Surah Ash-Shurara Ayat 1-51

Surah Ash-Shurara

Chapter 26 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. Ta Sin Mim. 

2. These are Ayat of the Book Mubin. 

3. It may be that you are going Bakhi yourself, that they do not become believers. 

4. If We will, We could send down to them from the heaven a sign, to which they would bend their necks in humility. 

5. And never comes there unto them a Reminder as a recent revelation from the Most Gracious, but they turn away therefrom. 

6. So, they have indeed denied, then the news of what they mocked at will come to them. 

7. Do they not observe the earth – how much of every good kind We cause to grow therein 

8. Verily, in this is an Ayah, yet most of them are not believers. 

9. And verily your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.}

The Qur’an and the Disbelievers turning away

They could be compelled to believe if Allah so willed At the beginning of the explanation of Surat Al-Baqarah we discussed the letters which appear at the beginning of some Surahs. Allah’s saying: “These are the Ayat of the Book Mubin.” means, these are the verses of the Clear Qur’an, i.e. the clear and unambiguous Book which distinguishes between truth and falsehood, misguidance and guidance. “It may be that you are going Bakhi yourself” means, destroy yourself – because of your keenness that they should be guided and your grief for them. “that they do not become believers.” Here Allah is consoling His Messenger for the lack of faith of those among the disbelievers who do not believe in him. This is like the Ayat: “So destroy not yourself in sorrow for them” (35:8). “Perhaps, you would Bakhi yourself, over their footsteps, because they believe not in this narration” (18:6). Mujahid, Ikrimah, Qatadah, Atiyyah, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan and others said that: “It may be that you are going Bakhi yourself,” means, ‘kill yourself.’ (At-Tabari 19:330)

Then Allah says: “If We will, We could send down to them from the heaven a sign, to which they would bend their necks in humility.” meaning, `if We so willed, We could send down a sign that would force them to believe, but We will not do that because We do not want anyone to believe except by choice.’ Allah says: “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you then compel mankind, until they become believers.” (10:99) “And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely, have made mankind one Ummah…” (11:118) But Allah’s will has acted, His decree has come to pass, and His proof has been conveyed to mankind by mission of Messengers and the revelation of Books to them. Then Allah says: “And never comes there unto them a Reminder as a recent revelation from the Most Gracious, but they turn away therefrom.” meaning, every time a Scripture comes from heaven to them, most of the people turn away from it. As Allah says: “And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly.” (12:103) “Alas for mankind! There never came a Messenger to them but they used to mock at him.” (36:30) “Then We sent Our Messengers in succession. Every time there came to a nation their Messenger, they denied him…” (23:44). Allah says here: “So, they have indeed denied, then the news of what they mocked at will come to them.” meaning, they denied the truth that came to them, so they will come to know the news of the consequences of this denial after a while. “And those who do wrong will come to know by what overturning they will be overturned” (26:227).

Then Allah tells those who dared to oppose His Messenger and disbelieve in His Book, that He is the Subduer, the Almighty, the All-Powerful, Who created the earth and caused every good kind of crop, fruit and animal to grow therein. Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from a man from Ash-Sha`bi that people are a product of the earth. So whoever enters Paradise is good and noble, and whoever enters Hell is base and vile. (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:289)

“Verily, in this is an Ayah,” meaning an evidence of the power of the Creator of all things. He spread out the earth and raised the canopy of the heavens, yet despite that the majority of people do not believe, rather they deny Him, His Messengers, and His Books, and they go against His commands doing the things He had prohibited.

His saying: “And verily your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty,” means, the One Who has power over all things, to subdue and control them, “the Most Merciful.” means, towards His creation, for He does not hasten to punish the one who sins, but He gives him time to repent, and if he does not, then He seizes him with a mighty punishment. Abu Al-`Aliyah, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Ibn Ishaq said: “He is Almighty in His punishment of those who went against His commands and worshipped others besides Him.” (At-Tabari 33:304) Said bin Jubayr said: “He is Most Merciful towards those who repent to Him and turn to Him.”

{10. And (remember) when your Lord called Musa (saying): “Go to the people who are wrongdoers.” 

11.”The people of Firawn. Will they not have Taqwa?” 

12. He said: “My Lord! Verily, I fear that they will deny me,” 

13. “And my breast straitens, and my tongue expresses not well. So send for Harun.” 

14.”And they have a charge of crime against me, and I fear they will kill me. ” 

15. (Allah) said: “Nay! Go you both with Our signs. Verily, We shall be with you, listening.” 

16. “And go both of you to Firawn, and say: `We are the Messengers of the Lord of Al-Alamin,’ 

17. ‘So allow the Children of Israel to go with us.”’ 

18. (Firawn) said (to Musa): “Did we not bring you up among us as a child And you did dwell many years of your life with us.” 

