Surah Al-Ahzab Ayat 57-73 (end)

{57. Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in this world and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating torment.

58. And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, they bear the crime of slander and plain sin.}

Whoever annoys Allah and His Messenger, is cursed in this World and the Hereafter

Here, Allah warns and threatens those who annoy Him by going against His commands and doing that which He has forbidden, and who persist in doing so, and those who annoy His Messenger by accusing him of having faults or shortcomings – Allah forbid. Ikrimah said that the Ayah: “Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger” was revealed concerning those who make pictures or images. (At-Tabari 20:322)

In The Two Sahihs, it is reported that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“Allah says: “The son of Adam annoys Me by inveighing against time, but I am time, for I cause the alternation of night and day.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:437)

The meaning of this Hadith is that in the Jahiliyyah they used to say, “How bad time is, it has done such and such to us!” They used to attribute the deeds of Allah to time, and inveigh against it, but the One Who did that was Allah, may He be exalted. So, He forbade them from this. Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah, “Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger,” was revealed about those who slandered the Prophet over his marriage to Safiyyah bint Huyay bin Akhtab. (At-Tabari 20:323)

The Ayah appears to be general in meaning and to apply to all those who annoy him in any way, because whoever annoys him annoys Allah, just as whoever obeys him obeys Allah.

The Threat to Those Who fabricate Slander

“And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly,” means, they attribute to them things of which they are innocent, which they do not know and do not do. “they bear the crime of slander and plain sin.” This is the most serious slander, to tell or transmit things about the believing men and women that they have not done, in order to bring shame upon them and accuse them of shortcomings. Among those to whom the description most applies are those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, followed by the Rafidites who accuse the Companions of shortcomings and faults of which Allah has stated that they are innocent, and describe them as the opposite of what Allah has said about them. Allah, may He be exalted, has told us that He is pleased with the Migrants and Ansar, and has praised them, but these foolish and ignorant people inveigh against them and accuse them of shortcomings, and say things about them that they did not do and could never have done. In reality, their hearts are misguided, for they condemn those who deserve praise and praise those who deserve condemnation. Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that it was said: “O Messenger of Allah, what is backbiting (Ghibah)?” He said,

“It is when you mention something about your brother that he dislikes.”

It was asked, “But what if what I say about my brother is true?” He said,

“If it is true, then you have committed backbiting (Ghibah) about him, and if it is not true, then you have slandered him.”

This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih.” (Abu Dawud 5:192)

{59. O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their Jalabib over their bodies. That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

60. If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah stop not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but a little while.

61. Accursed, they shall be seized wherever found, and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.

62. That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old, and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.}

The Command of Hijab

Here Allah tells His Messenger to command the believing women – especially his wives and daughters, because of their position of honour – to draw their Jilbabs over their bodies, so that they will be distinct in their appearance from the women of the Jahiliyyah and from slave women. The Jilbab is a Rida’, worn over the Khimar. This was the view of Ibn Masud, Ubaydah, Qatadah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Said bin Jubayr, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ata’ Al-Khurasani and others. It is like the Izar used today. Al-Jawhari said: “The Jilbab is the outer wrapper.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that Allah commanded the believing women, when they went out of their houses for some need, to cover their faces from above their heads with the Jilbab, leaving only one eye showing. (At-Tabari 20:324) Muhammad bin Sirin said, “I asked Ubaydah As-Salmani about the Ayah: “to draw their Jalabib over their bodies.” He covered his face and head, with just his left eye showing.” (At-Tabari 20:325) [There are also other interpretations that are not elaborated upon in this text] “That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed.” means, if they do that, it will be known that they are free, and that they are not servants or whores. “And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” means, with regard to what happened previously during the days of Jahiliyyah, when they did not have any knowledge about this.

A Stern Warning to the Evil Hypocrites

Then Allah issues a warning to the hypocrites, those who make an outward display of faith while concealing their disbelief, “those in whose hearts is a disease,” Ikrimah and others said that this refers to adulterers in this instance. (At-Tabari 20:326) “and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah” means, those who say that the enemy has come and war has started, which is a lie and a fabrication. Unless they give up these actions and return to the truth, “We shall certainly let you overpower them,” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “We will give you power over them.” (At-Tabari 20:328) Qatadah said: “We will incite you against them.” (At-Tabari 20:328) As-Suddi said: “We will inform you about them.” “then they will not be able to stay in it” means, in Al-Madinah, “but a little while. Accursed…” this describes their state while they are in Al-Madinah for this short time before they are expelled and sent far away.’ “they shall be seized wherever found,” means, ‘they will be attacked, because they are so weak and so few,’ “and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.” Then Allah says: “That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old,” meaning, this is how Allah dealt with the hypocrites when they persisted in hypocrisy and disbelief and did not give it up; He incited the believers against them and caused them to prevail over them. “and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.” means, the way in which Allah deals with this does not alter or change.

{63.People ask you concerning the Hour, say: “The knowledge of it is with Allah only. What do you know It may be that the Hour is near!”

64. Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers, and has prepared for them a flaming Fire.

65. Wherein they will abide forever, and they will find neither a a protector nor a helper.

66. On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: “Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger.”

67. And they will say: “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way.”

68. “Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!”}

No-one knows when the Day of Resurrection will come except Allah

Here Allah tells His Messenger that he cannot know when the Hour will come, and if people ask him about that, He instructs him to refer the matter to Allah, may He be exalted, as Allah says in Surat Al-Araf, even though that was revealed in Makkah and this Surah was revealed in Al-Madinah. Allah continues to tell him to refer this matter to the One Who knows about it, but He tells him that it is at hand, as He says: “What do you know It may be that the Hour is near!” This is like the Ayat: “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.” (54:1) “Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.” (21:1) “The Event (the Hour) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it” (16:1).

The Curse on the Disbelievers and its Eternity and their Regret

Then Allah says: “Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers,” means, He has distanced them from His mercy. “and has prepared for them a flaming Fire (Hell).” means, in the Hereafter.  “Wherein they will abide forever,” means, they will stay there forever and ever, never leaving or finding relief from it. “and they will find neither a a protector nor a helper.” means, they will have no saviour to help them or rescue them from their predicament. Then Allah says: “On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: “Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger.” means, they will be dragged into the Fire on their faces and their faces will be contorted in Hell, and in that state they will wish that they had been among those who had obeyed Allah and His Messenger in this world. Allah describes how they will be in the Hereafter: “And the Day when the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: “Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger. Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as an intimate friend! He indeed led me astray from the Reminder after it had come to me. And Shaytan is to man ever a deserter in the hour of need.” (25:27-29) “How much would those who disbelieved wish that they had been Muslims.” (15:2) And here too, Allah tells us that when they are in this state, they will wish that they had obeyed Allah and His Messenger in this world: “And they will say: “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way.” Tawus said: ” ‘Our chiefs’ means their nobles and ‘our great ones’ means their scholars.” “Our Lord! Give them double torment” means, ‘for their disbelief and because they mislead us.’ Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani recorded from Abu Rafi that among the names of those who fought with Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, was Al-Hajjaj bin Amr bin Ghaziyah, and he was the one who, when they met, said; “O people of the Ansar! Do you want to say when we meet our Lord: “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way. Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!”

{69. O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa, but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable before Allah.}

The Fabrications of the Jews against Musa

Al-Bukhari recorded in the Book of Hadiths about the Prophets, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Musa, peace be upon him, was a shy and modest man who would never show anything of his skin because of his shyness. Some of the Children of Israel annoyed him by saying: “He only keeps himself covered because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia or some other defect.” Allah, may He be glorified, wanted to clear Musa, peace be upon him, of what they were saying. One day Musa was alone, so he took off his garment and put it on a rock, then he took a bath. When he had finished, he turned back to pick up his garment, but the rock moved away, taking his garment with it. Musa picked up his stick and chased the rock, saying, “My garment, O rock! My garment, O rock!” Until he reached a group of the Children of Israel, who saw him naked and found that he was the best of those whom Allah had created. Thus he was cleared of what they had said about him. Then the rock stood still, so he took his garment and put it on. He started hitting the rock with his stick, and by Allah, the marks of that beating were left on the rock, three or four or five. This is what is referred to in the Ayah: “O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa, but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable before Allah.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:502)

This Hadith is one of those which were recorded by Al-Bukhari but not Muslim.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah (bin Masud) said: “One day, the Messenger of Allah distributed some booty and a man among the Ansar said, ‘This division was not done for the sake of Allah.’ I said, ‘O enemy of Allah! I am going to tell the Messenger of Allah what you have said.’ So, I told the Prophet about it. His face reddened and he said,

“May Allah have mercy on Musa. He was annoyed with worse than this, yet he remained patient.”

