Surah Al-A’raf Part 7 Ayat 123-143

{123. Firawn said: “You have believed in him [Musa] before I gave you permission. Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city to drive out its people, but you shall come to know.”

124. “Surely, I will cut off your hands and your feet from opposite sides, then I will crucify you all.”

125. They said: “Verily, we are returning to our Lord.”

126. “And you take vengeance on us only because we believed in the Ayat of our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience, and cause us to die as Muslims.”}

Firawn threatens the Magicians after They believed in Musa and Their Response to Him

Allah mentions the threats that the Firawn – may Allah curse him – made to the magicians after they believed Musa, peace be upon him, and the deceit and cunning that Firawn showed the people. Firawn said, “Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city to drive out its people” meaning Firawn proclaimed, ‘Musa’s defeating you today was because you plotted with him and agreed to that.’ Firawn also said, “He (Musa) is your chief who has taught you magic.” (20:71) However, Firawn and all those who had any sense of reason knew for sure that what Firawn said was utterly false. As soon as Musa came from Madyan, he called Firawn to Allah and demonstrated tremendous miracles and clear proofs for the Truth that he brought. Firawn then sent emissaries to various cities of his kingdom and collected magicians who were scattered throughout Egypt. Firawn and his people chose from them, summoned them, and Firawn promised them great rewards. These magicians were very eager to prevail over Musa in front of Firawn, so that they might become closer to him. Musa neither knew any of them nor saw or met them before. Firawn knew that, but he claimed otherwise to deceive the ignorant masses of his kingdom, just as Allah described them, “Thus he [Firawn] fooled his people, and they obeyed him.” (43:54) Certainly, a people who believed Firawn in his statement, “I am your lord, most high.” (79:24), are among the most ignorant and misguided creatures of Allah.

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas, and several other Companions, commented, “Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city…” “Musa met the leader of the magicians and said to him, ‘If I defeat you, will you believe in me and bear witness that what I brought is the truth’ The magician said, ‘Tomorrow, I will produce a type of magic that cannot be defeated by another magic. By Allah! If you defeat me, I will believe in you and testify to your truth.’ Firawn was watching them, and this is why he said what he said.” (At-Tabari 13:33) His statement, “to drive out its people”, means, so that you all cooperate to gain influence and power, replacing the chiefs and masters of this land. In this case, power in the state will be yours, “but you shall come to know”, what I will do to you. He then explained his threat, “Surely, I will cut off your hands and your feet from opposite sides.” by cutting the right hand and the left leg or the opposite, “then I will crucify you all.” just as he said in another Ayah, “Fi the trunks of date palms” (20:71), Fi in this Ayah means “on”. Ibn Abbas said that Firawn was the first to crucify and cut off hands and legs on opposite sides. (At-Tabari 13:34) The magicians said, “Verily, we are returning to our Lord.” They said, ‘We are now sure that we will go back to Allah. Certainly, Allah’s punishment is more severe than your punishment and His torment for what you are calling us to, this day, and the magic you forced us to practice, is greater than your torment. Therefore, we will observe patience in the face of your punishment today, so that we are saved from Allah’s torment.’ They continued, “Our Lord! Pour out on us patience”, with your religion and being firm in it, “and cause us to die as Muslims.”, as followers of Your Prophet Musa, peace be upon him. They also said to Firawn, “So decide whatever you desire to decree, for you can only decide for the life of this world. Verily, we have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allah is better [to reward] and more lasting [in punishment]. Verily, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal, then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live. But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer, and has done righteous good deeds, for such are the high ranks (in the Hereafter).” (20:72-75).

The magicians started the day as sorcerers and ended as honorable martyrs! Ibn Abbas, Ubayd bin Umayr, Qatadah and Ibn Jurayj commented, “They started the day as sorcerers and ended it as martyrs.” (At-Tabari 13:36)

 

{127. The chiefs of Firawn’s people said: “Will you leave Musa and his people to spread mischief in the land, and to abandon you and your gods?” He said: “We will kill their sons, and let their women live, and we have indeed irresistible power over them.”

128. Musa said to his people: “Seek help in Allah and be patient. Verily, the earth is Allah’s. He gives it as a heritage to whom He wills of His servants; and the (blessed) end is for the pious and righteous persons.”

