Surah An-Nisa’ Part 7 Ayat 66-83

{66. And if We had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innnocent ones kill the guilty ones) or leave your homes,” very few of them would have done it; but if they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them, and would have strengthened their conviction;

67. And indeed We would then have bestowed upon them a great reward from Ourselves.

68. And indeed We would have guided them to the straight way.

69. And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!

70. Such is the bounty from Allah, and Allah is sufficient as All-Knower.}

Most People Disobey What They Are Ordered

Allah states that even if the people were commanded to commit what they were prohibited from doing, most of them would not submit to this command, for their wicked nature is such that they dispute orders. Allah has complete knowledge of what has not occured, and how it would be if and when it did occur. This is why Allah said, “And if We had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innnocent ones kill the guilty ones)” until the end of the Ayah. This is why Allah said, “but if they had done what they were told” meaning, if they do what they were commanded and refrain from what they were prohibited, “it would have been better for them” than disobeying the command and committing the prohibition, “and would have strengthened their conviction” stronger Tasdiq “conviction of faith” according to As-Suddi. “And indeed We should then have bestowed upon them from Ladunna” from Us, “A great reward” Paradise, “And indeed We should have guided them to the straight way” in this life and the Hereafter.

Whoever Obeys Allah and His Messenger Will Be Honored by Allah

Allah then said, “And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!” Consequently, whosoever implements what Allah and His Messenger have commanded him and avoids what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, then Allah will grant him a dwelling in the Residence of Honor. There, Allah will place him in the company of the Prophets, and those who are lesser in grade, the true believers, then the martyrs and then the righteous, who are righteous inwardly and outwardly. Allah then praised this company,  “And how excellent these companions are!”

Al-Bukhari recorded that A’ishah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

“Every Prophet who falls ill is given the choice between this life and the Hereafter.”

During the illness that preceded his death, his voice became weak and I heard him saying,

“in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, the Prophets, the true believers (Siddiqin), the martyrs and the righteous”

I knew then that he was being given the choice.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:103)

This Hadith explains the meaning of another Hadith; the Prophet,  peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said before his death;

“O Allah! In the Most High Company”

three times, and he then died, may Allah’s best blessings be upon him. (Muslim 4:1894)

The Reason Behind Revealing this Honorable Ayah

Ibn Jarir recorded that Said bin Jubayr said, “An Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah while feeling sad. The Prophet said to him, ‘Why do I see you sad?’ He said, ‘O Allah’s Prophet! I was contemplating about something.’ The Prophet said, ‘What is it?’ The Ansari said, ‘We come to you day and night, looking at your face and sitting by you. Tomorrow, you will be raised with the Prophets, and we will not be able to see you.’ The Prophet did not say anything, but later Jibril came down to him with this Ayah, “And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets” and the Prophet sent the good news to the Ansari man.” (At-Tabari 8:534) Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded it with a different chain from A’ishah, who said; “A man came to the Prophet and said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah! You are more beloved to me than myself, my family and children. Sometimes, when I am at home, I remember you, and I cannot wait until I come and look at you. When I contemplate about my death and your death, I know that you will be with the Prophets when you enter Paradise. I fear that I might not see you when I enter Paradise.’ The Prophet did not answer him until the Ayah, “And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the true believers, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!” was revealed to him.” This was collected by Al-Hafiz Abu Abdullah Al-Maqdisi in his book, Sifat Al-Jannah, he then commented, “I do not see problems with this chain.” (At-Tabarani in As-Saghir 3308) And Allah knows best.