19. “And you did your deed, which you did. While you were one of the ingrates.” 

20. Musa said: “I did it then, when I was in error.” 

21. “So, I fled from you when I feared you. But my Lord has granted me Hukm, and made me one of the Messengers.” 

22. “And this is the past favor with which you reproach me, – that you have enslaved the Children of Israel.”}

 

Between Musa and Firawn

Allah tells us what He commanded His servant, son of Imran and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, who spoke with Him, to do, when He called him from the right side of the mountain, and conversed with him, and chose him, sent him, and commanded him to go to Fir`awn and his people. Allah says: “And when your Lord called Musa: “Go to the people who are wrongdoers. The people of Firawn. Will they not have Taqwa?” He said: “My Lord! Verily, I fear that they will deny me, And my breast straitens, and my tongue expresses not well. So send for Harun. And they have a charge of crime against me, and I fear they will kill me.” So, Musa asked Allah to remove these difficulties for him, as he said in Surah Ta Ha: “Musa said: “O my Lord! Open for me my chest. And ease my task for me.” (20:25-26) until: “You are granted your request, O Musa!” (20:36) “And they have a charge of crime against me, and I fear they will kill me.” because he had killed that Egyptian, which was the reason that he left the land of Egypt. “(Allah) said: “Nay!…” Allah told him: do not be afraid of anything like that. This is like the Ayah, “Allah said: “We will strengthen your arm through your brother, and give you both power” meaning, proof; “so they shall not be able to harm you, with Our signs, you two as well as those who follow you will be the victors” (28:35), “Go you both with Our signs. Verily, We shall be with you, listening.” This is like the Ayah, “I am with you both, hearing and seeing” (20:46). Meaning, ‘I will be with you by My protection, care, support and help.’ “And go both of you to Fir`awn, and say: `We are the Messengers of the Lord of the all that exists.” This is like the Ayah, “Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord” (20:47). which means, ‘both of us have been sent to you,’“So allow the Children of Israel to go with us.” Meaning, ‘let them go, free them from your captivity, subjugation and torture, for they are the believing servants of Allah, devoted to Him, and with you they are in a position of humiliating torture.’ When Musa said that to him, Fir`awn turned away and ignored him completely, regarding him with scorn and thinking little of him. Saying: “Did we not bring you up among us as a child?” meaning, we brought you up among us, in our home and on our bed, we nourished you and did favors for you for many years, and after all that you responded to our kindness in this manner: you killed one of our men and denied our favors to you.’ So he said to him: “While you were one of the ingrates.” meaning, one of those who deny favors. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 19:340)

“(Musa) said: “I did it then…” meaning, at that time, “when I was in error.” meaning, `before revelation was sent to me and before Allah made me a Prophet and sent me with this Message.’ “So, I fled from you when I feared you. But my Lord has granted me Hukm, and made me one of the Messengers.” means, `the first situation came to an end and another took its place. Now Allah has sent me to you, and if you obey Him, you will be safe, but if you oppose Him, you will be destroyed.’ Then Musa said: “And this is the past favor with which you reproach me, – that you have enslaved the Children of Israel.” meaning, `whatever favors you did in bringing me up are offset by the evil you did by enslaving the Children of Israel and using them to do your hard labor. Is there any comparison between your favors to one man among them and the evil you have done to all of them? What you have mentioned about me is nothing compared to what you have done to them.’

{23. Firawn said: “And what is the Lord of Al-Alamin?” 

24. (Musa) said: “The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty.” 

25. (Firawn) said to those around: “Do you not hear (what he says)?” 

26. (Musa) said: “Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers!” 

27. (Firawn) said: “Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman!” 

28. (Musa) said: “Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!”}

 