129. They said: “We suffered troubles before you came to us, and since you have come to us.” He said: “It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors on the earth, so that He may see how you act”}

Firawn vows to kill the Children of Israel, Who complain to Musa; Allah promises Them Victory

Allah mentions the conspiracy of Firawn and his people, their ill intentions and their hatred for Musa and his people. “The chiefs of Firawn’s people said”, to Firawn, “Will you leave Musa and his people”, will you let them be free, “to spread mischief in the land”, spreading unrest among your subjects and calling them to worship their Lord instead of you Amazingly, these people were worried that Musa and his people would cause mischief! Rather, Firawn and his people are the mischief-makers, but they did not realize it. They said, “and to abandon you and your gods?” ‘Your gods’, according to Ibn Abbas, as As-Suddi narrated from him, “Were cows. Whenever they saw a beautiful cow, Firawn would command them to worship it. This is why As-Samiri, made the statue of a calf that seemed to moo for the Children of Israel.” (At-Tabari 13:38) Firawn accepted his people’s recommendation, saying, “We will kill their sons, and let their women live” thus reiterating his previous order concerning the Children of Israel. He had tormented them [killing every newly born male] before Musa was born, so that Musa would not live. However, the opposite of what Firawn sought and intended occurred. The same end struck Firawn that he intended to subjugate and humiliate the Children of Israel with. Allah gave victory to the Children of Israel, humiliated and disgraced Firawn, and caused him to drown along with his soldiers.

When Firawn insisted on his evil plot against the Children of Israel, “Musa said to his people: “Seek help in Allah and be patient” and promised them that the good end will be theirs and that they will prevail, saying, “Verily, the earth is Allah’s. He gives it as a heritage to whom He wills of His servants; and the (blessed) end is for the pious and righteous persons.” They said: “We suffered troubles before you came to us, and since you have come to us.”

The Children of Israel replied to Musa, ‘they (Firawn and his people) inflicted humiliation and disgrace on us, some you witnessed, both before and after you came to us, O Musa’! Musa replied, reminding them of their present situation and how it will change in the future, “It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy…” encouraging them to appreciate Allah when the afflictions are removed and replaced by a bounty.

{130. And indeed We punished the people of Firawn with years of drought and lack of fruits (crops), that they might remember (take heed).

131. But whenever good came to them, they said: “This is for us.” And if evil afflicted them, they considered it an omen about Musa and those with him. Be informed! Verily, their omens are with Allah but most of them know not.}

 

Firawn and His People suffer Years of Drought

Allah said, And indeed We punished the people of Firawn” We tested and tried them, “with years of drought” of famine due to little produce, “and lack of fruits”, which is less severe, according to Mujahid. (At-Tabari 13:46) Abu Ishaq narrated that Raja bin Haywah said, “The date tree used to produce only one date!” (At-Tabari 13:46)  “That they might remember (take heed). But whenever good came to them” such as a fertile season and provisions, “they said, “This is for us.”, because we deserve it, “and if evil afflicted them” drought and famine, “they considered it an omen Musa and those with him.” saying that this hardship is because of them and what they have done. “Verily, their omens are with Allah” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah, “Verily, their omens are with Allah” “Allah says that their afflictions are with and from Him, “but most of them know not.” (At-Tabari 13:48)

{132. They said [to Musa] : “What ever Ayat you may bring to us, to work therewith your sorcery on us, we shall never believe in you.”

133. So We sent on them: the Tuwfan, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood (as a succession of) manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals.

134. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.”

135. But when We removed the punishment from them for a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! They broke their word!}

Allah punishes the People of Firawn because of Their Rebellion

Allah describes the rebellion, tyranny, defiance of the truth and insistence on falsehood of the people of Firawn, prompting them to proclaim, “Whatever Ayat you may bring to us, to work therewith your sorcery on us, we shall never believe in you.” They said, ‘whatever miracle, proof and evidence you bring us, we will neither accept it from you nor believe in you or what you came with.’ Allah said, “So We sent on them the Tufan”

