Surah Al-Baqarah Part 19

{165. And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else). If only, those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment.

166. When those who were followed disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them.

167. And those who followed will say: “If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned (declared themselves as innocent from) us. ” Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire.}

 

The Condition of the Polytheists in this Life and the Hereafter

In these Ayat, Allah mentions the condition of the polytheists in this life and their destination in the Hereafter. They appointed equals and rivals with Allah, worshipping them along with Allah and loving them, just as they love Allah. However, Allah is the only deity worthy of worship, Who has neither rival nor opponent nor partner. It is reported in the Sahihayn that ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud said: I said, “O Messenger of Allah! What is the greatest sin?” He said:

”To appoint a rival to Allah while He Alone has created you.” (Muslim 1:90)

Allah said: ”But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else)” Because these believers love Allah, know His greatness, revere Him, believe in His Oneness, then they do not associate anything or anyone with Him in the worship. Rather, they worship Him Alone, depend on Him and they seek help from Him for each and every need.

Then, Allah warns those who commit Shirk, If only, those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah.” if these people knew what they will face and the terrible punishment they are to suffer because of their disbelief and Shirk (polytheism), then they would shun the deviation that they live by.

Allah mentions their false beliefs in their idols, and that those they followed will declare their innocence of them. Allah said: ”When those who were followed disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them).” the angels, whom they used to claim that they worshipped, declare their innocence of them in the Hereafter, saying:

”We declare our innocence (from them) before You. It was not us they worshipped.” (28:63), and

“Glorified be You! You are our Wali (Lord) instead of them. Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them.” (34:4)

The Jinn will also disown the disbelievers who worshipped them, and they will reject that worship. Allah said:

”And who is more astray than one who calls on (invokes) besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them And when mankind are gathered (on the Day of Resurrection), they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.” (46:5-6) Allah said:

”And they have taken (for worship) alihah (gods) besides Allah, that they might give them honor, power and glory (and also protect them from Allah’ punishment). Nay, but they (the so- called gods) will deny their worship of them, and become opponents to them (on the Day of Resurrection).” (19:81-82)

Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, said to his people:

”You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.” (29:25) Allah said:

”But if you could see when the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers) will be made to stand before their Lord, how they will cast the (blaming) word one to another! Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!” And those who were arrogant will say to those who were deemed weak: “Did we keep you back from guidance after it had come to you Nay, but you were Mujrimin (polytheists, sinners, disbelievers, criminals).” Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to Him!” And each of them (parties) will conceal their own regrets (for disobeying Allah during this worldly life), when they behold the torment. And We shall put iron collars round the necks of those who disbelieved. Are they requited aught except what they used to do” (34:31-33)

Allah said:

”And Shaytan (Satan) will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can you help me. I deny your former act in associating me (Satan) as a partner with Allah (by obeying me in the life of the world). Verily, there is a painful torment for the Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).” (14:22)

Allah then said: ”…and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them.” meaning, when they see Allah’s torment, their power and means of salvation are all cut off, and they will have no way of making amends, nor will they find a way of escape from the Fire. ‘Ata’ reported that Ibn’Abbas said about: ”then all their relations will be cut off from them.” meaning the friendship.” Mujahid reported a similar statement in another narration by Ibn Abu Najih. (At-Tabari 3:290)

Allah said: ”And those who followed will say: “If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned (declared themselves as innocent from) us.” This Ayah means: ‘If we only had a chance to go back to the life so that we could disown them (their idols, leaders, etc.) shun their worship, ignore them and worship Allah Alone instead.’ But they utter a lie in this regard, because if they were given the chance to go back, they would only return to what they were prohibited from doing, just as Allah said. This is why Allah said: ”Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regrets for them” meaning, their works will vanish and disappear. Similarly, Allah said:

”And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust.” (25:23)

Allah also said ”The parable of those who disbelieved in their Lord is that their works are as ashes, on which the wind blows furiously on a stormy day” (14:18), and:

”As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water” (24:39)

This is why Allah said – at the end of the Ayah 2:167 above ”And they will never get out of the Fire.”

 

{168. O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan (Satan). Verily, he is to you an open enemy.