This was recorded in the Two Sahihs. (Ahmad 1:380, Bukhari 3405, Muslim 1062)

“and he was honorable before Allah.” means, he had a position of status and honor before his Lord, may He be exalted and glorified. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: “His supplications would be answered by Allah.” Some of them said that part of his great standing before Allah was that he interceded for his brother Harun, asking Allah to send him with him as a Messenger, and Allah granted his request and said: “And We granted him his brother Harun, (also) a Prophet, out of Our mercy.” (19:53)

{70. O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and speak (always) the truth.

71. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great victory.}

The Command to the Believers to have Taqwa and speak the Truth

Here Allah commands His servants to have Taqwa of Him, worshipping Him as if they can see Him, and to “speak (always) the truth.” meaning, to speak in a straightforward manner, with no crookedness or distortion. He promises them that if they do that, He will reward them by making their deeds righteous, i.e., enabling them to do righteous deeds, and He will forgive them their past sins. With regard to whatever sins they may commit in the future, He will inspire them to repent from them. Then He says: (And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great victory.) meaning, he will be saved from the fire of Hell and will enjoy everlasting delights (in Paradise).

{72. Truly, We did offer the Amanah to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it. But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.

73. So that Allah will punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the men and women who are idolators. And Allah will pardon the believers, men and women. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

 

How Man bore the Amanah

Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Al-Amanah means obedience. This was offered to them before it was offered to Adam, and they could not bear it. Then Allah said to Adam: ‘I have offered the Amanah to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, and they could not bear it. Will you take it on’ He said, ‘O Lord, what does it involve?’ He said, ‘If you do good, you will be rewarded, and if you do evil, you will be punished.’ So Adam took the Amanah and bore it, and this is what is referred to in the Ayah: “But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.” (At-Tabari 20: 338) Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Al-Amanah means Al-Fara’id ‘the obligatory duties’. Allah offered them to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, “on the grounds that” if they fulfilled them, He would reward them; and if they failed, He would punish them. But they did not want to do that, and they were afraid of it, not because their intention was sinful, but because of their respect for the religion of Allah, in case they could not fulfill the obligations involved. Then Allah offered it to Adam, and he accepted it with all that it entailed. This is what is referred to in the Ayah: “But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.” meaning, he underestimated the command of Allah.” (At-Tabari 20: 337) This was also the view of Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and others that Al-Amanah means Al-Fara’id. (At-Tabari 20: 337) Others said that it meant obedience. Al-Amash narrated from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq that Ubayy bin Kab said: “Part of Al-Amanah means that woman was entrusted with her own chastity.” (At-Tabari 20: 338) Qatadah said: “Al-Amanah means religion, obligatory duties and prescribed punishments.” (At-Tabari 20: 339) Malik narrated that Zayd bin Aslam said: “Al-Amanah means three things: prayer, fasting and performing Ghusl to cleanse oneself from sexual impurity.”

There is no contradiction between all of these views; they are all in agreement and all refer to responsibility and the acceptance of commands and prohibitions with their attendant conditions, which is that the one who fulfills this responsibility, will be rewarded; while the one who neglects it, will be punished. Man accepted this despite the fact that he is weak, ignorant and unjust – except for those whom Allah helps, and Allah is the One Whose help we seek.

One of the reports which deal with Al-Amanah is the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah told us two Hadiths, one of which I have seen and the other I am still waiting to see. He told us that Al-Amanah is deeply rooted in the heart of man, then the Qur’an was revealed and they know it from the Qur’an and from the Sunnah. Then he told us that Al-Amanah will be taken away. He said,

“A man may sleep and Al-Amanah will be taken from his heart, leaving nothing but a trace like a blister left by a coal if you were to roll it over your leg — you will see it protruding but there is nothing inside.”

Then he took a pebble and rolled it over his leg, then he said:

“Then the people will start buying and selling, and hardly anyone will be paying attention to Al-Amanah, until it will be said that among the tribe of so-and-so there is a trustworthy man, and it will said of a man, ‘How strong he is, how nice and how wise,’ and there is not even a mustard seed of faith in his heart.”

No doubt, there came upon me a time when I did not mind dealing (bargaining) with anyone of you, for if he was a Muslim, his Islam would compel him to pay me what is due to me, and if he was a Christian, or Jew, the Muslim official would compel him to pay me what is due to me, but today, I do not deal except with such and such person among you.” (Ahmad 5:383) It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs from the Hadith of Al-Amash. (Fath Al-Bari 11:341, Muslim 1:126)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“There are four things, if you attain them, then whatever you miss in this world will not matter: preserving trust, speaking the truth, being of good character and moderation in eating.” (Ahmad 2:177)

The Result of taking on the Amanah

“So that Allah will punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the men and women who are idolators.” means, because the sons of Adam have undertaken to fulfill the Amanah, which means duties, Allah will punish the men and women among them who are hypocrites, who are those who make an outward display of faith because they fear the believers, but in their hearts they conceal disbelief and in fact are followers of the disbelievers. “and the men and women who are idolators.”These are the ones who both outwardly and inwardly associate others in worship with Allah and go against His Messengers. “And Allah will pardon the believers, men and women.” means, He will show mercy to the believers among mankind, who believe in Allah and in His angels, Books and Messengers, and who obey Him. “And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

This is end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahzab.

Allah’s is the praise and thanks.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 42-57

 

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Surah Al-Ahzab Ayah 51-56

{51. You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you: that is better that they may be comforted and not grieved, and may all be pleased with what you give them. Allah knows what is in your hearts. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.}

 

The Prophet has the Choice of either accepting or rejecting Women who offer Themselves to Him

Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, used to feel jealous of the women who offered themselves to the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him. She said, “Would a woman not feel shy to offer herself without any dowry?” Then Allah revealed the Ayah, “You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will.” She said, “I think that your Lord is hastening to confirm your desire.” (Ahmad 6:158) We have already stated that Al-Bukhari also recorded this. (Fath Al-Bari 8:385) This indicates that what is meant by the word: (postpone) is delay, and “whom you will of them” means, ‘of those who offer themselves to you.’ “and you may receive whom you will.” means, ‘whoever you wish, you may accept, and whoever you wish, you may decline, but with regard to those whom you decline, you have the choice of going back to them later on and receiving them.’ Allah says: “And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you (to receive her again).” Others said that what is meant by: “You can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them,” means, ‘your wives: there is no sin on you if you stop dividing your time equally between them, and delay the turn of one of them and bring forward the turn of another as you wish, and you have intercourse with one and not another as you wish.’ This was narrated from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Abu Razin, Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others.

Nevertheless, the Prophet used to divide his time between them equally, hence a group of the scholars of Fiqh among the Shafi’s and others said that equal division of time was not obligatory for him and they used this Ayah as their evidence.

Al-Bukhari recorded that A’ishah said: “The Messenger of Allah used to ask permission of us (for changing days) after this Ayah was revealed: “You can postpone whom you will of them, and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside, it is no sin on you.” I (the narrator) said to her: “What did you say?” She said, “I said, ‘If it were up to me, I would not give preference to anyone with regard to you, O Messenger of Allah!” (Fath Al-Bari 8:385)

This Hadith indicates that what is meant in this Hadith from A’ishah is that it was not obligatory on him to divide his time equally between his wives. The first Hadith quoted from her implies that the Ayah was revealed concerning the women who offered themselves to him. Ibn Jarir prefered the view that the Ayah was general and applies both to the women who offered themselves to him and to the wives that he already had, and that he was given the choice whether to divide him time among them or not. (At-Tabari 20:304) This is a good opinion which reconciles between the Hadiths.