Ibn Abbas commented; “It was a heavy rain that ruined the produce and fruits.” He is also reported to have said that Tuwfan refers to mass death. Mujahid said it is water that carries the plague every where. As for the locust, it is the well-known insect, which is permissible to eat. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that Abu Yafur said that he asked Abdullah bin Abi Awfa about locust. He said, “We participated in seven battles with the Messenger of Allah , and we used to eat locusts.” (Fath Al-Bari 9:535 and Muslim 3:1546) Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Ibn Majah recorded from Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam that his father narrated from Ibn Umar that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”We were allowed two dead animals and two [kinds of] blood: fish and locust, and kidney and spleen.” (Musnad Ash-Shaf’i 2:173, Ahmad 2:97 and Ibn Majah 2:1073)

Ibn Abi Najih narrated from Mujahid about Allah’s statement, ”So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts …” “Eating the nails on their doors and leaving the wood.” (At-Tabari 13:68) As for the Qummal, Ibn Abbas said that it is the grain bug, (At-Tabari 13:54) or, according to another view; small locusts that do not have wings. (At-Tabari 13:54) Similar was reported from Mujahid, Ikrimah and Qatadah. Al-Hasan and Said bin Jubayr said that ‘Qummal’ are small black insects. (At-Tabari 13:55) Abu Jafar bin Jarir recorded that Said bin Jubayr said, “When Musa came to Firawn, he demanded, ‘Release the Children of Israel to me.’ But, Firawn did not comply; and Allah sent the Tuwfan, and that is a rain which continued until they feared that it was a form of torment. They said to Musa, ‘Invoke your Lord to release us from this rain, and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord and He removed the affliction from them. However, they did not believe, nor did they send the Children of Israel with him. In that year, Allah allowed (the earth) to grow various types of produce, fruits and grass for them as never before. They said, ‘This is what we hoped for.’ So Allah sent the locusts, and the locusts started to feed on the grass. When they saw the effect the locusts had on the grass, they knew that no vegetation would be saved from devastation. They said, ‘O Musa! Invoke your Lord so that He will remove the locusts from us, and we will believe in you and release the Children of Israel to you.’ Musa invoked his Lord, and He removed the locusts. Still, they did not believe and did not send the Children of Israel with him.

They collected grains and kept them in their homes. They said, ‘We saved our crops.’ However, Allah sent the Qummal, grain bugs, and one of them would take ten bags of grains to the mill, but only reap three small bags of grain. They said, ‘O Musa! Ask your Lord to remove the Qummal (weevil) from us and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord, and Allah removed the Qummal from them. However, they did not send the Children of Israel with him. Once, when he was with Firawn, Musa heard the sound of a frog and said to Firawn, ‘What will you and your people suffer from this (the frogs)?’ Firawn said, ‘What can frogs do?’ Yet, by the time that night arrived a person would be sitting in a crowd of frogs that reached up to his chin and could not open his mouth to speak without a frog jumping in it. They said to Musa, ‘Invoke your Lord to remove these frogs from us, and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord, but they did not believe.

Allah then sent blood that filled the rivers, wells and the water containers they had. They complained to Firawn, saying, ‘We are inflicted with blood and do not have anything to drink.’ He said, ‘Musa has bewitched you.’ They said, ‘How could he do that when whenever we look for water in our containers we found that it has turned into blood?’ They came to Musa and said, ‘Invoke your Lord to save us from this blood, and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord and the blood stopped, but they did not believe nor send the Children of Israel with him.” A similar account was attributed to Ibn Abbas, As-Suddi, Qatadah and several others among the Salaf. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said, “The enemy of Allah, Firawn, went back defeated and humiliated, after the sorcerers believed (in Musa). He insisted on remaining in disbelief and persisted in wickedness. Allah sent down the signs to him, and he (and his people) were first inflicted by famine. Allah then sent the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs then blood, as consecutive signs. When Allah sent the flood, it filled the surface of the earth with water. But the water level receded, and they could not make use of it to till the land or do anything else. They became hungry. This is when, “They said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” Musa invoked his Lord and He removed the affliction from them, but they did not keep their promises. So Allah sent locusts that ate the trees and consumed the nails on their doors, until the doors fell from their homes and residences. They again said what they said to Musa before, and he called on his Lord and He removed the affliction. Still, they did not keep their promises, and Allah sent the Qummal. Musa, peace be upon him, was commanded to go to a mound and strike it with his staff. So Musa went to a huge mound, struck it with his staff and the Qummal fell out of it in tremendous numbers, until they overwhelmed the houses and food reserves, ultimately depriving them of sleep and rest. When they suffered under this affliction, they said similar to what they said before, and Musa invoked his Lord and He removed the affliction. They did not keep their promise and Allah sent the frogs to them, and they filled the houses, foods and pots. One of them would not pick up a piece of clothing, or uncover some food, without finding frogs in it. When this affliction became hard on them, they made similar promises as before, Musa supplicated to his Lord and Allah removed the affliction. They did not keep any of the promises they made, and Allah sent the blood, and the waters of the people of Firawn turned to blood. Any water they collected from a well, a river, or a container, turned to blood.” (At-Tabari 13:63)

 

{136. So We took retribution from them. We drowned them in the sea, because they belied Our Ayat and were heedless with them.