169. He (Satan) commands you only what is evil and Fahsha’ (sinful), and that you should say about Allah what you know not.}

The Order to eat the Lawful Things, and the Prohibition of following the Footsteps of Shaytan

After Allah stated that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him and that He Alone created the creation, He stated that He is the Sustainer for all His creation, and He mentioned a favor that He granted them; He has allowed them to eat any of the pure lawful things on the earth that do not cause harm to the body or the mind. He also forbade them from following the footsteps of Shaytan, meaning his ways and methods with which he misguides his followers, like prohibiting the Bahirah (a she-camel whose milk was spared for the idols and nobody was allowed to milk it), or Sa’ibah (a she-camel let loose for free pasture for the idols and nothing was allowed to be carried on it), or a Wasilah (a she-camel set free for idols because it has given birth to a she-camel at its first delivery and then again gives birth to a she-camel at its second delivery), and all of the other things that Shaytan made attractive to them during the time of Jahiliyyah. Muslim recorded `Iyad bin Himar saying that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said that Allah the Exalted says, ”Every type of wealth I have endowed My servants is allowed for them…” (until), ”I have created My servants Hunafa’ (pure or upright), but the devils came to them and led them astray from their (true) religion and prohibited them from what I allowed for them. ” (Muslim 4:2197)

Allah said: ”…he is to you an open enemy.” warning against Satan. Allah said in another instance:

”Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy. He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire.” (35:6), and:

”Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the Zalimin (polytheists, and wrongdoers, etc)” (18:50)

Qatadah and As-Suddi commented on what Allah said: ”…and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan (Satan): Every act of disobedience to Allah is among the footsteps of Satan.”

‘Abd bin Humayd reported that Ibn’ Abbas said: “Any vow or oath that one makes while angry, is among the footsteps of Shaytan and its expiation is that of the vow.” Allah’s statement: ”He (Satan) commands you only what is evil and Fahsha (sinful), and that you should say about Allah what you know not.” The verse means: Your enemy, Satan, commands you to commit evil acts and what is worse than that, such as adultery and so forth. He commands you to commit what is even worse, that is, saying about Allah without knowledge.’ So this includes every innovator and disbeliever.

{170. When it is said to them: “Follow what Allah has sent down.” They say: “Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following.” (Would they do that!) even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided

171. And the example of those who disbelieve is as that of him who shouts to those (flock of sheep) that hear nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand.}

 

The Polytheist imitates Other Polytheists

Allah states that if the disbelievers and polytheists are called to follow what Allah has revealed to His Messenger and abandon the practices of misguidance and ignorance that they indulge in, they will say, “Rather. We shall follow what we found our fathers following,” meaning, worshipping the idols and the false deities. Allah criticized their reasoning: ”(Would they do that!) even though their fathers”, meaning, those whom they follow and whose practices they imitate, and ”…did not understand anything nor were they guided” meaning, they had no sound understanding or guidance. Ibn Ishaq reported that Ibn ‘Abbas said that this was revealed about a group of Jews whom Allah’s Messenger called to Islam, but they refused, saying, “Rather, we shall follow what we found our forefathers following.” So Allah revealed this Ayah (2:170) above.” (At-Tabari 3:305)

The Disbeliever is just like an Animal

Allah then made a parable of the disbelievers, just as He said in another Ayah:

”For those who believe not in the Hereafter is an evil description.” (16:60)

Similarly, Allah said here (2:171 above) ”And the example of those who disbelieve…” meaning, in their injustice, misguidance and ignorance, they are just like wandering animals, not understanding what they are told; if the shepherd heralds them or calls them to what benefits them, they would not understand what is actually being said to them, for they only hear unintelligible sounds. ”They are deaf, dumb, and blind” means, they are deaf, as they do not hear the truth; mute, as they do not utter it; and blind, as they do not see or recognize its path and way. ”So they do not understand” means, they do not comprehend or understand anything.

{172. O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allah – Islamic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed He Whom you worship

173. He has forbidden you only the Maitah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

The Command to eat Pure Things and the Explanation of the Prohibited Things

Allah commands His believing servants to eat from the pure things that He has created for them and to thank Him for it, if they are truly His servants. Eating from pure sources is a cause for the acceptance of supplications and acts of worship, just as eating from impure sources prevents the acceptance of supplications and acts of worship, as mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad, that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

”O people! Allah is Tayyib (Pure and Good) and only accepts that which is Tayyib. Allah has indeed commanded the believers with what He has commanded the Messengers, for He said: (O (you) Messengers! Eat of the Tayyibat and do righteous deeds. Verily, I am well-acquainted with what you do) (23:51), and: (O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with) He then mentioned a man, (who is engaged in a long journey, whose hair is untidy and who is covered in dust, he raises his hands to the sky, and says, `O Lord! O Lord!’ Yet, his food is from the unlawful, his drink is from the unlawful, his clothes are from the unlawful, and he was nourished by the unlawful, so how can it (his supplication) be accepted’.’ (Ahmad 3:328)