Allah says: “that is better that they may be comforted and not grieved, and may all be pleased with what you give them.” meaning, ‘if they know that Allah has stated that there is no sin on you with regard to dividing your time. If you wish, you may divide you time and if you do not wish, you need not divide your time, there is no sin on you no matter which you do. Therefore if you divide your time between them, this will be your choice, and not a duty that is enjoined upon you, so they will feel happy because of that and will recognize your favor towards them in sharing your time equally among them and being fair to all of them.’ “Allah knows what is in your hearts.” means, ‘He knows that you are more inclined towards some of them than others, which you cannot avoid.’ Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah said: “The Messenger of Allah used to divide his time between his wives fairly and treat them equally, then he said:

“O Allah, I have done as much as I can with regard to what is under my control, so do not blame me for that which is under Your control and not mine.” (Ahmad 6:144)

It was also recorded by the four Sunan compilers. After the words “so do not blame me for that which is under Your control and not mine,” Abu Dawud’s report adds the phrase: “So do not blame me for that which is under Your control and not mine.” meaning matters of the heart. (Abu Dawud 2:601) Its chain of narration is Sahih, and all the men in its chain are reliable.

Then this phrase is immediately followed by the words, “And Allah is Ever All-Knowing,” i.e., of innermost secrets, “Most Forbearing.” meaning, He overlooks and forgives.

{52. It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this, nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you, except those whom your right hand possesses. And Allah is Ever a Watcher over all things.}

The Reward of His Wives for choosing to stay with the Messenger

More than one of the scholars, such as Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd, Ibn Jarir and others (At-Tabari 20:297) stated that this Ayah was revealed as a reward to the wives of the Prophet expressing Allah’s pleasure with them for their excellent decision in choosing Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, when the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave them the choice, as we have stated above. When they chose the Messenger of Allah their reward was that Allah restricted him to these wives, and forbade him to marry anyone else or to change them for other wives, even if he was attracted by their beauty – apart from slave-girls and prisoners of war, with regard to whom there was no sin on him. Then Allah lifted the restriction stated in this Ayah and permitted him to marry more women (Ahmad 6:41), but he did not marry anyone else, so that the favor of the Messenger of Allah towards them would be clear.

Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “The Messenger of Allah did not die until Allah permitted (marriage to other) women for him.” (See Surat Al-Ahzab 33:50) It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i in their Sunans. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:78)

On the other hand, others said that what was meant by the Ayah, “It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this,” means, ‘after the description We have given of the women who are lawful for you, those to whom you have given their dowery, those whom your right hand possesses, and daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, maternal uncles and aunts, and those who offer themselves to you in marriage – other kinds of women are not lawful for you.’ This view was narrated from Ubayy bin Kab, from Mujahid in one report which was transmitted from him, and others.

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah was forbidden to marry certain kinds of women apart from believing women who had migrated with him, in the Ayah, “It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this, nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you, except those whom your right hand possesses.” Allah has made lawful believing women, and believing women who offered themselves to the Prophet for marriage, and He made unlawful every woman who followed a religion other than Islam, as Allah says: “And whosoever disbelieves in faith, then fruitless is his work” (5:5). Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy on him, stated that this Ayah is general in meaning and applies to all the kinds of women mentioned and the women to whom he was married, who were nine. What he said is good, and may be what many of the Salaf meant, for many of them narrated both views from him, and there is no contradiction between the two. And Allah knows best. “nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you,” He was forbidden to marry more women, even if he were to divorce any of them and wanted replace her with another, except for those whom his right hand possessed (slave women).

{53. O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.

54. Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.}

 

The Etiquette of entering the Houses of the Prophet and the Command of Hijab

This is the Ayah of Hijab, which includes several legislative rulings and points of etiquette. This is one of the cases where the revelation confirmed the opinion of Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, as it was reported in the Two Sahihs that he said: “My view coincided with that of my Lord in three things. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, why do you not take Maqam Ibrahim as a place of prayer’ Then Allah revealed: “And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer” (2:125) And I said, `O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people enter upon your wives, so why do you not screen them’ Then Allah revealed the Ayah of Hijab. And I said to the wives of the Prophet when they conspired against him out of jealousy, “It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you” (66:5), and this is what Allah revealed.” (Fath Al-Bari 1:60)

In a report recorded by Muslim, the prisoners of Badr are mentioned, and this is a fourth matter (in which the view of Umar coincided with that of his Lord). (Muslim 4:1765)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said: “Umar bin Al-Khattab said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people enter upon you, so why not instruct the Mothers of the believers to observe Hijab’ Then Allah revealed the Ayah of Hijab.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:387)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “When the Messenger of Allah married Zaynab bint Jahsh, he invited the people to eat, then they sat talking. When he wanted to get up, they did not get up. When he saw that, he got up anyway, and some of them got up, but three people remained sitting. The Prophet wanted to go in, but these people were sitting, then they got up and went away. I came and told the Prophet that they had left, then he came and entered. I wanted to follow him, but he put the screen between me and him. Then Allah revealed, “O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse…” (Fath Al-Bari 8:387)

Al-Bukhari also recorded this elsewhere. It was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. (Muslim 2:1050)

Then Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said: “The Prophet married Zaynab bint Jahsh with (a wedding feast of) meat and bread. I sent someone to invite people to the feast, and some people came and ate, then left. Then another group came and ate, and left. I invited people until there was no one left to invite. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I cannot find anyone else to invite.’ He said,

“Take away the food.”

There were three people left who were talking in the house. The Prophet went out until he came to the apartment of A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, and he said,

“May peace be upon you, members of the household, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.”

She said, ‘And upon you be peace and the mercy of Allah. How did you find your (new) wife, O Messenger of Allah May Allah bless you.’ He went round to the apartments of all his wives, and spoke with them as he had spoken with A’ishah, and they spoke as A’ishah had spoken. Then the Prophet came back, and those three people were still talking in the house. The Prophet was extremely shy, so he went out and headed towards A’ishah’s apartment. I do not know whether I told him or someone else told him when the people had left, so he came back, and when he was standing with one foot over the threshold and the other foot outside, he placed the curtain between me and him, and the Ayah of Hijab was revealed.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:388)

This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari among the authors of the Six Books, apart from An-Nasa’i, in Al-Yaum wal-Laylah. (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:75) “Enter not the Prophet’s houses,” the believers were prohibited from entering the houses of the Messenger of Allah without permission, as they used to do during the Jahiliyyah and at the beginning of Islam, until Allah showed His jealousy over this Ummah and commanded them to seek permission. This is a sign of His honoring this Ummah. Hence the Messenger of Allah said: “Beware of entering upon women…” (Muslim 4:1711) Then Allah makes an exception, when He says: “unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation.” Mujahid, Qatadah and others said: “This means, without waiting for the food to be prepared.” (At-Tabari 20:306) In other words, do not watch the food as it is being cooked to see if it is nearly ready, then come and enter the house, because this is one of the things that Allah dislikes and condemns. This indicates that it is forbidden to watch out for food being prepared, which is what the Arabs called Tatfil “being an uninvited guest”. Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi wrote a book condemning those who watch out for food being prepared, and mentioned more things about this topic than we can quote here. Then Allah says: “But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse” In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that Ibn Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“When anyone of you invites his bother, let him respond, whether it is for a wedding or for any other reason.” (Muslim 2:1053)

Allah says: “without sitting for a talk.” meaning, as those three people did who stayed behind and chatted, and forgot themselves to such an extent that this caused inconvenience for the Messenger of Allah as Allah says: “Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go)” It was said that what was meant was, your entering his houses without permission causes him inconvenience and annoyance, but he did not like to forbid them to do so because he felt too shy,’ until Allah revealed that this was forbidden. Allah says: “but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth.” meaning, ‘this is why He is forbidding and prohibiting you from doing that.’ Then Allah says: “And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen,” meaning, ‘just as it is forbidden for you to enter upon them, it is forbidden for you to look at them at all. If anyone of you has any need to take anything from them, he should not look at them, but he should ask for whatever he needs from behind a screen.

