, as Allah says: “On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with (words of) His praise” meaning, you will all rise up in response to His command and in obedience to His will. “and you will think” means, on the Day when you rise up from your graves,“that you have stayed” in this earthly abode, “but a little while.” This is like the Ayah: “The Day they see it, (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an afternoon or a morning.” (79:46). Allah says: “The Day when the Trumpet will be blown: that Day, We shall gather the blue or blind-eyed with thirst. They will speak in a very low voice to each other (saying): “You stayed not longer than ten (days).” We know very well what they will say, when the best among them in knowledge and wisdom will say: “You stayed no longer than a day!”  (20:102-104). “And on the Day that the Hour will be established, they will swear that they stayed not but an hour – thus were they ever deluded.” (30:55) “He will say: “What number of years did you stay on earth” They will say: “We stayed a day or part of a day. Ask of those who keep account.” He will say: “You stayed not but a little, if you had only known!” (23:112-114).

{53. And say to My servants that they should say those words that are best. (Because) Shaytan verily, sows a state of conflict and disagreement among them. Surely, Shaytan is to man a plain enemy.}

People should speak Good Words with Politeness

Allah commands His servant Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, to tell the believing servants of Allah that they should address one another in their conversations and discussions with the best and politest of words, for if they do not do that, Shaytan will sow discord among them, and words will lead to actions, so that evil and conflicts and fights will arise among them. For Shaytan is the enemy of Adam and his descendants, and has been since he refused to prostrate to Adam. His enmity is obvious and manifest. For this reason it is forbidden for a man to point at his Muslim brother with an iron instrument, for Shaytan may cause him to strike him with it.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“No one of you should point at his brother with a weapon, for he does not know whether Shaytan will cause him to strike him with it and thus be thrown into a pit of Fire.” (Ahmad 2:317)

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith with the chain of narration from Abdur-Razzaq. (Fath Al-Bari 13:26, Muslim 4:2020)

{54. Lord knows you best; if He wills, He will have mercy on you, or if He wills, He will punish you. And We have not sent you as a guardian over them. 

55. And your Lord knows best all who are in the heavens and the earth. And indeed, We have preferred some of the Prophets above others, and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.}

Allah says: “Your Lord knows you best” O mankind, meaning, He knows best who among you deserves to be guided and who does not deserve to be guided.“if He wills, He will have mercy on you” by helping you to obey Him and turn to Him.“or if He wills, He will punish you. And We have not sent you” – O Muhammad – “as a guardian over them.” meaning, ‘We have sent you as a warner, so whoever obeys you, will enter Paradise and whoever disobeys you, will enter Hell.’ “And your Lord knows best all who are in the heavens and the earth.” meaning, their status or level of obedience or disobedience.

The Preference of some Prophets above Others

“And indeed, We have preferred some of the Prophets above others.” As Allah says: “Those Messengers! We preferred some of them to others; to some of them Allah spoke (directly); others He raised to degrees (of honor.)” (2:253) This does not contradict the report in the Two Sahihs which says that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“Don’t give superiority to any Prophet among (Allah’s) Prophets.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:519, Muslim 4:1844)

What is meant in this Hadith is giving a superiority based on whims and fanaticism or sectarian feelings, not on the basis of evidence. If there is solid evidence, we have to follow it. There is no dispute that the Messengers are better than the rest of the Prophets, and that the mighty Messengers of Great Resolve are the best of all. They are the five mentioned in two Ayat of the Qur’an, in Surat Al-Ahzab: “And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you and from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa and Isa son of Maryam.” (33:7) and in Surat Ash-Shura:“He has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you, and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and Isa saying you should establish religion and make no divisions in it.” (42:13) There is no dispute that Muhammad is the best of them, then Ibrahim, then Musa, then Isa (peace be upon them all), according to the best-known view. We have discussed the evidence for this in detail elsewhere, and Allah is the source of help. Allah’s saying, “and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.” is an indication of his virtue and honor. Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“The Qur’an (i.e. revea- led Scripture of Zabur) was made easy for Dawud, so he would call for his mounts to be saddled, and he would finish reciting it (i.e., the Zabur) be- fore the job was done.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:522)

{56. Say: “Call upon those – besides Him whom you pretend. They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you nor even to shift (it from you to another person).” 

57. Those whom they call upon, desire a means of access to their Lord, as to which of them should be the nearest; and they hope for His mercy and fear His torment. Verily, the torment of your Lord is (something) to be afraid of!}

The gods of the Idolators can neither benefit nor harm; rather they themselves seek to draw close to Allah

Allah says:“Say” O Muhammad to these idolators who worship things other than Allah,“Call upon those – besides Him whom you pretend.” such as idols and rivals of Allah. Even if you turn to them,“They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you” they have no such power at all, “nor even to shift (it from you to another person.)” to lift the distress from you and give it to someone else. The meaning is that the only one Who is able to do that is Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, Who is the One Who creates and issues commands. “Say: “Call upon those whom you pretend”

Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas, “The people of Shirk used to say, ‘we worship the angels and the Messiah and Uzayr,’ while these (the angels and the Messiah and Uzayr) themselves call upon Allah.” (At-Tabari 17:471)  “Those whom they call upon, desire” Al-Bukhari recorded from Sulayman bin Mahran Al-Amash, from Ibrahim, from Abu Mamar, from Abdullah: “Those whom they call upon, desire a means of access to their Lord” “Some of the Jinn used to be worshipped, then they became Muslims.” According to another report: “Some humans used to worship some of the Jinn, then those Jinn became Muslim, but those humans adhered to their religion (of worshipping the Jinn).” (Fath Al-Bari 8:249, 250) “they hope for His mercy and fear His torment.” Worship cannot be complete or perfect unless it is accompanied by both fear and hope. Fear stops one from doing things that are forbidden, and hope makes one do more good deeds. “Verily, the torment of your Lord is (something) to be afraid of!” meaning, one should beware of it and be afraid lest it happen. We seek refuge with Allah from that.

{58. And there is not a town (population) but We shall destroy it before the Day of Resurrection, or punish it with a severe torment. That is written in the Book (of Our decrees)}

The Destruction or Torment of all Disbelieving Towns before the Hour begins

Here Allah tells us that He has decreed and it is written in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (The Preserved Tablet) which is with Him, that there is no town that He will not destroy by wiping out all its people or by punishing them, “with a severe torment.” either by killing them or sending calamities upon them as He wills. This will be because of their sins, as Allah says of the past nations: “We wronged them not, but they wronged themselves.” (11:101) “So it tasted the evil result of its affair (disbelief), and the consequence of its affair (disbelief) was loss.” (65:9) “And many a town (population) revolted against the command of its Lord and His Messengers” (65:8) and many Ayat.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 6 Pages 17-38

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