After Allah mentioned how He has blessed His creatures by providing them with provisions, and after commanding them to eat from the pure things that He has provided them, He then stated that He has not prohibited anything for them, except dead animals. Dead animals are those that die before being slaughtered; whether they die by strangling, a violent blow, a headlong fall, the goring of horns or by being partly eaten by a wild animal. Dead animals of the sea are excluded from this ruling, as is explained later, Allah willing, as Allah said:

”Lawful to you is (the pursuit of) watergame and its use for food” (5:96),

and because of the Hadith about the whale recorded in the Sahih. (Fath Al-Bari 6:152) The Musnad, Al-Muwatta’ and the Sunan recorded the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saying about the sea: ”Its water is pure and its dead are permissible.” (Ahmad 5:365)

Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and Ad-Daraqutni reported that Ibn `Umar said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

”We have been allowed two dead things and two bloody things: fish and locusts; and liver and spleen.” (Ahmad 2:97)

We will mention this subject again in Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5 in the Qur’an), In sha’ Allah (if Allah wills).

Issue: According to Ash-Shafi`i and other scholars, milk and eggs that are inside dead unslaughtered animals are not pure, because they are part of the dead animal. In one narration from him, Malik said that they are pure themselves, but become impure because of their location. Similarly, there is a difference of opinion over the cheeses (made with the milk) of dead animals. The popular view of the scholars is that it is impure, although they mentioned the fact that the Companions ate from the cheeses made by the Magians (fire worshippers). Hence, Al-Qurtubi commented: “Since only a small part of the dead animal is mixed with it, then it is permissible, because a minute amount of impurity does not matter if it is mixed with a large amount of liquid.” Ibn Majah reported that Salman said that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was asked about butter, cheese and fur. He said:

”The allowed is what Allah has allowed in His Book and the prohibited is what Allah has prohibited in His Book. What He has not mentioned is a part of what He has pardoned.” (Ibn Majah 2:1117)

Allah has prohibited eating the meat of swine, whether slaughtered or not, and this includes its fat, either because it is implied, or because the term Lahm includes that, or by analogy. Similarly prohibited are offerings to other than Allah, that is what was slaughtered in a name other than His, be it for monuments, idols, divination, or the other practices of the time of Jahiliyyah. Al-Qurtubi mentioned that ‘A’ishah was asked about what non-Muslims slaughter for their feasts and then offer some of it as gifts for Muslims. She said, “Do not eat from what has been slaughtered for that day, (or feast) but eat from their vegetables.” (Al-Qurtubi 2:224)

The Prohibited is Allowed in Cases of Emergency

Then Allah permitted eating these things when needed for survival or when there are no permissible types of food available. Allah said: ”But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits”, meaning, without transgression or overstepping the limits, ”…then there is no sin on him.” meaning, if one eats such items, for, ”Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

Mujahid said, “If one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing the set limits. For example, if he didn’t, then he would have to resort to highway robbery, rising against the rulers, or some other kinds of disobedience to Allah, then the permission applies to him. If one does so transgressing the limits, or continually, or out of disobedience to Allah, then the permission does not apply to him even if he is in dire need.” The same was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr. Sa’id and Muqatil bin Hayyan are reported to have said that without willful disobedience means, “Without believing that it is permissible.” It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbas commented on the Ayah: ”…without willful disobedience nor transgressing” saying, “Without willful disobedience means eating the dead animal and not continuing to do so. Qatadah said: ”without willful disobedience” “Without transgressing by eating from the dead animals, that is when the lawful is available.”

Issue: When one in dire straits finds both – dead animals, and foods belong to other people which he could get without risking the loss of his hands or causing harm, then it is not allowed for him to eat the dead animals. Ibn Majah reported that ‘Abbad bin Shurahbil Al-Ghubari said, “One year we suffered from famine. I came to Al-Madinah and entered a garden. I took some grain that I cleaned, and ate, then I left some of it in my garment. The owner of the garden came, roughed me up and took possession of my garment. I then went to Allah’s Messenger and told him what had happened. He said to the man:

”You have not fed him when he was hungry – or he said starving – nor have you taught him if he was ignorant.”