Prohibition of Annoying the Messenger and the Statement that His Wives are Unlawful for the Muslims

“And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said concerning the Ayah; “And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger,” “This was revealed concerning a man who wanted to marry one of the wives of the Prophet after he died. A man said to Sufyan, ‘Was it A’ishah?’ He said, ‘That is what they said.”’ (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:643) This was also stated by Muqatil bin Hayyan and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. He also reported with his chain of narration from As-Suddi that the one who wanted to do this was Talhah bin Ubaydullah, may Allah be pleased with him, until this Ayah was revealed forbidding that. Hence the scholars were unanimous in stating that it was forbidden for anyone to marry any of the women who were married to the Messenger of Allah at the time when he died, because they are his wives in this world and in the Hereafter, and they are the Mothers of the believers, as stated previously.

Allah regarded that as a very serious matter, and issued the sternest of warnings against it, as He said: “Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.” Then He said: “Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.” meaning, ‘whatever you conceal in your innermost thoughts, it is not hidden from Him at all.’ “Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal.” (40:19).

{55. It is no sin on them before their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or the sons of their sisters, or their own (believing) women, or their (female) slaves. And (O ladies) have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Witness over everything.}

Relatives before Whom a Woman does not need to observe Hijab

When Allah commands women to observe Hijab in front of men to whom they are not related, He explains who are the relatives before whom they do not need to observe Hijab. This is like the exceptions stated in Surat An-Nur, where Allah says: “And not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands’ fathers, or their sons, or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or their right hand possessions, or the Tabi`in among men who do not have desire, or small children who are not aware of the nakedness of women.” (24:31). The Ayah contains more detail than this, which we have already discussed in the Tafsir of the Ayah and do not need to repeat here.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Ash-Shabi and Ikrimah said concerning the Ayah, “It is no sin on them before their fathers…” I said, “What about the paternal uncle and the maternal uncle – why are they not mentioned” He said: “Because they may describe her to their sons, so it is disliked for a woman to remove her covering in front of her paternal uncle or maternal uncle.” (At-Tabari 20:318) “or their own women” means that they do not have to observe Hijab in front of other believing women. “or their (female) slaves.” Said bin Al-Musayyib said: “This means female slaves only.” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. “And (O ladies) have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Witness over everything.” means, and fear Him in private and in public, for He witnesses all things and nothing is hidden from Him, so think of the One Who is always watching.

{56. Allah sends His Salah on the Prophet, and also His angels (do so). O you who believe! Send your Salah on him, and greet him with Taslim.}

The Command to say Salah upon the Prophet

Al-Bukhari said: “Abu Al-Aliyah said: “Allah’s Salah is His praising him before the angels, and the Salah of the angels is their supplication.” Ibn Abbas said: “They send blessings.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:392) Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi said: “This was narrated from Sufyan Ath-Thawri and other scholars, who said: ‘The Salah of the Lord is mercy, and the Salah of the angels is their seeking forgiveness.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwaddhi 2:610)

There are Mutawatir Hadiths narrated from the Messenger of Allah commanding us to send blessings on him and how we should say Salah upon him. We will mention as many of them as we can, if Allah wills, and Allah is the One Whose help we seek.

In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Kab bin Ujrah said, “It was said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, with regard to sending Salam upon you, we know about this, but how about Salah’ He said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are the Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. O Allah, send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:392)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abi Layla said that Kab bin Ujrah met him and said, “Shall I not give you a gift? The Messenger of Allah came out to us and we said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! We know how to send Salam upon you, but how can we send Salah?’ He said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are the Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. O Allah, send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.”

This Hadith has been recorded by the Group in their books with different chains of narration.

Another Hadith

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Said Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, this is the Salam upon you, but how do we send Salah upon you?’ He said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad, Your servant and Messenger, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim.”

Abu Salih narrated that Layth said:

“Upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim.”

Ibrahim bin Hamzah told that, Ibn Abi Hazim and Ad-Darawardi told, that Yazid, i.e., Ibn Al-Had said:

“As You sent Your Salah upon Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:392)

This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah. (An-Nasai 3:49)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Humayd As-Saidi that they said: “O Messenger of Allah, how can we send Salah upon you?” He said,

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and his wives and offspring, as You sent Your Salah upon Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and his wives and offspring, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.”’ (Ahmad 5:424)

It was also recorded by the rest of the Group, apart from At-Tirmidhi. (Fath Al-Bari 11:157)

Another Hadith

Muslim recorded that Abu Masud Al-Ansari said: “We came to the Messenger of Allah and we were with Sad bin Ubadah. Bashir bin Sad said to him, ‘Allah has commanded us to send Salah upon you, O Messenger of Allah. How can we send Salah upon you?’ The Messenger of Allah remained quiet for so long that we wished that he had not asked him, then the Messenger of Allah said:

“Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim among all people, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.” And the Salam is as you know.” (Muslim 1:305)

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “It is Hasan Sahih.” (Abu Dawud 1:600)

Saying Salah upon the Prophet before the Supplication

Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi reported the following Hadith and graded it Sahih; An-Nasai, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban recorded in their Sahihs that Fadalah bin Ubayd, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah heard a man making supplication in his prayer when he had not praised Allah or said Salah upon the Prophet . The Messenger of Allah said:

“This man is rushing.”

Then he called him over and said, to him or to someone else,

“When any one of you supplicates, let him start by praising and glorifying Allah, may He be exalted, then let him send Salah upon the Prophet, and after that let him make supplication as he wishes.” (Ahmad 6:18)

The Virtue of saying Salah upon the Prophet

 

Another Hadith

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ubayy bin Kab said: “When two thirds of the night had passed, the Messenger of Allah would get up and say,

“O people, remember Allah, remember Allah, the first blast of the Trumpet has come and will be followed by the second blast, death has come with all its horrors, death has come with all its horrors.”

Ubayy said, “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I send a lot of Salah upon you, how much of my prayer should be Salah upon you?’ He said,

“Whatever you want.”

I said, ‘A quarter?’ He said,

“Whatever you want, but if you increase it, it will be better for you.”

I said, ‘Half?’ He said,

“Whatever you want, but if you increase it, it will be better for you.”

I said, ‘Two thirds?’ He said,

“Whatever you want, but if you increase it, it will be better for you.”

I said, ‘Should I make my whole prayer for you?’ He said,

“This would be sufficient to relieve your distress and earn you forgiveness of your sins.”

Then he said: “This is a Hasan Hadith.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:152)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Talhah said that the Messenger of Allah came one day looking happy. They said, “O Messenger of Allah, we see that you look happy.” He said,

“The angel came to me and told me, “O Muhammad, would it not please you if your Lord, may He be glorified, says: ‘No member of your Ummah sends Salah upon you but I send Salah upon him tenfold, and no member of your Ummah sends greetings of Salam upon you but I send greetings of Salam upon him tenfold”’ I said, “Of course.” (Ahmad 4:30)

This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i. (An-Nasai 3:44)

Another Chain of Narration

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Talhah Al-Ansari said: “One morning the Messenger of Allah was in a cheerful mood and looked happy. They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, this morning you are in a cheerful mood and look happy.’ He said,

“Of course, just now someone [an angel] came to me from my Lord and said, “Whoever among your Ummah sends Salah upon you, Allah will record for him ten good deeds and will erase for him ten evil deeds, and will raise his status by ten degrees, and will return his greeting with something similar to it.” (Ahmad 4:29)

This is also a good chain, although they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not report it.

Another Hadith

Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“Whoever sends one Salah upon me, Allah will send ten upon him.”

At-Tirmidhi said: “This is a Sahih Hasan Hadith. On the same topic, narrations come from Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, Amir bin Rabiah, Ammar, Abu Talhah, Anas and Ubayy bin Kab.” (Muslim 1:306)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:

“Send Salah upon me, for this is Zakah for you, and ask Allah to grant me Al-Wasilah, for it is a position in the highest part of Paradise which only one man will attain, and I hope that I will be the one.”

This was recorded only by Ahmad. (Ahmad 2:365)

Another Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Husayn bin Ali said that the Messenger of Allah said:

“The miser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned, then he does not send Salah upon me.”