Allah tells us about the disbelief, rebellion, oppression and denial of Firawn, as He says: “(Firawn said:) “And what is the Lord of the Alamin?” This is because he used to say to his people: “I know not that you have a god other than me.” (28:28) “Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.” (43:54) They used to deny the Creator, may He be glorified, and they believed that they had no other lord than Firawn. When Musa said to them: “I am the Messenger of the Lord of the worlds,” Firawn said to him, “Who is this who you are claiming is the Lord of Al-Alamin other than me?” This is how it was interpreted by the scholars of the Salaf and the Imams of later generations. As-Suddi said, “This Ayah is like the Ayah, “(Fir`awn) said: “Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two” He said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.” (20:49-50) Those among the philosophers and others who claimed that this was a question about the nature or substance [of Allah] are mistaken. Fir`awn did not believe in the Creator in the first place, so he was in no position to ask about the nature of the Creator; he denied that the Creator existed at all, as is apparent from the meaning, even though proof and evidence had been established against him. When Fir`awn asked him about the Lord of Al-Alamin, Musa said:“(Musa) said: “The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them…” meaning, the Creator, Sovereign and Controller of all that, their God Who has no partner or associate. He is the One Who has created all things. He knows the higher realms and the heavenly bodies that are in them, both those that are stationary and those that move and shine brightly. He knows the lower realms and what is in them; the oceans, continents, mountains, trees, animals, plants and fruits. He knows what is in between the two realms; the winds, birds, and whatever is in the air. All of them are servants to Him, submitting and humbling themselves before Him.“if you seek to be convinced with certainty.” means, if you have believing hearts and clear insight. At this, Fir`awn turned to the chiefs and leaders of his state around him, and said to them – mockingly expressing his disbelief in Musa: “Do you not hear?” meaning, ‘are you not amazed by what this man is claiming – that you have another god other than me?’ Musa said to them: “Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers!” meaning, the One Who created you and your forefathers, those who came before Fir`awn and his time. “He said” that is, Fir`awn said: “Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman!” meaning, there is no sense in his claim that there is any god other than me!’ “(Musa) said)” – to those in whose hearts Fir`awn had planted doubts: “Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!” ‘He is the One Who made the east the place where the heavenly bodies rise, and made the west the place where they set; this is the system to which He has subjugated all the heavenly bodies, stationary and moving. If what Firawn claims is true, that he is your lord and your god, then let him turn things around so that the heavenly bodies set in the east and rise in the west.’ This is similar to the Ayah,“who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom When Ibrahim said: “My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death.” He said, “I give life and cause death.” Ibrahim said, “Verily, Allah brings the sun from the east. So cause it to rise from the west.” (2:258) So when Firawn was defeated in debate, he resorted to the use of his force and power, believing that this would be effective in dealing with Musa, peace be upon him, so he said, as Allah tells us:

{29. He said: “If you choose a god other than me, I will certainly put you among the prisoners.” 

30. He said: “Even if I bring you something manifest?” 

31. He said: “Bring it forth then, if you are of the truthful!” 

32. So he threw his stick, and behold, it was a serpent, manifest. 

33. And he drew out his hand, and behold, it was white to all beholders! 

34. He said to the chiefs around him: “Verily, this is indeed a well-versed sorcerer.” 

35. “He wants to drive you out of your land by his sorcery: what is it then that you command” 

36. They said: “Put him off and his brother (for a while), and send callers to the cities;” 

37. “To bring up to you every well-versed sorcerer.”}

 

After the Rational Proof, Firawn resorts to Force

When proof had been established against Firawn, clearly and rationally, he resorted to using force against Musa, thinking that after this there would no further room for discussion. So he said:“If you choose a god other than me, I will certainly put you among the prisoners.” To this, Musa responded:“Even if I bring you something manifest?” meaning, clear and definitive proof. “Fir`awn said: “Bring it forth then, if you are of the truthful!” So he threw his stick, and behold, it was a serpent, manifest.” meanig, it was very clear and obvious, with a huge body and a big mouth, terrifying in appearance.“And he drew out his hand,” meaning, from his sleeve, “and behold, it was white to all beholders!” It was shining like a piece of the moon. Since Fir`awn was already doomed, he hastened to stubborn denial, and said to the chiefs around him: “Verily, this is indeed a well-versed sorcerer.” One who knows a great deal of magic or witchcraft. Firawn was trying to convince them that this was sorcery, not a miracle. Then he provoked them against Musa, trying to make them oppose him and disbelieve in him, and said: “He wants to drive you out of your land by his sorcery…” meaning, ‘he wants to capture the people’s hearts and win them over by doing this, so that they will support him, and help him and follow him, and he will defeat you in your own land and take the land from you. So advise me, what should I do with him?’ “They said: “Put him off and his brother, and send callers to the cities; to bring up to you every well-versed sorcerer.” meaning, ‘delay him and his brother until you gather together all the sorcerers from every city and region of your kingdom so that they may confront him and produce something like he produces, then you will defeat him and have the victory.’ So Firawn did as they suggested, which is what Allah decreed would happen to them, so that all the people would gather in one place and the signs and proof of Allah would be made manifest before them all in one day.

{38. So, the sorcerers were assembled at a fixed time on a day appointed. 

39. And it was said to the people: “Are you (too) going to assemble” 

40. “That we may follow the sorcerers if they are the winners.” 

41. So, when the sorcerers arrived, they said to Fir`awn: “Will there surely be a reward for us if we are the winners” 

42. He said: “Yes, and you shall then verily be of those brought near (to myself).” 

43. Musa said to them: “Throw what you are going to throw!” 

44. So, they threw their ropes and their sticks, and said: “By the might of Fir`awn, it is we who will certainly win!” 

45. Then Musa threw his stick, and behold, it swallowed up all that they falsely showed! 

46. And the sorcerers fell down prostrate. 

47.Saying: “We believe in the Lord of Al-Alamin.” 

