Surah Al-An’am Part 6 Ayat 102-117

 {102. Such is Allah, your Lord! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him (alone), and He is the Guardian over all things.

103. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is the Most Subtle, Well-Acquainted (with all things).}

 

Allah is Your Lord

Allah said,  “Such is Allah, your Lord!” Who created everything and has neither a son nor a wife, “None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him,” Alone without partners, and attest to His Oneness, affirming that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. Allah has neither descendants, nor acsendants, wife, equal or rival, “And He is the Guardian over all things.” meaning, Trustee, Watcher and Disposer of affairs for all things in existence, giving them provisions and protection by day and night. Seeing Allah in the Hereafter Allah said, “No vision can grasp Him” in this life. The vision will be able to look at Allah in the Hereafter, as affirmed and attested to by the numerous Hadiths from the Prophet through authentic chains of narration in the collections of the Sahihs, Musnad and Sunan collections. As for this life, Masruq narrated that A’ishah said, “Whoever claims that Muhammad has seen his Lord, will have uttered a lie against Allah, for Allah the Most Honored, says, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” (Fath Al Bari 8:472)

In the Sahih (Muslim) it is recorded that Abu Musa Al-Ashari narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,

“Verily, Allah does not sleep and it does not befit His majesty that He should sleep. He lowers the scale (of everything) and raises it. The deeds of the day are ascended to Him before the night, and the deeds of the night before the day. His Veil is the Light – or Fire – and if He removes it (the veil), the Light of His Face will burn every created thing that His sight reaches.” (Muslim 1:162)

In the previous [revealed] Books there is this statement, “When Musa requested to see Him, Allah said to Musa: ‘O Musa! Verily, no living thing sees Me, but it dies and no dried things sees me, but it rolls up.’ ” Allah said, “So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Musa fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.” (7:143). These Ayat, Hadiths and statements do not negate the fact that Allah will be seen on the Day of Resurrection by His believing servants, in the manner that He decides, all the while preserving His might and grace as they are. The Mother of the Faithful, A’ishah, used to affirm that Allah will be seen in the Hereafter, but denied that it could occur in this life, mentioning this Ayah as evidence, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” Her denial was a denial of the ability to encompass Him, meaning to perfectly see His grace and magnificance as He is, for that is not possible for any human, angel or anything created. Allah’s statement, “but His grasp is over all vision.” means, He encompasses all vision and He has full knowledge of them, for He created them all. In another Ayah, Allah said; “Should not He Who has created know? And He is the Most Subtle, Well Acquainted (with all things).” (67:14) It is also possible that  ‘all vision’ refers to those who have the vision. As-Suddi said that Allah’s statement, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” means, “Nothing sees Him (in this life), but He sees all creation.” Abu Al-Aliyah said that Allah’s statement, “He is the Most Subtle, Well-Acquainted (with all things).” means, “He is the Most Subtle, bringing forth all things, Well-Acquainted with their position and place.” Allah knows best. In another Ayah, Allah mentions Luqman’s advice to his son, “O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Most Subtle, Well Acquainted” (31:16)

{104. Verily, Basa’ir (proofs) have come to you from your Lord, so whosoever sees, will do so for (the good of) himself, and whosoever blinds himself, will do so against himself, and I am not a Hafiz over you.

105. Thus We explain variously the verses so that they (the disbelievers) may say: “You have Darasta (studied)” and that We may make the matter clear for the people who have knowledge.}

 

The Meaning of Basa’ir

Basa’ir are the proofs and evidences in the Qur’an and the Message of Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Ayah, “so whosoever sees, will do so for (the good of) himself.” is similar to, “So whosoever receives guidance, he does so for the good of himself, and whosoever goes astray, he does so at his own loss.” (10:108) After Allah mentioned the Basa’ir, He said, “And whosoever blinds himself, will do so against himself” meaning, he will only harm himself. Allah said, “Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind.” (22:46) “And I (Muhammad) am not a Hafiz over you. “ neither responsible, nor a watcher over you. Rather, I only convey, Allah guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills. Allah said, “Thus We explain variously the verses…” (6:105), meaning, just as We explained the Ayat in this Surah, such as explaining Tawhid and that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. This is how We explain the Ayat and make them plain and clear in all circumstances, to suffice the ignorance of the ignorant; and so that the idolators and disbelievers who deny you say, ‘O Muhammad! You have Darasta with those who were before you from among the People of the Book and learned with them’. Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr and Ad-Dahhak said similarly. (At-Tabari 12:27) At-Tabarani narrated that Amr bin Kaysan said that he heard Ibn Abbas saying, “Darasta, means, ‘recited, argued and debated.”’ (At-Tabarani 11:137) This is similar to Allah’s statement about the denial and rebellion of the disbelievers,  “Those who disbelieve say, “This (the Qur’an) is nothing but a lie that he has invented, and others have helped him at it, so that they have produced an unjust wrong (thing) and a lie.” And they say, “Tales of the ancients, which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.’‘ (25:4-5)

Allah described the chief liar of the disbelievers [Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah Al-Makhzumi], “Verily, he thought and plotted. So let him be cursed! How he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted! Then he thought. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way. Then he turned back and was proud. Then he said, “This is nothing but magic from that of old. This is nothing but the word of a human being!” (74:18-25) Allah said next, “And that We may make the matter clear for the people who have knowledge.”