Abu Said said:

“…and he does not send Salah upon me.” (Ahmad 1:201)

This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who then said: “This Hadith is Hasan Gharib, Sahih.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:531)

Another Hadith

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“May he be humiliated, the man in whose presence I am mentioned and he does not send Salah upon me; may he be humiliated, the man who sees the month of Ramadan come and go, and he is not forgiven; may he be humiliated, the man whose parents live to old age and they do not cause him to be granted admittance to Paradise.”

Then he (At-Tirmidhi) said: “Hasan Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:530)

Occasions for saying Salah upon Him

It is reported that we should send blessings upon him on many occasions, such as following the call to prayer, as in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As, who said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say:

“When you hear the Mu’adhdhin, repeat what he says, then send Salah upon me, for whoever sends Salah upon me, Allah will send Salah upon him tenfold. Then ask Allah to grant me Al-Wasilah, which is a status in Paradise to which only one of the servants of Allah will be entitled, and I hope that I will be the one. Whoever asks Allah for Al-Wasilah for me, it will be permitted for me to intercede for him.” (Ahmad 2:168)

This was recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i. (Muslim 1:288)

Other occasions when we should send Salah upon the Prophet include when entering or exiting the Masjid, because of the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah who said: “When the Messenger of Allah entered the Masjid, he would send Salah and Salam upon Muhammad, and say,

“O Allah, forgive me my sins and open for me the gates of Your mercy”

When he exited, he would send Salah and Salam upon Muhammad, and say,

“O Allah, forgive me my sins and open for me the gates of Your bounty.” (Ahmad 6:282)

We should also send Salah upon him during the Funeral prayer. The Sunnah is to recite Surat Al-Fatihah following the first Takbir, to send Salah upon the Prophet during the second Takbir, to make supplication for the deceased during the third Takbir, and in the fourth Takbir to say, “O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward, and do not test us after him.”

Ash-Shafi, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah bin Sahl bin Hunayf was told by one of the Companions of the Prophet that the Sunnah in the funeral prayer is for the Imam to pronounce the Takbir, then to recite Surat Al-Fatihah silently after the first Takbir, then to send Salah upon the Prophet then to offer sincere supplication for the deceased, but not to recite any Qur’an in any of the Takbirs, then to conclude by saying Salam silently. (Musnad Ash-Shafi p210) An-Nasa’i also recorded this from Abu Umamah, who said, “This is from the Sunnah,” and he mentioned it. (An-Nasai 4:75) According to the correct view, such a statement reported from a Companion carries the ruling of Marfu. [Here the meaning is that the statement; “this is from the Sunnah” coming from a Companion means that it carries the ruling of having come from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, himself.]

It is recommended to conclude supplications with Salah upon the Prophet. At-Tirmidhi recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said: “A supplication remains suspended between heaven and earth and does not ascend any further until you send Salah upon your Prophet.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 2:610)

This was also narrated by Muadh bin Al-Harith from Abu Qurrah from Said bin Al-Musayyib from Umar, as a saying of the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. (Takhrij Al-Kashshaf by Ibn Hajar p137) It was also recorded by Razin bin Muawiyah in his book, where he also attributed it to the Prophet reporting that he said:

“A supplication remains suspended between heaven and earth and does not ascend any further until a person sends Salah on me. Do not treat me like a spare water container, send Salah upon me at the beginning of your supplication, at the end and in the middle.” (Jami Al-Usul 4:155)

Sending Salah upon the Prophet is even more strongly encouraged in the Qunut supplication. Ahmad, the Sunan compilers, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim recorded that Al-Hasan bin Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah taught me some words to say during Al-Witr:

“O Allah, guide me along with those whom You have guided, grant me health along with those to whom You have granted health, be an ally to me along with those to whom You are an ally, and bless me for that which You have bestowed. Protect me from the evil You have decreed, for verily You decree and none can decree over You. Verily, he whom You show allegiance to is never abased and he whom You take as an enemy is never honored and mighty, O our Lord, blessed and Exalted are You.”

In his Sunan, An-Nasa’i has the addition, “and may Allah bless Muhammad.” at the end of this Qunut. (Ahmad 1:199) It is also recommended to say plenty of Salah upon him on Friday and on the eve of Friday. (Thursday night) Imam Ahmad recorded that Aws bin Aws Ath-Thaqafi, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

“One of the best of your days is Friday; on this day Adam was created and died, on this day the Trumpet (Sur) will be blown and all will have swoon away. So on this day send plenty of Salah upon me, for your Salah will be presented to me.”

They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how will they be shown to you after your body has dispersed into the earth’ He said,

“Allah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets.” (Ahmad 4:8)

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, and it was graded Sahih by Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibban, Ad-Daraqutni and An-Nawawi in Al-Adhkar. (Abu Dawud 1:635)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 17-42

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Thirtieth Juz’

Contents

The thirtieth juz’ of the Quran includes the last 36 Surahs of the Qur’an, starting from Surah An-Naba’ and continuing until the last Surah of the Quran,  Surah An-Nas.

Revelation

Most of these short Surahs were revealed at the beginning of the Makkan period, when the Muslim community was small in number. Surah Al-Intifar (The Cleaving), Surah Mutaffifin (Those Who Deal in Fraud), Surah Al-Bayinnah (The Clear Evidence) and theAl-Mu’awwidhatayn – Surah Al-Falaq (The Daybreak) and An-Nas (Mankind) – were revealed later in Madinah.

From the many Virtues of these Surahs

Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Whoever wishes to look at the Day of Judgement as if he is seeing it with his own eyes, then let him read, ‘When the sun is wound round.’ (Surah At-Takwir) and; ‘When the heaven is cleft asunder.’ (Surah Al-Intifar) and; ‘When the heaven is split asunder.’ (Surah Al-Inshiqaq).”

Imam Ahmad recorded from An-Nu’man bin Bashir that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, recited Surat Al-A’la and Surat Al-Ghashiyah in the two ‘Id prayers. If the ‘Id prayer fell on Friday, he would recite them in both prayers (‘Id and Salat Al-Jumu’ah). Muslim also recorded this in his Sahih.

Malik and Shubah narrated from ‘Adi bin Thabit, who narrated that Al-Bara’ bin Azib said, “The Prophet used to recite in one of his Rakahs while traveling At-Tin wa-Zaytun’ (Surat At-Tin), and I have never heard anyone with a nicer voice or recitation than him.” The Group has recorded this Hadith in their books.

Ahmad also recorded that Ibn Umar said, “I watched the Prophet twenty-four or twenty-five times reciting in the two Rakahs before the Morning prayer and the two Rakahs after the Sunset prayer, ‘Say: “O Al-Kafirun!”’ (Surah Al-Kafirun) and ‘Say: “He is Allah One.” (Surah Al-Ihklas)

An-Nasa’i recorded from Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah that Ibn Abbas said to him, “O Ibn Utbah! Do you know the last Surah of the Qur’an that was revealed” He answered, “Yes, it was ‘When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.’ (Surah An-Nasr)”. He (Ibn Abbas) said, “You have spoken truthfully.”

Al-Bukhari reported from Amrah bint Abdur-Rahman, who used to stay in the apartment of A’ishah, the wife of the Prophet , that A’ishah said, “The Prophet sent a man as the commander of a war expedition and he used to lead his companions in prayer with recitation (of the Qur’an). And he would complete his recitation with the recitation of ‘Say: He is Allah, One.’ (Surah Al-Ihklas) So when they returned they mentioned that to the Prophet and he said, “Ask him why does he do that.” So they asked him and he said, ‘Because it is the description of Ar-Rahman and I love to recite it. So the Prophet said, “Inform him that Allah the Most High loves him.’ This is how Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in his Book of Tawhid.

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded on the authority of Uqbah bin Amir that the Messenger of Allah said, ‘Do you not see that there have been Ayat revealed to me tonight the like of which has not been seen before.’ They are ‘Say: “I seek refuge with, the Lord of Al-Falaq.” (Surah Al-Falaq) and ‘Say: “I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.” (Surah An-Nas) This Hadith was recorded by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i.