Muslim recorded that Rabiah bin Kab Al-Aslami said, “I used to sleep at the Prophet’s house and bring him his water for ablution and his needs. He once said to me, ‘Ask me.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I ask that I be your companion in Paradise.’ He said, ‘Anything except that’ I said, ‘Only that.’ He said, “Then help me (fulfill this wish) for you by performing many prostrations.” (Muslim:489)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Amr bin Murrah Al-Juhani said, “A man came to the Prophet and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah, pray the five (daily prayers), give the Zakah due on my wealth and fast the month of Ramadan.’ The Messenger of Allah,  peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Whoever dies in this state will be with the Prophets, the truthful and martyrs on the Day of Resurrection, as long as – and he raised his finger – he is not disobedient to his parents.” (Ahmad, Jami’ Al-Masanid was-Sunan 10:77)

Greater news than this is in the authentic Hadith collected in the Sahih and Musnad compilations, in Mutawatir form, narrated by several Companions that the Messenger of Allah was asked about the person who loves a people, but his status is not close to theirs. The Messenger said, “One is with those whom he loves.” (Al-Bukhari no.6168)  Anas commented, “Muslims were never happier than with this Hadith.” In another narration, Anas said, “I love the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr and Umar, and I hope that Allah will resurrect me with them, even though I did not perform actions similar to theirs.” (Fath Al-Bari 7:51) Allah said, “Such is the bounty from Allah” meaning, from Allah by His mercy, for it is He who made them suitable for this, not their good deeds. “and Allah is sufficient as All-Knower” He knows those who deserve guidance and success.

 

{71. O you who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth (on an expedition) in parties, or go forth all together.

72. There is certainly among you he who would linger behind. If a misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favored me in that I was not present among them.”

73. But if a bounty comes to you from Allah, he would surely say – as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him, “Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.”

74. So fight those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter, in the cause of Allah, and whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.*}

[*There is a difference of opinion over the statement translated here as; “those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter.” It could mean; “sold the life of this world for the sake of the Hereafter”, or; “purchased the life of this world for the sake of the Hereafter”. So it is either an order for those of conviction to fight, or an order to those whose hearts waver in faith, who are quoted in the previous Ayah, to fight with sincerity, not for worldly matters. Most of the commentators see it as the first example.”]

The Necessity of Taking Necessary Precautions Against the Enemy

Allah commands His faithful servants to take precautions against their enemies, by being prepared with the necessary weapons and supplies, and increasing the number of troops fighting in His cause. “in parties” means, group after group, party after party, and expedition after expedition. Ali bin Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that, “and either go forth in parties” means, “In groups, expedition after expedition”, “or go forth all together” means, all of you.” (At-Tabari 8:537)

Refraining from Joining Jihad is a Sign of Hypocrites

Allah said, “There is certainly among you he who would linger behind.” Mujahid and others said that this Ayah was revealed about the hypocrites. (At-Tabari 8:538) Muqatil bin Hayyan said that, “linger behind” means, stays behind and does not join Jihad. It is also possible that this person himself lingers behind, while luring others away from joining Jihad. For instance, Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, may Allah curse him, used to linger behind and lure other people to do the same and refrain from joining Jihad, as Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir stated. This is why Allah said about the hypocrite, that when he lingers behind from Jihad, then: “If a misfortune befalls you” death, martyrdom, or – by Allah’s wisdom – being defeated by the enemy, “he says, “Indeed Allah has favored me that I was not present among them.” meaning, since I did not join them in battle. Because he considers this one of Allah’s favors on him, unaware of the reward that he might have gained from enduring war or martyrdom, if he was killed. ”But if a bounty comes to you from Allah” such as victory, triumph and booty, “he would surely say – as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him” meaning, as if he was not a follower of your religion, “Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.” by being assigned a share of the booty and taking possession of that share. This is his ultimate aim and objective.

The Encouragement to Participation in Jihad

Allah then said, “So fight” the believer with an aversion “to fighting”, “those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter” referring to those sell their religion for the meager goods of the world, and they only do this because of their disbelief and lack of faith. Allah then said; “And whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward” meaning, whoever fights in the cause of Allah, whether he was killed or triumphant, he will earn an immense compensation and a great reward with Allah. The Two Sahihs recorded, “Allah has guaranteed the Mujahid in His cause that He will either bring death to him, admitting into Paradise; or, He will help him return safely to his home with whatever reward and booty he gained.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:253)

 

{75. And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.”

76. Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of the Taghut. So fight against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.}

Encouraging Jihad to Defend the Oppressed

Allah encouraged His believing servants to perform Jihad in His cause and to strive hard to save the oppressed Muslims in Makkah, men, women and children who were restless because of having to remain there. This is why Allah said, “whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town” referring to Makkah. In a similar Ayah, Allah said, “And many a town, stronger than your town which has driven you out” Allah then describes this town, “whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help” meaning, send protectors and helpers for us. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “I and my mother were from the oppressed (in Makkah).” (Fath Al-Bari 8:103)

Allah then said, ”Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of the Taghut.” Therefore, the believers fight in obedience to Allah and to gain His pleasure, while the disbelievers fight in obedience to Shaytan. Allah then encourages the believers to fight His enemies, ”So fight against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan”.

 

{77. Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform Salah and give Zakah, but when the fighting was ordained for them, behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. They say: “Our Lord! Why have You ordained for us fighting? Would that You granted us respite for a short period?” Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatil.

{78. “Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!” And if some good reaches them, they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say: “All things are from Allah,” so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word?

79. Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself. And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind, and Allah is sufficient as a Witness.}

The Wish that the Order for Jihad be Delayed

In the beginning of Islam, Muslims in Makkah were commanded to perform the prayer and pay some charity, so as to comfort the poor among them. They were also commanded to be forgiving and forbearing with the idolators and to observe patience with them at the time. However, they were eager and anticipating the time when they would be allowed to fight, so that they could punish their enemies. The situation at that time did not permit armed conflict for many reasons. For instance, Muslims were few at the time, compared to their numerous enemies. The Muslims’ city was a sacred one and the most honored area on the earth, and this is why the command to fight was not revealed in Makkah. Later on when the Muslims controlled a town of their own, Al-Madinah, and had strength, power and support, Jihad was then legislated. Yet, when the command to fight was revealed, just as Muslims wished, some of them became weary and were very fearful of facing the idolators in battle.

”They say: “Our Lord! Why have You ordained for us fighting? Would that You had granted us respite for a short period?” meaning, we wish that Jihad was delayed until a later time, because it means bloodshed, orphans and widows. In a similar Ayah, Allah said, “Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)? But when a precise surah is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, you see those in whose hearts is hypocrisy looking at you with a look of one overcome by death.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said that Abdur- Rahman bin Awf and several of his companions came to the Prophet while in Makkah and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! We were mighty when we were pagans, but when we embraced the faith, we became weak.” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”I was commanded to pardon the people, so do not fight them.”

When Allah transferred the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to Al-Madinah, He commanded him to fight (the idolators), but they (some Muslims) held back. So, Allah revealed the Ayah; “Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands?” This Hadith was collected by An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim. Allah’s statement, “Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah” means, the destination of the one who with Taqwa is better for him than this life.“and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatil” for your good deeds. Rather, you will earn your full rewards for them. This promise directs the focus of believers away from this life and makes them eager for the Hereafter, all the while encouraging them to fight in Jihad.

There is No Escaping Death

Allah said, “Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!” meaning, you shall certainly die and none of you shall ever escape death. Allah said, “Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish” “Everyone shall taste death”, and, “And We granted not to any human being immortality before you”. Therefore, every soul shall taste death and nothing can save any person from it, whether he performed Jihad or not. Everyone has an appointed time, and a limited term of life. In the illness that preceded his death, Khalid bin Al-Walid said, while in his bed, “I participated in so and so number of battles, and every part of my body sustained an injury due to a stab or a shot. Yet here I am, I die in my bed! Let not the eyes of the cowards ever taste sleep.” Allah’s statement, “even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!” means, entrenched, fortified, high and towering. No caution or fortification can ever avert death.

The Hypocrites Sense a Bad Omen Because of the Prophet!