The Ayah means, so that We explain the matter to a people who know truth, and thus follow it, and know falsehood, and thus avoid it. Allah’s wisdom is perfect, He allows the disbelievers to st ray, and He guides t he people who have knowledge. Allah said in other Ayat , “By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby.” (2:26), and; “That He (Allah) may make what is thrown in by Shaytan a trial for those in whose hearts is a disease and whose hearts are hardened.” (22:53) and, “And verily, Allah is the Guide of those who believe, to the straight path.” (22:54), “And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Fire, and We have fixed their number only as a trial for the disbelievers, in order that the People of the Scripture may arrive at a certainty and the believers may increase in faith, and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Scripture and the believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) and the disbelievers may say, “What does Allah intend by this example” Thus Allah leads astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none can know the hosts of your Lord but He.” (74:31), and; “And We send down in the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers, and it increases the wrongdoers in nothing but loss.” (17:82), and, “Say, “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness in their ears, and it is blindness for them. They are those who are called from a place far away.” (41:44) There are similar Ayat that testify that Allah sent down the Qur’an as guidance to those who fear Him and that He guides or misguides whom He wills by the Qur’an.

 

{106. Follow what has been inspired (revealed) to you from your Lord, none has the right to be worshipped but He, and turn aside from the idolators.

107. Had Allah willed, they would not have taken others besides Him in worship. And We have not made you Hafiz over them nor are you set over them to dispose of their affairs.}

The Command to Follow the Revelation

Allah commands His Messenger and those who followed his path, “Follow what has been inspired to you from your Lord,” meaning, follow it, obey it and act according to it. What has been revealed to you from your Lord is the Truth, no doubt, and there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, “and turn aside from the idolators” meaning, forgive them, be forbearing and endure their harm until Allah brings relief to you, supports you and makes you triumphant over them. Know – O Muhammad – that there is a wisdom behind misleading the idolators, and that had Allah willed, He would have directed all people to guidance, “Had Allah willed, they would not have taken others besides Him in worship.”

Allah’s is the perfect will and wisdom in all decrees and decisions, and He is never questioned about what He does, while they all will be questioned. Allah’s statement, “And We have not made you Hafiz over them.” means, a watcher who observes their statements and deeds, “Nor are you set over them to dispose of their affairs.” or to control their provision. Rather, your only job is to convey, just as Allah said, “So remind them, you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.” (88:21-22) and, “Your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.” (13:40)

{108. And insult not those whom they worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge. Thus We have made fair seeming to each people its own doings; then to their Lord is their return and He shall inform them of all that they used to do.}

 

The Prohibition of Insulting the False gods of the Disbelievers, So that they Do not Insult Allah

Allah prohibits His Messenger and the believers from insulting the false deities of the idolators, although there is a clear benefit in doing so. Insulting their deities will lead to a bigger evil than its benefit, for the idolators might retaliate by insulting the God of the believers, Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but He.

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented on this Ayah (6:108); “They (disbelievers) said, ‘O Muhammad! You will stop insulting our gods, or we will insult your Lord.’ Thereafter, Allah prohibited the believers from insulting the disbelievers’ idols, “lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge.” (At-Tabari 12:34)

Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mamar said that Qatadah said, “Muslims used to insult the idols of the disbelievers and the disbelievers would retaliate by insulting Allah wrongfully without knowledge. Allah revealed, “And insult not those whom they worship besides Allah.” (Abdur-Razzaq 2:215)

On this same subject – abandoning what carries benefit to avert a greater evil – it is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said,

“Cursed is he who insults his own parents!”