Select Quotations

“Truly, Hell is a place of ambush – A dwelling place for the Taghun (transgressors and wrongdoers) they will abide therein for ages. Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink. Except boiling water, and dirty wound discharges – an exact recompense (according to their crimes). For verily they used no to look for a reckoning.” (Surah An-Naba 78:21-27)

“Let man look at his food, We pour fourth water in abundance, And We split the earth in clefts. And We cause the grain to grow, and grapes and clover plants, And olives and date palms, And gardens dense with many trees, And fruits and herbage. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.”(Surah ‘Abasa 80:24-32)

“O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous?”(Surah Al-Intifar 82:6)

“Verily, those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise); That is the great success.” (Surah Al-Buruj 85:11)

“As for man, when his Lord tries him by giving him honour and bounties, then he says: ‘My Lord had honoured me!’ But when he tries him by straitening his means of life, he says, ‘My Lord has humiliated me!’ Nay! But you treat no the orphans with kindness and generosity And urge not one another on the feeding of the poor And you devour the inheritance – all with greed. And you love wealth with much love.” (Surah Al-Fajr 89:15-20)

“Indeed he succeeds who purifies his own self, And indeed he fails who corrupts his own self.” (Surah Ash-Shams 91:9)

“Certainly, your efforts and deeds are are diverse, As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, And believes in Al-Husna (the best/reward from Allah) We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And denies Al-Husna, We will make smooth for him the path for evil.” (Surah Al-Lail 92:4-10)

“Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, with every hardship is relief. So when you have finished (your occupation), devote yourself to Allah’s worship. And to your Lord (Alone) turn (all your) intentions and hopes.” (Surah Ash-Sharh 94:5-8)

“When the earth is shaken with its (final) earthquake, And when the earth throws out its burdens. And man will say: ‘What is the matter with it?’ That Day it will declare its information (about all that happened over it of good and evil) Because your Lord will inspire it.” (Surah Az-Zalzalah 99:1-4)

“By the time, verily man is in loss. Except those who believe and righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth and recommend one another to patience.” (Surah Al-Asr 103:1-3)

Main Themes

This entire juz’ has a special place in the hearts of Muslims. It is called Juz’ Amma, a name which reflects the first word of the first ayah of this section (78:1), and contains short Surahs which are memorised by many of us.

These early Makkan Surahs were revealed at a time when Muslim community was small in number, and in need of confirmation and support. The passages remind the believers of Allah’s Mercy, and the promise that in the end, good will prevail over evil. They enjoin us to look at Allah’s Signs in His Creation: our food, water and plants (80:24-32); our bodies fashioned us perfectly in due proportion (82:7); the heaven holding stars (85:1);  the sky which gives rain (86:11); mountains and how they are rooted (89:19); the bright sun and the moon that follows it (91:1-2); His is the Dominion of the heavens and earth (85:9), will we not then take heed?

The Qur’an is described as a revelation of spiritual guidance.  Believers are advised to patiently persevere, and remain strong in what they believe. Judgement Day will be a terrifying experience: when ‘hearts will shake with fear and anxiety’ (79:8); ‘that Day shall a man flee from his brother, and from his mother and his father, and from his wife and his children’ (80:34-36); ‘the seas become as a blazing Fire’ (81:6); ‘when the graves are turned upside down’ (82:4); ‘the heaven is split asunder’ (84:1) and ‘mankind will be like moths scattered about’ (101:4).

Those who believe in the Message and do righteous deeds, such as prayer, fasting and giving charity, will be rewarded with Paradise which is described as a place where the believers recline on ‘thrones’ (83:23); drinking (non-intoxicating) wine that smells of musk (83:26); in ‘gardens under which rivers flow’ (85:11);  ‘cups set at hand, and cushions set in rows, and rich carpets (all) spread out’ (88:14-16).

Those who disbelieve in the Message are given the threat of torment and punishment. Hell in described in frightening detail as a place of ‘ambush’ (78:21); where the disbelievers in the Fire will ‘taste its burning’ (84:12); there they will neither die nor live (88:13); and be made to ‘drink from a boiling spring’ (88:5); and eat from a ‘poisonous thorny plant’ (88:6); the Fire will ‘leap up over their hearts’ (104:7) and ‘will be shut over them’ (90:20).

May Allah make us of those who are saved from the Hellfire and its torments, and of those who enter His Paradise swiftly. May He accept this study of His Glorious Qur’an as part of our worship of Him Alone, in all His Glory. Ameen.

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Conclusion

Generally speaking, when adversity intensifies and misfortune increases, relief is close. Allah, Most High, says,

“Then when the Messengers despaired and thought themselves denied, Our help came to them, and those We willed were saved.” (Yusuf 12:110)

“Poverty and illness afflicted them and they were shaken to the point that the Prophet and those who had faith with him said, ‘When is Allah’s help coming? Be assured that Allah’s help is very near.” (Yusuf 12:87)

He informs us that Yaqub, peace be upon him, never gave up hope of meeting Yusuf and that he asked his brothers,

“Seek news of Yusuf and his brother. Do not despair of solace from Allah.” (Yusuf 12:83)

and he said,

“…perhaps Allah will bring them all together.” (Yusuf 12:83)

A wonderful wisdom in attaching the onset of relief to intense distress is that in such circumstances a person gives up hope in any object of creation relieving him. Instead the person turns to Allah and depends on Him alone. When a person severs hope in creation and places his dependency on Allah, then will He respond and relieve him. Tawakkul, trust, is to stop raising ones eyes to creation having given up hope in them. This was stated by Imam Ahmad and he adduced as proof the saying of Ibrahim who, (when about to be burned in the fire), was asked by Jibril, ‘Do you need anything?’ He replied, ‘From you, no.’ (Bayhaqi)

Tawwakul is one of the greatest routes through which ones needs are met for Allah suffices a person who puts his trust in Him,

“Whoever puts his trust in Allah – He will be enough for him.” (al-Talaq 65:3)

Fudayl said, ‘By Allah! Were you to give up all hope in creation so that you no longer want anything from them, your Master would grant you everything you want!’

Another wisdom is that when hardship intensifies, the servant must strive against Shaytan because he will whisper to him, causing him to despair and give up hope. Man must repress these whisperings and the reward of striving against the enemy and repressing him will be the removal of the tribulation. The authentic hadith mentions,

“Your supplication will be answered so long as he is not impatient: he says, ‘I have supplicated but have not received a response,’ and therefore gives up supplication.” (Bukhari)

Another wisdom is that if relief is slow in coming, and the servant gives up hope of ever receiving it, especially after a plenitude of supplication and humble entreaty, he will look inwards and blame his self saying, ‘I have only been afflicted in this way because of you, if there was any good in you, I would have been answered.’

This self censure and realisation is more beloved to Allah than many actions of obedience for it leads to a servant breaking his soul for the sake of his Master. The servant has acknowledged that he himself is not deserving of a response, and when in such a state, Allah’s response and relief is close at hand. Allah is with those who have broken their souls for His sake, the extent of His mending is commensurate to the extent of the breaking.

Wahb said, ‘A man worshipped Allah for some time, then a need arose that he needed fulfilled so he fasted for seventy Saturdays, eating eleven dates every Saturday. He then asked Allah for his need but it was not granted him so he looked to himself and said, ‘If there was any good in you, you would have been given your need!’ At that point, an angel came down and said, ‘Son of Adam, this hour which you are in is better for you than all your previous years of worship. Allah has now fulfilled your need!’

Whoever actualises this, knows and witnesses this in his heart will know that Allah’s blessings conferred in times of tribulation are greater than those bestowed in times of ease. This fact is reflected in the authentic hadith in which the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, said,

“There is nothing that Allah ordains for the believer except that it is good for him. If he encounters times of ease, he is grateful and that is good for him. If he encounters misfortune, he is patient and that is good for him. This only holds true for the believer.” (Muslim)

It is from this vantage point that the Gnostics do not choose one state to the exclusion of the other, instead they are content with whichever has been decreed by Allah, and they establish that servitude which is befitting each situation.

Umar said, ‘I care not if I awake in a state that I like or dislike since I do not know in which of the two states goodness lies.’ (Ibn Abi al-Dunya)

Umar ibn Abdul Aziz said, ‘I awoke one morning to find that my delight and relief lay in the workings of the ordainment and decree.’