Allah said, “And if some good reaches them” meaning, fertile years and provision of fruits, produce, children, etc., as said by Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah and As-Suddi. “they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them” drought, famine, shortages of fruits and produce, death that strikes their children or animals, and so forth, as Abu Al-Aliyah and As-Suddi stated. “they say, “This is from you,” meaning, because of you and because we followed you and embraced your religion. Allah said about the people of Firawn, “But whenever good came to them, they said: “Ours is this.” And if evil afflicted them, they ascribed it to evil omens connected with Musa and those with him.” Allah said, “And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were upon the edge (i.e. in doubt)”.

The same is the statement uttered by the hypocrites, who embraced Islam outwardly, but disliked it inwardly. This is why when a calamity befell them, they attributed it to following the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Consequently, Allah revealed, “Say: All things are from Allah”, Allah’s statement that all things are from Him means, everything occurs by the decision and decree of Allah, and His decision shall come to pass for both the righteous and the wicked, the faithful and the disbelievers. Allah then said while addressing His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, but refering to mankind in general, “Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah” meaning, of Allah’s bounty, favor, kindness and mercy. “But whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself”, meaning because of you and due to your actions. Similarly, Allah said, “And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much” As-Suddi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Zayd said that, “from yourself” means, because of your errors. Qatadah said that, “From yourself” means, as punishment for you, O son of Adam, because of your sins. Allah said, “And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind” so that you convey to them Allah’s commandments, what He likes and is pleased with, and what He dislikes and refuses. “and Allah is sufficient as a Witness” that He has sent you. He is also Witness over you and them, having full knowledge in what you convey to them and the disbelief and rebellion with which they respond to the truth.

 

{80. He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah, but he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.

81. They say: “We are obedient,” but when they leave you, a section of them spends all night in planning other than what you say. But Allah records their nightly (plots). So turn aside from them (do not punish them), and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.}

 

Obeying the Messenger is Obeying Allah

Allah states that whoever obeys His servant and Messenger, Muhammad,  peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys him, disobeys Allah. Verily, whatever the Messenger utters is not of his own desire, but a revelation inspired to him. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah,  peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said,

“Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys the Amir (leader, ruler), obeys me; and whoever disobeys the Amir, disobeys me.” (Ahmad 1:252) 

Allah’s statement, “But he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them” means, do not worry about him. Your job is only to convey, and whoever obeys you, he will acquire happiness and success and you will gain a similar reward to that he earns. As for the one who turns away from you, he will gain failure and loss and you will not carry a burden because of what he does. A Hadith states,

“Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, will acquire guidance; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, will only harm himself.” (Muslim 2:594)

The Foolishness of the Hypocrites

Allah said, “They say: “We are obedient,”. Allah states that the hypocrites pretend to be loyal and obedient. ”but when they leave you”, meaning, when they depart and are no longer with you, ”a section of them spends all night in planning other than what you say”. They plot at night among themselves for other than what they pretend when they are with you. Allah said, ”But Allah records their nightly (plots)” meaning, He has full knowledge of their plots and records it through His command to His scribes, the angels who are responsible for recording the actions of the servants. This is a threat from Allah, stating that He knows what the hypocrites try to hide, their plotting in the night to defy the Messenger and oppose him, even though they pretend to be loyal and obedient to him. Allah will certainly punish them for this conduct. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

”They (hypocrites) say: “We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,” until the end of the Ayah.

Allah’s statement, ”So turn aside from them” means, pardon them, be forbearing with them, do not punish them, do not expose them to the people and do not fear them.

”and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.” meaning, He is sufficient as Protector, Supporter and Helper for those who rely on Him and return to Him.

 

{82. Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely, have found therein contradictions in abundance.