48. “The Lord of Musa and Harun.”}

Between Musa, peace be upon him, and the Sorcerers
Allah describes the actual encounter between Musa, peace be upon him, and the Egyptians in Surat Al-Araf, Surah Ta Ha, and in this Surah. The Egyptians wanted to extinguish the Light of Allah with their words, but Allah insisted that His Light should prevail even though the disbelievers disliked that. This is the issue of disbelief and faith; they never confront one another but faith always prevails: “Nay, We fling the truth against the falsehood, so it destroys it, and behold, it disappears. And woe to you for that which you ascribe.” (21:18) “And say: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished.” (17:81) The sorcerers of Egypt were the most skilled in the art of illusion, but when a huge group of them gathered from all corners of the land, and the people came together on that day whose exact numbers are known to Allah Alone, one of them said: “That we may follow the sorcerers if they are the winners.” They did not say: `we will follow the truth, whether it rests with the sorcerers or with Musa;’ the people were followers of the religion of their king. “So, when the sorcerers arrived,” means, when they reached the court of Fir`awn, and a pavilion had been erected for him. There he gathered his servants, followers, administrators, and provincial leaders, and the soldiers of his kingdom. The sorcerers stood before Fir`awn, asking him to treat them well and bring them closer to him if they prevailed in this matter which he had brought them together for. They said: “Will there surely be a reward for us if we are the winners” He said: “Yes, and you shall then verily be of those brought near.” meaning, `and you will be given more than what you are asking for; I will make you among those who are close to me, those who sit with me.’ So they went back to their places: “They said: “O Musa! Either you throw first or we be the first to throw” (Musa) said: “Nay, throw you (first)!” (20:65-66). Here the incident is described more briefly. Musa said to them: “Throw what you are going to throw!” So, they threw their ropes and their sticks, and said: “By the might of Fir`awn, it is we who will certainly win!” This is what the ignorant masses say when they do something: `this is by the virtue of So-and-so!’ In Surat Al-A`raf Allah mentioned that they: “They bewitched the eyes of the people, and struck terror into them, and they displayed a great magic” (7:116). And in Surah Ta Ha He said: “Then behold! Their ropes and their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast.” until Allah saying: “and the magician will never be successful, whatever the amount (of skill) he may attain” (20:69). And here Allah says:“Then Musa threw his stick, and behold, it swallowed up all that they falsely showed!” by snatching up and catching them from every corner and swallowing them up, and it did not leave any of them untouched. Allah says:“Thus truth was confirmed, and all that they did was made of no effect.” until “The Lord of Musa and Harun.” (7:118-122) This was a very serious matter, furnishing decisive proof leaving no room for any excuse. Fir`awn’s supporters, who sought and hoped that they would prevail over Musa, were themselves defeated. At that moment they believed in Musa and prostrated to Allah, the Lord of Al-Alamin Who sent Musa and Harun with the truth and an obvious miracle.
Firawn was defeated in a manner the likes of which the world had never seen, but he remained arrogant and stubborn despite the clear evidence, may the curse of Allah and the angels and all of mankind be upon him. He resorted to arrogance and stubbornness and propagating falsehood. He began to issue threats against them, saying: “Verily, he is your chief who has taught you magic” (20:71). “Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city” (7:123).

{49. He said: “You have believed in him before I give you leave. Surely, he indeed is your chief, who has taught you magic! So verily, you shall come to know. Verily, I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you all.” 

50. They said: “No harm! Surely, to our Lord we are to return.” 

51. “Verily, we really hope that our Lord will forgive us our sins, as we are the first of the believers.”}

Between Firawn and the Sorcerers

His threats against them resulted only in an increase in their faith and submission to Allah, for the veil of disbelief had been lifted from their hearts and the truth became clear to them because they knew something that their people did not: that what Musa had done could not have been done by any human being unless Allah helped him, making it proof and an evidence of the truth of what he had brought from his Lord. Then Firawn said to them: “You have believed in him before I give you leave.” meaning, ‘you should have asked my permission for what you did, and you did not consult with me; if I had given you permission you could have done it, and if I did not allow you, you should not have done it, for I am the ruler and the one to be obeyed.’ “Surely, he indeed is your chief, who has taught you magic!” This is stubborn talk, and anyone can see that it is nonsense, for they had never met Musa before that day, so how could he have been their chief who taught them how to do magic No rational person would say this. Then Firawn threatened to cut off their hands and feet, and crucify them. They said: “No harm!” meaning, ‘no problem, that will not harm us and we do not care.’“Surely, to our Lord we are to return.” means, ‘the return of us all is to Allah, may He be glorified, and He will never allow the reward of anyone who has done good to be lost. What you have done to us is not hidden from Him, and He will reward us in full for that.’ So they said: “Verily, we really hope that our Lord will forgive us our sins” ‘the sins we have committed and the magic you forced us to do.’ “as we are the first of the believers” means, because we are the first of our people, the Egyptians, to believe. So he killed them all.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 7 Pages 211-230

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Surah Al-Furqan Ayat 51-77 (end)

{51. And had We willed, We would have raised a warner in every town. 