O person! Why is it that when We summon you, you flee from Us?! We shower blessings on you yet you forget Us and remain heedless! We afflict you with tribulation that you may return to Us, that you may stand at Our threshold and humbly entreat Us! Tribulation brings you and Us together, well-being brings you together with your self!

O person, your gratitude for Our blessings is in itself a blessing conferred by Us, so be grateful for it! If you are patient in the face of tribulation, patience is a grace We have conferred upon you, so make mention of it! Every circumstance you pass through is a blessings from Us, so be not ungrateful!

“If you tried to number Allah’s blessings, you could never count them. Man is indeed wrong-doing, ungrateful.” (Ibrahim 14:34)

Here ends the treatise by the grace of Allah, His providence and His divine accord. All praise is due to Allah.

The Legacy of the Prophet Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali p159-166

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Twenty-ninth Juz’

Contents

The twenty-ninth  juz’ of the Quran begins with Surah Al-Mulk, and includes Surah Al-Qalam (The Pen), Surah Al-Haqqah (The Inevitable), Surah Al-Ma’arij (The ways of Ascent), Surah Nuh (Noah), Surah Al-Jinn (The Jin), Surah Al-Muzzammil (The One Wrapped in Garments), Surah Al-Muddaththir (The One Enveloped), Surah Al-Qiyamah (The Resurrection), Surah Al-Insan (Man) and Surah Mursalat (Those Sent Forth) in their entirety.

Revelation

Most of these short Surahs were revealed at the beginning of the Makkan period, when the Muslim community was small in number and in need of strengthening of faith.

From the Virtues of these Surahs

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah that Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, said: “Verily, there is a chapter in the Qur’an which contains thirty Ayat that will intercede on behalf of its reciter until he is forgiven. It is: “Blessed be He in Whose Hand is the dominion.” (Surah Al Mulk)

At-Tabarani and Al-Hafiz Ad-Diya’ Al-Maqdisi both recorded from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said: “There is a chapter of the Qur’an that will argue on behalf of its reciter until it causes him to enter into Paradise. It is: “Blessed be He in Whose Hand is the dominion.” (Surah Al Mulk)

Al-Bukhari recorded from Abdullah – that is Ibn Mas’ud — that he said, “While we were with the Messenger of Allah in a cave at Mina, ‘By the Mursalat.’ was revealed to him. He was reciting it and I was learning it from his mouth. Verily, his mouth was moist with it when a snake leaped out at us. The Prophet said, ‘Kill it!’ So we quickly went after it, but it got away. Then the Prophet said: ‘It was saved from your harm just as you all were saved from its harm.”’ (Surah Al-Mursulat)

In a report from Malik on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas, he narrated that Umm Al-Fadl (his mother) heard him (Ibn Abbas) reciting: ‘By the Mursalat’ so she said, “O my son! You reminded me with your recitation of this Surat. Verily, it is the last thing I heard from the Messenger of Allah. He recited it in the Maghrib prayer (i.e., before he died).” Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this report in the Two Sahihs by way of Malik. (Surah Al-Mursulat)

Select Quotations

“Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah) will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My Warning?” (Surah Al-Mulk 67:16-17)

“And verily, this (Qur’an) is a Reminder for the Muttaqun (pious). And verily, We know that there are some amongst you that deny (this Qur’an). And indeed it (this Qur’an) will be an anguish for the disbelievers (on the Day of Resurrection), And verily, it (this Qur’an) is an absolute Truth with certainty. So glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.” (69:48-52)

“Verily, man was created very impatient; Irritable when evil touches him. Except those who are devoted to Salat (prayers); Those who remain constant in their Salat (prayers); And those in whose wealth there is a recognised right.” (Surah Al-Ma’arij 70:19-24)

“And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with a complete devotion.  (He Alone is) Lord of the East and the West; there is no god but He. So take Him Alone as your Disposer of your Affairs. And be patience (O Muhammad) with what they say, and keep away from them in a good way.” (Surah Al-Muzzammil 73:8-11)

“And they give food inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him) to the Miskin (the poor), the orphan and the captive.” (Surah Al-Insan 76:8)

Main Themes

The last two juz’ of the Qur’an mark a break from the previous sections. Each surah is shorter in length, dates mostly from the Makkan period, prior to the migration to Madinah, and focuses on the internal spiritual life of believers. There is very little discussion of practical matters of daily living, interacting with the larger community, or legal rulings. Rather, the focus is on strengthening one’s internal Faith in Allah, the Almighty.

The first Surah of this section is called Surah Al-Mulk which translates as ‘ The Dominion’, and as the hadith cited above states, the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, told us that it would intercede on behalf of its reciter until they are forgiven. May Allah make us of those people, Ameen. He, peace be upon him, also urged his followers to recite this Surah each night before sleeping. Its message emphasizes the power of Allah, who created and maintains all things. Without the blessings and provisions of Allah, we would have nothing. Unbelievers are warned about the penalties of the Fire, awaiting those who reject faith.

Surah Al-Qalam gives the parable of the People of the Garden who felt pride in their gardens. They said they would pick fruits in the morning without saying ‘InshaAllah’ and that they would prevent the poor people from taking any fruits. Allah brought a fire that blackened their crops, and they realised the error of their ways. Such is the punishment (in this life), but truly, the punishment of the Hereafter is greater (68:17-33).

Surah Al-Haqqah speaks the inevitable Day of Resurrection, and the punishments that befell those who rejected the Message that was sent to them. The people of ‘Ad were destroyed by a violent wind, Fir’aun (Pharoah), the people of Lut (Lot) and the people of Nuh (Noah) were all overwhelmed.

Surah Al-Ma’arij reminds us about the torment that no-one can avert. On that Day the sky will be like the boiling filth of oil, the mountains will be like flakes of wool and no friend will ask about the other (70:8-10).

Surah Nuh tells of how the Prophet Nuh (Noah) peace be upon him, warned his people that they should worship Allah alone before the coming of a painful torment. But when he called them they thrust their fingers in their ears, and covered themselves in their garments magnifying their pride (71:7) so they were destroyed. Allah created us from the dust of the earth, and placed the seven heavens above one another with the moon and the sun as lamps. Do you not think He can bring you forth again on the day of Resurrection?

Surah Al-Jinn tells us of the incident when a group of Jinn heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, reciting Qur’an and became believers.

Surah Al-Muzzammil contains the command for the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon, to stand in the night prayer reciting Qur’an in a slow and pleasant style. Be patient with what others say, and keep away from them in a good way (73:10).

Surah Al-Muddaththir contain some of the earliest verses revealed to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, after Surah Al-Alaq. He is called to arise and warn the people, to purify his garments, keep away from the idols and to be patient for the sake of his Lord. Those who deny the Message will be cast into the Fire (74:26).

In Surah Al-Qiyamah Allah reminds us of the Day of Reckoning when the sight will be dazed, and the sun and the moon will be joined togther. That Day there will be no refuge except with Allah. Man will be a witness against himself (75:14) and will be unable to make excuses.

Surah Al-Insan tells is how we were created Nutfah, mixed drops of male a female discharge, in order to try us. We were shown the way, whether we were grateful or ungrateful for it. The believers will be rewarded with Paradise, reclining on raised thrones in the shade with bunches of fruit and silver vessels, and the disbelievers will be recompensed with Hell with iron chains, iron collars and a blazing Fire.

In Surah Mursalat Allah testifies by the winds that blow violently and scatter clouds and rain, and by the Qur’an and the angels that bring the revelation, that the Promise of the Day of Judgement is true. That Day the stars will lose their light, the heavens will be cleft asunder, and the mountains will be blown away. Didn’t Allah destroy the people of civilisations past? Didn’t He create you from despised fluids? Then, woe to those who deny the Day of Resurrection.

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Ease Accompanies Hardship

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, said,

“and that with hardship comes ease.” 