They said, “O Allah’s Messenger! And how would a man insult his own parents?” He said,

“He insults a man’s father, and that man insults his father, and insults his mother and that man insults his mother.” (Fath Al-Bari 10:417)

Allah’s statement, “Thus We have made fair seeming to each people its own doings” means, as We made fair seeming to the idolators loving their idols and defending them, likewise We made fair seeming to every previous nation the misguidance they indulged in. Allah’s is the most perfect proof, and the most complete wisdom in all that He wills and chooses. “then to their Lord is their return” gathering and final destination, “and He shall then inform them of all that they used to do.” He will compensate them for their deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

 

{109. And they swear their strongest oaths by Allah, that if there came to them a sign, they would surely believe therein. Say: “Signs are but with Allah and what will make you perceive that (even) if it came, they will not believe”

110. And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly.}

Asking for Miracles and Swearing to Believe if They Come

Allah states that the idolators swore their strongest oaths by Allah, “that if there came to them a sign…” a miracle or phenomenon, “they would surely believe therein.” affirming its truth, “Say: “Signs are but with Allah.” (6:109) meaning: Say, O Muhammad – to those who ask you for signs out of defiance, disbelief and rebellion, not out of the desire for guidance and knowledge – “The matter of sending signs is for Allah. If He wills, He sends them to you, and if He wills, He ignores your request.” Allah said next, “And what will make you perceive that (even) if it came, they will not believe”

It was said that ‘you’ in ‘make you preceive’ refers to the idolators, according to Mujahid. In this case, the Ayah would mean, what makes you – you idolators – preceive that you are truthful in the vows that you swore? Therefore, in this recitation, the Ayah means, the idolators will still not believe if the sign that they asked for came. It was also said that ‘you’ in, ‘what will make you preceive’, refers to the believers, meaning, what will make you preceive, O believers, that the idolators will still not believe if the signs come. Allah also said, “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you” (7:12) and, “And a ban is laid on every town (population) which We have destroyed that they shall not return (to this world again).” (21:95) These Ayat mean: What made you, O Iblis, refrain from prostrating, although I commanded you to do so, and, in the second Ayah, that village shall not return to this world again. In the Ayah above (6:109), the meaning thus becomes: What makes you perceive, O believers, who wish eagerly for the disbelievers to believe, that if the Ayat came to them they would believe.

Allah said next, “And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time,” Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said about this Ayah, “When the idolators rejected what Allah sent down, their hearts did not settle on any one thing and they turned away from every matter (of benefit).” Mujahid said that Allah’s statement, “and We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away,” means, We prevent them from the faith, and even if every sign came to them, they will not believe, just as We prevented them from faith the first time. Similar was said by Ikrimah and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said, “Allah mentions what the servants will say before they say it and what they will do before they do it. Allah said; “And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.” (35:14) and, “Lest a person should say, “Alas, my grief that I was undutiful to Allah.” (39:56) until, “If only I had another chance, then I should indeed be among the doers of good.” (39:58).

So Allah, glory be to Him, states that if they were sent back to life, they would not accept the gui dance, “But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.” (6:28) Allah said, “And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe therein for the first time” meaning: ‘If they were sent back to this life, they would be prevented from embracing the guidance, just as We prevented them from it the first time, when they were in the life of this world.” (At-Tabari 12:45) Allah said, “and We shall leave them…” and abandon them, “in their trespass…” meaning, disbelief, according to Ibn Abbas and As-Suddi. Abu Al- Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Qatadah said that ‘their trespass’ means, ‘their misguidance’. ”to wander blindly” or playfully, according to Al-Amash. Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi, Abu Malik and others commented, “to wander in their disbelief.”

{111. And even if We had sent down unto them angels, and the dead had spoken unto them, and We had gathered together all things before them, they would not have believed, unless Allah willed, but most of them behave ignorantly.}

Allah says: ‘Had We accepted what the disbelievers asked for,’ that is – those who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that if a miracle came to them they would believe in it – ‘had We sent down angels, ‘ to convey to them Allah’s Message, in order to support the truth of the Messengers, as they asked, when they said, “or you bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face.” (17:92) “They said: “We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah had received.” (6:124) and, “And those who expect not a meeting with Us said: “Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord?” Indeed they think too highly of themselves, and are scornful with great pride.” (25:21) Allah said, “and the dead had spoken unto them,” This is, to inform them of the truth of what the Messengersbrought them; “and We had gathered together all things before them,” before their eyes, as Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas. This is the view of Qatadah and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. This Ayah means, if all nations were gathered before them, one after the other, and each one testifies to the truth of what the Messengers came with, “they would not have believed, unless Allah willed,” for guidance is with Allah not with them. Cert ainly, Allah guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and He does what He wills, “He cannot be questioned about what He does, while they will be questioned.” (21:23), This is due to His knowledge, wisdom, power, supreme authority and irresistibility. Similarly, Allah said,“Truly, those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment.” (10:96-97)

{112. And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies – Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion. If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it; so leave them alone with their fabrications.