137. And We made the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed. And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance. And We destroyed what Firawn and his people produced, and what they erected.}

The People of Firawn drown in the Sea; the Children of Israel inherit the Holy Land

Allah states that when the people of Firawn rebelled and transgressed, even though He inflicted them with consecutive signs, one after another, He took retribution from them by drowning them in the sea that Musa parted by Allah’s power, and he and the Children of Israel passed through. In their pursuit, Firawn and his soldiers went in the sea chasing Musa and his people. When they all had gone inside the water, the sea closed in on them and they all drowned, because they belied the Ayat of Allah and were heedless of them. Allah said that He has granted the people who were considered weak, the Children of Israel, to inherit the eastern and western parts of the land. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah commented that Allah’s statement , “…the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed.” refers to the Sham area (Greater Syria). Also, Mujahid and Ibn Jarir said that Allah’s statement, “And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance.” is explained by Allah’s other statement, “And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors. And to establish them in the land, and We let Firawn and Haman and their hosts receive from them that which they feared” (28:5-6). Further, Allah’s statement, “And We destroyed what Firawn and his people produced” meaning, We destroyed what Firawn and his people produced, such as agriculture and buildings. “and what they erected.” Ibn Abbas and Mujahid said that “they erected” means, they built.

{138. And We brought the Children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said: “O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.”

139. [Musa added] “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idols’ worship). And all that they are doing is in vain.”}

The Children of Israel safely cross the Sea, but still held on to the Idea of Idol Worshipping

Allah mentions the words that the ignorant ones among the Children of Israel uttered to Musa after they crossed the sea and witnessed Allah’s Ayat and great power.“And they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship).” Some scholars of Tafsir said that the people mentioned here were from Canaan, or from the tribe of Lakhm. Ibn Jarir commented, “They were worshipping idols that they made in the shape of cows, and this influenced the Children of Israel later when they worshipped the calf. They said here, “O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.” (At-Tabari 13:80) Musa replied, you are ignorant of Allah’s greatness and majesty and His purity from any partners or anything resembling Him.

“Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in” they will perish, “and all that they are doing is in vain.” Commenting on this Ayah, Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir reported from Abu Waqid Al-Laythi that they (the Companions) went out from Makkah with the Messenger of Allah for (the battle of) Hunayn. Abu Waqid said, “Some of the disbelievers had a lote tree whose vicinity they used to remain in, and upon which they would hang their weapons on. That tree was called ‘Dhat Al-Anwat’. So when we passed by a huge, green lote tree, we said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Appoint for us a Dhat Al-Anwat as they have.’ He said,”By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You said just as what the people of Musa said to him: “Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people. Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in, and all that they are doing is in vain.” (At-Tabari 13:82)

{140. He said: “Shall I seek for you an ilah (a god) other than Allah, while He has given you superiority over the nations?”

141. And (remember) when We rescued you from Firawn’s people, who were afflicting you with the worst torment, killing your sons and letting your women live. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.}

 

Reminding the Children of Israel of Allah’s Blessings for Them

Musa reminded the Children of Israel of Allah’s blessings, such as saving them from Firawn, his tyranny and the humiliation and disgrace they suffered. He reminded them of the glory and revenge against their enemy, when they watched them suffering in disgrace, destroyed by drowning and meeting utter demise. We mentioned this subject in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. [See the Tafsir of Surah Al-Baqarah2:49-50]

 

{142. And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added ten, and he completed the term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights. And Musa said to his brother Harun: “Replace me among my people, act in the right way and follow not the way of the mischief-makers.”}