The Prophet commanded him to return ‘Abbad’s garment to him, and to offer him a Wasq (around 180 kilograms) – or a half Wasq – of food. (Ibn Majah 2:770)

This has a sufficiently strong chain of narrators and there are many other witnessing narrations to support it, such as the Hadith that ‘Amr bin Shu’ayb narrated from his father that his grandfather said: Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, was asked about the hanging clusters of dates. He said:

”There is no harm for whoever takes some of it in his mouth for a necessity without putting it in his garment.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 4:510)

Muqatil bin Hayyan commented on: ”…then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” “For what is eaten out of necessity.” (Ibn Abi Hatim 1:240) Sa’id bin Jubayr said, “Allah is pardoning for what has been eaten of the unlawful, and Merciful’ in that He allowed the prohibited during times of necessity.” Masruq said, “Whoever is in dire need, but does not eat or drink until he dies, he will enter the Fire.” This indicates that eating dead animals for those who are in need of it for survival is not only permissible but required.

{174. Verily, those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things), they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment.

175. Those are they who have purchased error at the price of guidance, and torment at the price of forgiveness. So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire.

176. That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) in truth. And verily, those who disputed as regards the Book are far away in opposition}

Criticizing the Jews for concealing what Allah revealed

Allah said: ”Verily, those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book.” Meaning the Jews who concealed their Book’s descriptions of Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, all of which testify to his truth as a Messenger and a Prophet. They concealed this information so that they would not lose authority and the position that they had with the Arabs, where they would bring them gifts, and honor them. The cursed Jews feared that if they announced what they know about Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then the people would abandon them and follow him. So they hid the truth so that they may retain the little that they were getting, and they sold their souls for this little profit. They preferred the little that they gained over guidance and following the truth, believing in the Messenger and having faith in what Allah was sent him with. Therefore, they have profited failure and loss in this life and the Hereafter.

As for this world, Allah made the truth about His Messenger known anyway, by the clear signs and the unequivocal proofs. Thereafter, those whom the Jews feared would follow the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him believed in him and followed him anyway, and so they became his supporters against them. Thus, the Jews earned anger on top of the wrath that they already had earned before, and Allah criticized them again many times in His Book. For instance, Allah said in this Ayah (2:174 above): ”Verily, those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things)” meaning, the joys and delights of this earthly life. Allah said: ”…they eat into their bellies nothing but fire” meaning, whatever they eat in return for hiding the truth, will turn into a raging fire in their stomachs on the Day of Resurrection.

Similarly, Allah said:

”Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!” (4:10)

Also, reported in an authentic Hadith is that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon, said: ‘Those who eat or drink in golden or silver plates are filling their stomachs with the fire of Jahannam (Hell).” (Al-Bukhari no.5634)

Allah said: ”Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment.” This is because Allah is furious with them for concealing the truth. They thus deserve Allah’s anger, so Allah will not look at them or purify them, meaning that He will not praise them but will cause them to taste a severe torment. Then, Allah said about them: ”Those are they who have purchased error for guidance” Hence, they opposed the guidance, that is, not announcing the Prophet’s description they find in their Books, the news about his prophecy and the good news of his coming which the previous Prophets proclaimed, as well as following and believing in him. Instead, they preferred misguidance by denying him, rejecting him and concealing his descriptions that were mentioned in their Books. Allah said: ”…and torment at the price of forgiveness” meaning, they preferred torment over forgiveness due to the sins they have committed. Allah then said: ”So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire.” 

Allah states that they will suffer such severe, painful torment that those who see them will be amazed at how they could bear the tremendous punishment, torture and pain that they will suffer. We seek refuge with Allah from this evil end. Allah’s Statement: ”That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) in truth’‘ means, they deserve this painful torment because Allah has revealed Books to His Messenger Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and the Prophets before him, and these revelations bring about truth and expose falsehood. Yet, they took Allah’s signs for mockery. Their Books ordered them to announce the truth and to spread the knowledge, but instead, they defied the knowledge and rejected it. This Final Messenger – Muhammad – called them to Allah, commanded them to work righteousness and forbade them from committing evil. Yet, they rejected, denied and defied him and hid the truth that they knew about him. They, thus, mocked the Ayat that Allah revealed to His Messengers, and this is why they deserved the torment and the punishment. This is why Allah said here (2:176): ”That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) in truth. And verily, those who disputed about the Book are far away in opposition.”

 

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