113. And Tasgha to it that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to such (deceit), and that they may remain pleased with it, and that they may commit what they are committing.}

Every Prophet Has Enemies

Allah says, just as We made enemies for you, O Muhammad, who will oppose and rebel against you and become your adversaries, We also made enemies for every Prophet who came before you. Therefore, do not be saddened by this fact. Allah said in other Ayat: “Verily, Messengers were denied before you, but with patience they bore the denial, and they were hurt…” (6:34), and, “Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you. Verily, your Lord is the Possessor of forgiveness, and (also) the Possessor of painful punishment.” (41:43) and, “Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.” (25:31). Waraqah bin Nawfal said to Allah’s Messenger, “None came with what you came with but he was the subject of enmity.” (Al-Bukhari no:3)

Allah’s statement, “Shayatin among mankind…” refers to, “enemies…” meaning, the Prophets have enemies among the devils of mankind and the devils of the Jinns. The word, Shaytan, describes one who is dissimilar to his kind due to his or her wickedness. Indeed, only the Shayatin, may Allah humiliate and curse them, from among mankind and the Jinns oppose the Messengers. Abdur-Razzaq said that Mamar narrated that Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,“Shayatin (devils) among mankind and Jinn…” “There are devils among the Jinns and devils among mankind who inspire each other.”

Allah’s statement, “inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.” means, they inspire each other with beautified, adorned speech that deceives the ignorant who hear it, “If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it” for all this occurs by Allah’s decree, will and decision, that every Prophet had enemies from these devils, “so leave them alone with their fabrications.” and lies. This Ayah orders patience in the face of the harm of the wicked and to trust in Allah against their enmity, for, “Allah shall suffice for you (O Muhammad) and aid you against them.” Allah’s statement, “And Tasgha to it.” means, according to Ibn Abbas, “incline to it.” (At-Tabari 12:58) “the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter…” their hearts, mind and hearing. As- Suddi said that this Ayah refers to the hearts of the disbelievers. (At-Tabari 12:59) “And that they may remain pleased with it.” they like and adore it. Only those who disbelieve in the Hereafter accept this evil speech, being enemies of the Prophets, etc., just as Allah said in other Ayat, “So, verily, you (pagans) and those whom you worship (idols). Cannot lead astray. Except those who are predestined to burn in Hell!” (37:161-163) and, “Certainly, you have different ideas. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.” (51:8-9) Allah said; “And that they may commit what they are committing.” meaning, “let them earn whatever they will earn”, according to Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported this from Ibn Abbas. As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd also commented, “Let them do whatever they will do.”

 

{114. [Say:] “Shall I seek a judge other than Allah while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained in detail.” Those unto whom We gave the Scripture know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth. So be not you of those who doubt.

115. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.}

 

 

Allah tells His Prophet to say to these polytheists who worship others besides Allah, “Shall I seek a judge other than Allah…” between you and I, “while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained…” in detail, “and those unto whom We gave the Scripture” the Jews and the Christians,“know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth.” because the previous Prophets have conveyed the good news of you coming to them. Allah’s statement, “So be not you of those who doubt.” is similar to His other statement, “So if you are in doubt concerning that which We have revealed unto you, then ask those who are reading the Book before you. Verily, the truth has come to you from your Lord. So be not of those who doubt (it).” (10:94) The conditional ‘if’ in this Ayah does not mean that ‘doubt’ will ever occur to the Prophet . Allah said, “And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice.”

Qatadah commented, “In truth concerning what He stated and in justice concerning what He decided.” (At-Tabari 12:63) Surely, whatever Allah says is the truth and He is Most Just in what He commands. All of Allah’s statements are true, there is no doubt or cause for speculation about this fact, and all His commandments are pure justice, besides which there is no justice. All that He forbade is evil, for He only forbids what brings about evil consequences. Allah said in anot her Ayah, “He commands them with good; and forbids them from evil…” (7:157) until the end of the Ayah. “None can change His Words.” meaning, none can avert Allah’s judgment whether in this life or the Hereafter, “And He is the All-Hearer,” Hearing, His servants’ statements, “The All-Knower.” of their activities and lack of activity, Who awards each according to their deeds.

{116. And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah’s path. They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie.

117. Verily, your Lord! It is He Who knows best who strays from His way, and He knows best the rightly guided.}

Most People are Misguided

Allah states that most of the people of the earth, are misguided. Allah said in other Ayat, “And indeed most of the men of old went astray before them.” (37:71) and, “And most of mankind will not believe even if you eagerly desire it.” (12:103) They are misguided, yet they have doubts about their way, and they rely on wishful thinking and delusions.“They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie.” Thus, they fulfill Allah’s decree and decision concerning them, “It is He Who knows best who strays from His way.” and facilitates that for him, “And He knows best the rightly guided.” He facilitates that for them, all of them are facilitated for what He created them.

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