52. So obey not the disbelievers, but strive against them with the utmost endeavor with it. 

53. And it is He Who has let free the two seas, this is palatable and sweet, and that is salty and bitter; and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them. 

54. And it is He Who has created man from water, and has appointed for him kindred by blood, and kindred by marriage. And your Lord is Ever All-Powerful to do what He wills.}

 

The universality of the Prophet’s Message, how He was supported in His Mission and Allah’s Blessings to Mankind

Allah says:“And had We willed, We would have raised a warner in every town.” Calling them to Allah, but We have singled you out, O Muhammad, to be sent to all the people of earth, and We have commanded you to convey the Qur’an, “that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach” (6:19). “but those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place” (11:17). “that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it” (42:7). “Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah…” (7:158). In the Two Sahihs (it is reported that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said)

“I have been sent to the red and the black.”

And: “…A Prophet would be sent to his own people, but I have been sent to all of mankind.” (Muslim 1:370)

Allah says:“So obey not the disbelievers, but strive hard against them with it.” meaning, with the Qur’an. This was the view of Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 19:281) “with the utmost endeavour.” This is like the Ayah, “O Prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites” (9:73) “And it is He Who has let free the two seas, this is palatable and sweet, and that is salty and bitter” means, He has created the two kinds of water, sweet and salty. The sweet water is like that in rivers, springs and wells, which is fresh, sweet, palatable water. This was the view of Ibn Jurayj and of Ibn Jarir, and this is the meaning without a doubt, for nowhere in creation is there a sea which is fresh and sweet.

Allah has told us about reality so that His servants may realize His blessings to them and give thanks to Him. The sweet water is that which flows amidst people. Allah has portioned it out among His creatures according to their needs; rivers and springs in every land, according to what they need for themselves and their lands. “and that is salty and bitter” meaning that it is salty, bitter and not easy to swallow. This is like the seas that are known in the east and the west, the Atlantic Ocean and the Straits that lead to it, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and so on, all the seas that are stable and do not flow, but they swell and surge in the winter and when the winds are strong, and they have tides that ebb and flow. At the beginning of each month the tides ebb and flood, and when the month starts to wane they retreat until they go back to where they started. When the crescent of the following month appears, the tide begins to ebb again until the fourteenth of the month, then it decreases. Allah, may He be glorified, the One Whose power is absolute, has set these laws in motion, so all of these seas are stationary, and He has made their water salty lest the air turn putrid because of them and the whole earth turn rotten as a result, and lest the earth spoil because of the animals dying on it. Because its water is salty, its air is healthy and its dead are good (to eat), hence when the Messenger of Allah was asked whether sea water can be used for Wudu’, he said:“Its water is pure and its dead are lawful.” This was recorded by Malik, Ash-Shafi`i and Ahmad, and by the scholars of Sunan with a good chain of narration. (Al-Muwatta 1:22)

“and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them.” meaning, between the sweet water and the saltwater. “a barrier” means a partition, which is dry land. “and a complete partition” means, a barrier, to prevent one of them from reaching the other. This is like the Ayat:“He has let loose the two seas meeting together. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny” (55:19-21) “Is not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and placed firm mountains therein, and set a barrier between the two seas? Is there any god with Allah Nay, but most of them know not!” (27:61) “And it is He Who has created man from water,” means, He created man from a weak Nutfah [See Surah Al-Hajj:4] , then gave him shape and formed him, and completed his form, male and female, as He willed. “and has appointed for him kindred by blood, and kindred by marriage.” in the beginning, he is someone’s child, then he gets married and becomes a son-in-law, then he himself has sons-in-law and other relatives through marriage. All of this comes from a despised liquid, Allah says:“And your Lord is Ever All-Powerful to do what He wills.”

{55. And they worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them; and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord. 

56. And We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner. 

57. Say: “No reward do I ask of you for this, save that whosoever wills may take a path to his Lord.” 

58. And put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not, and glorify His praises, and sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His servants, 

59. Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne. The Most Gracious! Ask Him, as He is the All-Knower. 