Musa fasts and worships Allah for Forty Days

Allah reminds the Children of Israel of the guidance that He sent to them by speaking directly to Musa and revealing the Tawrah to him. In it, was their law and the details of their legislation. Allah stated here that He appointed thirty nights for Musa. The scholars of Tafsir said that Musa fasted this period, and when they ended, Musa cleaned his teeth with a twig. Allah commanded him to complete the term adding ten more days, making the total forty. When the appointed term finished, Musa was about to return to Mount Tur, as Allah said, “O Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you on the right side of the Mount” (20:80). Musa left his brother Harun with the Children of Israel and commanded him to use wisdom and refrain from mischief. This was only a reminder, for Harun was an honorable and noble Prophet who had grace and exalted standard with Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him and the rest of the Prophets.

 

{143. And when Musa came at the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord (Allah) spoke to him; he said: “O my Lord! Show me (Yourself), that I may look upon You.” Allah said: “You cannot see Me, but look upon the mountain; if it stands still in its place then you shall see Me.” So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Musa fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.”}

 

Musa asks to see Allah

Allah said that when Musa came for His appointment and spoke to Him directly, he asked to see Him, “O my Lord! Show me (Yourself), that I may look upon You.” Allah said: “You cannot see Me,” ‘You cannot’ (Lan) by no means indicates that seeing Allah will never occur, as (the misguided sect of) Al-Mutazilah claimed. The Hadiths of Mutawatir grade [having numerous narrators in every link of every chain] narrated from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, affirm that the believers will see Allah in the Hereafter. We will mention these Hadiths under the explanation of Allah’s statement, “Some faces that Day shall be radiant. Looking at their Lord.” (75:22-23)

In earlier Scriptures, it was reported that Allah said to Musa, “O Musa! No living soul sees Me, but will perish, and no solid but will be demolished.” (Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah 3:112) Allah said here, “So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Musa fell down unconscious.” In his Musnad Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas bin Malik that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said about Allah’s saying;

“And when his Lord appeared to the mountain,”

“Like this” then he held out the tip of his little finger. (Ahmad 3:125) At-Tirmidhi recorded this in the chapter of Tafsir for this Ayah, then he said; “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 8:451)

This was also recorded by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak through the route of Hamad bin Salamah, and he said; “This Hadith is Sahih according to the criteria of Muslim and they did not record it.” (Al-Hakim 2:320)  And As-Suddi reported that Ikrimah reported from Ibn Abbas about Allah’s saying, “And when his Lord appeared to the mountain” Only the extent of the little finger appeared from Him, “He made it collapse” as dust; “And Musa fell down unconscious” fainting from it. Ibn Jarir recorded these because of the relation to the word Al-Ghashi. (At-Tabari 13:97)

“Then when he (Musa) recovered his senses” after he lost consciousness, he said: “Glory be to You,” thus, praising, glorifying and honoring Allah since no living soul could see Him in this life and remain alive. Musa’ statement, “I turn to You in repentance” means, according to Mujahid, that from asking you to look at you, “and I am the first of the believers.”, among the Children of Israel, according to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, and Ibn Jarir preferred this view. Or, according to another narration from Ibn Abbas, the meaning of, “and I am the first of the believers.”, is that ‘none shall see You (in this life).’ Allah said, “And Musa fell down unconscious.” Abu Said Al-Khudri and Abu Hurayrah narrated a Hadith from the Prophet that is suitable to mention here. As for the Hadith from Abu Said, Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that he said: A Jew came to the Prophet after his face was smacked, and said, “O Muhammad! One of your companions from Al-Ansar smacked me on the face.” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Summon him”

and he was summoned. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, asked him,

“Why did you smack his face?”

He said, “O Allah’s Messenger! I passed by that Jew and heard him swearing, ‘No, by He Who has chosen Musa over mankind!’ I said, ‘Over Muhammad too’, and I became angry and struck his face.” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Do not prefer me above the Prophets. Verily, on the Day of Resurrection, people will be struck unconscious, and I (feel that I) am the first to wake up. Thereupon I will find that Musa is holding onto a pillar of the Throne (Arsh of Allah). I will not know if he woke up before me or he received his due (because of his) unconsciousness on (Mount) At-Tur.”

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in many locations of his Sahih, as did Muslim and Abu Dawud. As for the Hadith from Abu Hurayrah, Imam Ahmad and the Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) collected his narration.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 4 Pages 139-159

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