This statement is taken from His, Glorious is He, sayings,

“Allah will appoint after every difficulty, ease.” (al-Talaq 65:7)

“For truly with hardship comes ease; truly with every hardship comes ease.” (al-Sharh 94:5-6)

When Abu Ubaydah was besieged, Umar wrote to him saying, ‘No matter what hardship a person faces, Allah will send relief afterwards, for one hardship cannot overcome two eases and He says,

“You who have faith! Be patient; be supreme in patience; be form on the battlefield; and have taqwa of Allah so that hopefully you will be successful.” (Ali Imran 3:200)

This was how ibn Abbas and other exegetes explained this verse saying, ‘One hardship will never overcome two eases.’

Some of the subtleties, benefits and wisdoms of tribulation are:

  1. The expiation of sins and being rewarded for bearing tribulation with patience. The scholars have differed if a person will be rewarded for the actual tribulation itself.
  2. The servant is reminded of his sins so that he can repent and turn back to Allah, Mighty and Magnificent.
  3. The heart becomes soft after having been coarse and hard. One of the Salaf said, ‘ A person could fall ill and as result bring his sins to mind. Then, by virtue of his fear of Allah, they would break up and disperse like flies and Allah would forgive him.’
  4. A person humbling himself and submitting himself before Allah, Mighty and Magnificent. Indeed such a state is more beloved to Allah than many deeds of obedience.
  5. They lead a person’s heart to return to Allah, to stand at His door, implore Him and to be submissive before Him. This is one of the greatest benefits of tribulation. Allah has censured those who are not submissive to Him at times of hardship. “We seize them with the punishment, but they did not go low before their Lord; nor will they humble themselves.” (al-Muminun 23:76)  “We sent Messengers to nations before you and afflicted their nations with hardship and distress so that hopefully they would humble themselves.” (al-Anam 6:43)  One of the previous Scriptures states, ‘Allah puts a servant to trial because He loves to hear his humble entreaty.’ Said ibn Abdul-Aziz said, Dawud, may Allah’s peace be upon him, said, ‘Glory be to the One who causes a person to supplicate when faced with tribulation. Glory be to the One who confers gratitude to a person in a state of ease.’ Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Ali passed by Muhammad ibn Munkadir who was in a state of intense grief. He asked after him and he was told that he was burdened by debt. Abu Jafar said, ‘Has the door of supplication opened for him?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘A servant is truly blessed if, when in need, he frequently invokes his Lord, no matter what that need.’
  6. Tribulation leads the heart to relish the delight of patience and to be content. This is a station of immense rank and importance; the excellence of which we have already alluded to.
  7. Tribulation leads to a servant giving up dependency on the creation and leads him to turn to the Creator alone. Allah has told us that the polytheist turns to Allah sincerely when supplicating to Him at times of need, what then of a believer?!
  8. Tribulation leads a person to actualise and live Tawhid in his heart and this is the most sublime of stations and noblest of rankings.

One of the Judea-Christian narrations mentions, ‘Tribulations bring you and Me together. Well-being brings you and your self together.’

The Legacy of the Prophet Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali p150-158

 

 

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Twenty-eighth Juz’

Contents

The twenty-eighth juz’ of the Qur’an contains Surah Al-Mujadilah (The Woman who Disputes), Surah Al-Hashr (The Gathering), Surat Al-Mumtahanah (The Woman to be Examined), Surah As-Saff (The Row or the Rank), Surah Al-Jumuah (Friday), Surah Al-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites), Surah At-Taghabun (Mutual Loss and Gain), Surah At-Talaq (The Divorce) and Surah At-Tahrim (The Prohibition) in their entirety.

Revelation

These Surahs were revealed after the Hijrah, during the time that the Muslims were living as a community in Madinah. The subject matter largely relates to matters of daily living, with instructions and guidance about different issues that faced the Muslims at that time.

From the Virtues of these Surahs

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Salam, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “We asked, ‘Who among us should go to the Messenger and ask him about the dearest actions to Allah?’ None among us volunteered. The Messenger sent a man to us and that man gathered us and recited this Surah, Surah As-Saff, in its entirety.”’

Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with them both, narrated that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, used to recite Surah Al-Jumuah and Surah Al-Munafiqin during the Friday Prayer. Muslim collected this Hadith in his Sahih.

Select Quotations

“O you who believe! When you hold secret counsel, do it not for sin and wrongdoing, and disobedience towards the Messenger (Muhammad), but do it for Al-Birr (righteounes) and Taqwa (virtues and piety); and fear Allah unto whom you shall be gathered.” (Surah Al-Mujadilah 58:9)

“Had we sent down this Qur’an on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rent asunder by the fear of Allah. Such are the parables which We put forward to mankind that they may reflect.” (Surah Al-Hashr 59:21)

“Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you our of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.” (Surah Al-Mumtahanah 60:7-8)

“O you who believe! Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. And whosoever does that, they are the losers.” (Surah Al-Munafiqun 63:9)

“No calamity befalls, but by the Leave of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart [to true Faith with certainty]. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.” (Surah At-Taghabun 64:11)

“O you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded.” (Surah At-Tahrim 66:6)

Main Themes

The Surahs in this juz’ were all revealed in Madinah after the Hijrah, and are primarily concerned with practical matters of living Islam, interacting with the wider non-Muslim population, and legal rulings. During the time that the early Muslims were setting up a community in Madinah, they faced issues that needed guidance and decision-making. Rather than rely on their cultural traditions and previous legal rulings, they sought to follow Islam in all matters of daily living.

Surah Al-Mujadilah addresses the issues of continuing practices from the times of ignorance, such as zihar, declaring a husband or wife unlawful to onself. It enjoins us not to hold secret counsels except to do Al-Birr (righteounes) and Taqwa (virtues and piety), and whenever we are alone with one anohter Allah is with us by knowledge.

Surah Al-Hashr relates to the battle against the Jews of Banu-Nadhir in 4 A.H, and how we should take heed of what has befallen them. They were a strong tribe with great wealth and possessions who were banished from their settlement without a single man being slain. They were conquered because they opposed Allah and His Messenger, and Allah is severe in punishment. Laws relating to the distribution of war booty and territory are outlined (59:6-10) and the hypocrites are condemned.

Surat Al-Mumtahanah enjoins the Muslims not to take the enemies of Allah as friends, because if they were gain the upper hand over the Muslims they would bring forth evil against them. At the same time, we should deal justly and kindly with those who have not fought against us on account of our religion (60:8). The issue of Muslim women who were migrating to Madinah, and were still married to non-Muslims is addressed, their unions are no longer lawful (60:10).

Surah As-Saff calls on the Muslims to adopt sincerity in faith and to struggle for the Cause of Allah. Some of the ayat address the Muslims who are weak in faith and some towards the sincere believers, while others are addressed specifically towards the hypocrites.

Surah Al-Jumuah was revealed in two sections at two different points in time. The first eight ayat was likely revealed after the conquest of Khaiber in 7 A.H, and are addressed towards the Jews who were entrusted with the Torah but failed in their obligations towards it. They are compared to a donkey with a burden of books on its back that it understands nothing of (62:5). The second section was revealed many years later, and was appended to this section because in it, Allah bestows Friday on the Muslims as opposed to the Sabbath (Saturday), and the Muslims are enjoined not to treat Friday as the Jews treated their Sabbath.

Surah Al-Munafiqun addresses the hypocrites, who hinder man from the path of Allah. They believed and then disbelieved, so their hearts are sealed and they do not understand. They look pleasing, they speak in a pleasing way, but they are enemies to the Muslims so beware (63:4).

Surah At-Taghabun has as its theme the invitaion to Faith and obedience to Allah and the teaching of good morals. We are reminded of the painful end of those who disbelieved of the previous generations. No calamity befalls a true believer except that Allah guides their heart to faith by it (64:11). Our wealth and our children are but a trial and with Allah lies the highest reward.

Surah At-Talaq deals with the ruling surrounding divorce and and the treatment of women during that time. It details the waiting period and possibilities for reconciliation.

Surah At-Tahrim clarifies that the power to prescribe the bounds of lawful and unlawful things, the permissible and forbidden, reside entirely and absolutely with Allah alone. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, may only declare something lawful or unlawful after receiving inspiration from Allah. It was revealed in relation to an incident in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, seeking to please his wives, forbade himself something (honey) which Allah had allowed.

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