60. And when it is said to them: “Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!” They say: “And what is Ar-Rahman? Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you command us?” And it increases in them only aversion.}

 

The Ignorance of the Idolators

Allah tells us how ignorant the idolators are; instead of worshipping Allah, they worship idols which do not possess the power either to harm or benefit. They do this with no evidence or proof; the only thing that led them to do this was their own whims and desires. So they take these idols as protectors and fight for their sake, and they oppose Allah and His Messenger and the believers for their sake. Similarly Allah says: “and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord.” meaning, he is a supporter of Shaytan against the party of Allah, but the party of Allah are the ones who will prevail, as Allah says: “And they have taken besides Allah gods, hoping that they might be helped. They cannot help them, but they will be brought forward as a troop against those who worshipped them.” (36:74-75) meaning, the gods which they worshipped instead of Allah cannot help them. These ignorant people are troops for the idols and are ready to fight for their sake and protect their sanctuaries, but in the end the victory will be for Allah and His Messenger and the believers, in this world and the Hereafter. “and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord.” Mujahid said: “He supports and helps the Shaytan in disobedience towards Allah.

The Messenger brings Glad Tidings and Warnings

Then Allah tells His Messenger: “And We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner.” meaning, a bringer of good news to the believers, a warner to the disbelievers; bringing good news of Paradise to those who obey Allah, and bringing warnings of a dreadful punishment for those who go against the commandments of Allah. “Say: “No reward do I ask of you for this…'” `for conveying this message and this warning, I do not ask for any reward from your wealth; I am only doing this for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted.’“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight” (81:28). “save that whosoever wills, may take a path to his Lord.” means, a way and a methodology to be followed.
The Command to the Messenger to put his Trust in Allah, and some of His Qualities

Then Allah says: “And put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not,” meaning, in all your affairs, put your trust in Allah, the Ever-Living Who never dies, the One Who “is the First and the Last, the Most High and the Most Near. And He is the All-Knower of everything” (57:3). The Eternal, Ever-Lasting, Ever-Living, Self-Sufficient One, the Lord and Sovereign of all things, the One to Whom you should always turn. Allah is the One in Whom you should put your trust and to Whom you should turn for refuge, He will be sufficient for you and will be your helper and supporter, and will cause you to prevail. As Allah says:“O Messenger! Proclaim which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. Allah will protect you from mankind” (5:67).“and glorify His praises,” means, combine praising Him with glorifying Him. Hence the Messenger of Allah used to say:

“Glory be to You, O Allah, and with Your praise.” (Fath Al-Bari 2:328)

So the Ayah means: be sincere in worshipping Him and putting your trust in Him. This is like the Ayat: “The Lord of the east and the west; there is no God but He. So take Him as a Trustee.” (73:9)“So worship Him and put your trust in Him” (11:123). “Say: “He is the Most Gracious, in Him we believe, and in Him we put our trust.” (67:29) “and sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His servants” means, by His perfect knowledge nothing is hidden from Him nor can anything be hidden from Him, not even a speck of dust’s weight. “Who created the heavens and the earth…” means, He is the Ever-Living Who never dies, He is the Creator, Sustainer and Sovereign of all things, Who by His might and power created the seven heavens with their vast height and width, and the seven earths with their great depths and density. “in six Days. Then He rose over the Throne.” means, He is running all affairs and He decrees according to the truth, and He is the best of those who decide. “Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne. The Most Gracious! Ask Him, as He is the All-Knower.” meaning, find out about Him from one who knows most about Him, and follow him and take him as your example. It is known that there is no one who knows more about Allah than His servant and Messenger Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, the absolute leader of the sons of Adam in this world and the Hereafter, who does not speak of his own desire, but conveys revelation revealed to him. What he says is true, and he is the leader whose decision counts; when there is a dispute, people are obliged to refer to him, and whatever is in accordance with his words and deeds is right, and whatever goes against them should be rejected no matter who says or does it. Allah says: “(And) if you differ in anything among yourselves…” (4:59). “And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah” (42:10). “And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice” (6: 115). meaning, He has spoken the truth and is fair and just in His commands and prohibitions. Allah says here: “Ask Him, as He is Al-Knower.”

Condemnation of the Idolators

Then Allah rebukes the idolators who prostrate to idols and rivals instead of Allah: “And when it is said to them: “Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!” They say: “And what is Ar-Rahman” meaning: we do not know Ar-Rahman. They did not like to call Allah by His Name Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), as they objected on the day of (the treaty of) Al-Hudaybiyyah, when the Prophet told the scribe:

“Write: “In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (the Most Merciful).”