83. When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people); if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly). Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, you would have followed Shaytan, except a few of you.}

The Qur’an is True

Allah commands them to contemplate about the Qur’an and forbids them from ignoring it, or ignoring its wise meanings and eloquent words. Allah states that there are no inconsistencies, contradictions, conflicting statements or discrepancies in the Qur’an, because it is a revelation from the Most-Wise, Worthy of all praise. Therefore, the Qur’an is the truth coming from the Truth, Allah. This is why Allah said in another Ayah, ”Do they not then think deeply in the Qur’an, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding it)?” Allah then said, ”Had it been from other than Allah” meaning, had it been fraudulent and made up, as the ignorant idolators and hypocrites assert in their hearts, ”they would surely, have found therein contradictions”, discrepancies and inconsistencies, ”in abundance”. However, this Qur’an is free of shortcomings, and therefore, it is from Allah. Similarly, Allah describes those who are firmly grounded in knowledge, ”We believe in it, all of it is from our Lord.” (3:7) meaning, the Muhkam sections (entirely clear) and the Mutashabih sections (not entirely clear) of the Qur’an are all true. So they understand the not entirely clear from the clear, and thus gain guidance. As for those in whose heart is the disease of hypocrisy, they understand the Muhkam from the Mutashabih; thus only gaining misguidance. Allah praised those who have knowledge and criticized the wicked.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Amr bin Shuayb said that his father said that his grandfather said, “I and my brother were present in a gathering, which is more precious to me than red camels. My brother and I came and found that some of the leaders of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah were sitting close to a door of his. We did not like the idea of being separate from them, so we sat near the room. They then mentioned an Ayah and began disputing until they raised their voices. The Messenger of Allah was so angry that when he went out his face was red. He threw sand on them and said to them,

”Behold, O people! This is how the nations before you were destroyed, because of their disputing with their Prophets and their contradicting parts of the Books with other parts. The Qur’an does not contradict itself. Rather, it testifies to the truth of itself. Therefore, whatever of it you have knowledge in, then implement it, and whatever you do not know of it, then refer it to those who have knowledge in it.” (Ahmad 2:181)

Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr said, “I went to the Messenger of Allah one day. When we were sitting, two men disputed about an Ayah, and their voices became loud. The Prophet,  peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”Verily, the nations before you were destroyed because of their disagreements over the Book.” (Ahmad 2:192)

The Prohibition of Disclosing Unreliable and Uninvestigated News

Allah said, ”When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people)” chastising those who indulge in things before being sure of their truth, disclosing them, making them known and spreading their news, even though such news might not be true at all. In the introduction to his Sahih, Imam Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet,  peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

”Narrating everything one hears is sufficient to make a person a liar.” (Muslim 1:10)

This is the same narration collected by Abu Dawud in the section of Adab (manners) in his Sunan. (Abu Dawud 5:226) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shubah said that the Messenger of Allah prohibited, “It was said,” and, “So-and-so said.” This Hadith refers to those who often convey the speech that people utter without investigating the reliability and truth of what he is disclosing. The Sahih also records,

”Whoever narrates a Hadith while knowing it is false, then he is one of the two liars (who invents and who spreads the lie)” (Muslim 1:9)

We should mention here the Hadith of Umar bin Al-Khattab collected in the Two Sahihs. When Umar was informed that the Messenger of Allah divorced his wives, he came from his house, entered the Masjid and found the people talking about this news. He could not wait and went to the Prophet to ask him about what had truly happened, asking him, “Have you divorced your wives?” The Prophet said, “No.” Umar said, “I said, Allahu Akbar…” and mentioned the rest of the Hadith. In the narration that Muslim collected, Umar said, “I asked, ‘Have you divorced them?’ He said, ‘No.’ So, I stood by the door of the Masjid and shouted with the loudest voice, ‘The Messenger of Allah did not divorce his wives.’ Then, this Ayah was revealed, ”When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people), if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly).’‘ So I properly investigated that matter.” (Fath Al-Bari 9:187 and Muslim 2:1105)

This Ayah refers to proper investigation, or extraction of matters from their proper resources. Allah’s statement, ”you would have followed Shaytan except a few of you.” refers to the believers, as Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 8:575)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 2 Pages 507-529

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