They said, “We do not know Ar-Rahman or Ar-Rahim. Write what you used to write: `Bismika Allahumma (in Your Name, O Allah).”’ (Ahmad 3:268) So Allah revealed the words: “Say: “Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman, by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names” (17:110). meaning, He is Allah and He is the Most Gracious. And in this Ayah, Allah said: “And when it is said to them: “Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!” They say: “And what is the Ar-Rahman” meaning: we do not know or approve of this Name. “Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you command us” means, “Just because you tell us to” “And it increases in them only aversion.” As for the believers, they worship Allah Who is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful, and they attribute divinity to Him Alone and prostrate to Him. The scholars, agree that it is allowed and approved for the reader and the listener to prostrate when he reaches this mention of prostration in Surat Al-Furqan, and Allah knows best.

{61. Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven Al-Buruj, and has placed therein a great lamp, and a moon giving light. 

62. And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession (Khilfatan), for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.}

Mentioning the Might and Power of Allah

Here Allah glorifies Himself and praises the beauty He created in the heavens of Al-Buruj, the giant stars, according to the view of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Al-Hasan and Qatadah. (At-Tabari 19:289) This is like the Ayah, “And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps” (67:5). Allah says: “Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven Al-Buruj, and has placed therein a great lamp,” which is the sun which shines like a lamp, as Allah says: “And We have made (therein) a shining lamp” (78:13). “and a moon giving light.” means, shining and illuminated by the light of something else, different from the light of the sun, as Allah says: “It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light” (10:5). And Allah tells us that Nuh, peace be upon him, said to his people: “See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another And has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp” (71:15-16).

Then Allah says: “And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession (Khilfatan)” meaning, each one comes after the other, in a never-ending alternation. When one goes the other comes, and vice versa, as Allah says: “And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses” (14:33).“He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly” (7:54). “It is not for the sun to overtake the moon” (36:40). “for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.” means, He has caused them both to follow one another to show the times when His servants should worship Him. So whoever misses an act of worship during the night can make it up during the day, and whoever misses an act of worship during the day can make it up during the night. It was recorded in a Sahih Hadith: “Allah spreads forth His Hand at night for the one who has done evil during the day to repent, and He spreads forth His Hand during the day for the one who has done evil during the night to repent.” (Muslim 4:2113)

Mujahid and Qatadah said: “Khilfatan means different, i.e., because one is dark and the other is light.” (At-Tabari 19:290)

{63. And the servants of the Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth Hawna, and when the foolish address them they say; “Salama.”

 64. And those who spend the night in worship of their Lord, prostrate and standing. 65. And those who say: “Our Lord! Avert from us the torment of Hell. Verily, its torment is ever an inseparable, permanent punishment.” 

66. Evil indeed it is as an abode and as a place to rest in. 

67. And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor stingy, but are in a just balance between them.}

 

Attributes of the Servants of the Most Gracious

These are the attributes of the believing servants of Allah, “those who walk on the earth Hawna,” meaning that they walk with dignity and humility, not with arrogance and pride. This is like the Ayah: “And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance…” (17:37). So these people do not walk with conceit or arrogance or pride. This does not mean that they should walk like sick people, making a show of their humility, for the leader of the sons of Adam (the Prophet) used to walk as if he was coming downhill, and as if the earth were folded up beneath him. What is meant here by Hawn is serenity and dignity, as the Messenger of Allah said:

“When you come to the prayer, do not come rushing in haste. Come calmly and with tranquility, and whatever you catch up with, pray, and whatever you miss, make it up.” (Fath Al-Bari 2:453)

“and when the foolish address them they say: “Salama.” If the ignorant people insult them with bad words, they do not respond in kind, but they forgive and overlook, and say nothing but good words. This is what the Messenger of Allah did: the more ignorant the people, the more patient he would be. This is as Allah says: “And when they hear Al-Laghw (evil or vain talk), they withdraw from it” (28:55). Then Allah says that their nights are the best of nights, as He says: “And those who spend the night in worship of their Lord, prostrate and standing.”meaning, worshipping and obeying Him. This is like the Ayat: “They used to sleep but little by night. And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness” (51:17-18). “Their sides forsake their beds…” (32:16). “Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or standing during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord…” (39:9). Allah says: “And those who say: “Our Lord! Avert from us the torment of Hell. Verily, its torment is ever an inseparable punishment.” meaning, ever-present and never ending.

Al-Hasan said concerning the Ayah, “Verily, its torment is ever an inseparable, permanent punishment.” Everything that strikes the son of Adam, then disappears, does not constitute an inseparable, permanent punishment. The inseparable, permanent punishment is that which lasts as long as heaven and earth. (At-Tabari 19:297) This was also the view of Sulayman At-Taymi. (Abdul-Razzaq 3:72) “Evil indeed it is as an abode and as a place to rest in.” means, how evil it looks as a place to dwell and how evil it is as a place to rest. “And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor stingy…” They are not extravagant, spending more than they need, nor are they miserly towards their families, not spending enough on their needs. But they follow the best and fairest way. The best of matters are those which are moderate, neither one extreme nor the other. “but are in a just balance between them.” This is like the Ayah, “And let not your hand be tied to your neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach.” (17:29)

{68. And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse – and whoever does this shall receive Athama. 

69. The torment will be doubled for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein in disgrace; 

70. Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds; for those, Allah will change their sins into good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 

71. And whosoever repents and does righteous good deeds; then indeed he has repented to Allah Mataba.}

 

The Attributes of the Servants of the Most Gracious include avoiding Shirk, Murder and Zina

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said, “The Messenger of Allah was asked which sin is the most serious” He said: “That you appoint a rival to Allah when He has created you.” He asked, “Then what” He said: “That you kill your child for fear that he may eat with you.” He said, “Then what” He said:“That you commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife.” `Abdullah said, “Then Allah revealed, confirming that: “And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah….” (Ahmad 1:380) This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i, (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:420) and by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. (Fath Al-Bari 12:116, Muslim 1:90, 91)

It was narrated that Sa`id bin Jubayr heard Ibn Abbas saying that some of the people of Shirk killed a great deal and committed Zina a great deal, then they came to Muhammad and said: “What you are saying and calling people to is good, if only you would tell us that there is a way to expiate for what we have done.” Then the Ayah: “And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah…”   was revealed, as was the Ayah, “Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against themselves!” (39:53). (At-Tabari 9:414) “and whoever does this shall receive Athama.” It was recorded that Abdullah bin Amr said: “Athama is a valley in Hell.” (At-Tabari 19:308) Ikrimah also said that Athama refers to valleys in Hell in which those who commit unlawful sexual acts will be punished. This was also narrated from Sa`id bin Jubayr and Mujahid. (At-Tabari 19:308)  As-Suddi said that Athama referred to punishment, which is closer to the apparent meaning of the Ayah. This interpretation makes it interchangeable with what comes next, the Ayah: “The torment will be doubled for him on the Day of Resurrection,” i.e., repetitive and intensified. “and he will abide therein in disgrace” scorned and humiliated. “Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds” means, those who do these evil deeds will be punished in the manner described, “Except those who repent”, that is; those who repent in this world to Allah from all of those deeds, for then Allah will accept their repentance. This is evidence that the repentance of the murderer is acceptable, and there is no contradiction between this and the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa’: “And whoever kills a believer intentionally” (4:93), because even though this was revealed in Al-Madinah, the meaning is general, and it could be interpreted to refer to one who does not repent, because this Ayah states that forgiveness is only for those who repent. Moreover Allah says:“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him, but He forgives except that to whom He wills” (4:48). And in the authentic Sunnah, it is reported from the Messenger of Allah that the repentance of a murderer is acceptable, as was stated in the story of the person who killed one hundred men and then repented, and Allah accepted his repentance, and other Hadiths. (Al-Bukhari no.3470)

“for those, Allah will change their sins into good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“I know the last person who will be brought forth from Hell, and the last person who will enter Paradise. A man will be brought and it will be said, “Take away his major sins and ask him about his minor sins.” So it will be said to him: “On such and such a day, you did such and such, and on such and such a day, you did such and such.” He will say, “Yes, and he will not be able to deny anything.” Then it will be said to him: “For every evil deed you now have one good merit.” He will say: “O Lord, I did things that I do not see here.”)

He (Abu Dharr) said: “And the Messenger of Allah smiled so broadly that his molars could be seen.” (Ahmad 5:170)  Muslim recorded it. (Muslim 1:177)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Jabir heard Makhul say, “A very old man with sunken eyes came and said, `O Messenger of Allah, a man betrayed others and did immoral deeds, and there was no evil deed which he did not do. If (his sins) were to be distributed among the whole of mankind, they would all be doomed. Is there any repentance for him” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Have you become Muslim?”

He said, “As for me, I bear witness that there is no God but Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.” The Prophet said:

“Allah will forgive you for whatever you have done like that, and will replace your evil deeds with good merits.”

The man said: “O Messenger of Allah, even my betrayals and immoral actions?” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Even your betrayals and immoral actions.”

“The man went away saying `La ilaha illallah’ and `Allahu Akbar.”’ [Ibn Abi Hatim and Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:281. This narration is not authentic, however there is a similar shorter narration from Anas recorded in At-Tabarani]

Allah tells us how His mercy extends to all His creatrues, and that whoever among them repents to Him, He will accept his repentance for any sin, great or small. Allah says: “And whosoever repents and does righteous good deeds; then indeed he has repented to Allah Mataba.” meaning, Allah will accept his repentance. This is like the Ayat: “And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (4:110). “Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants…” (9:104). “Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah.” (39:53) – for those who repent to Him.

{72. And those who do not bear witness to falsehood, and if they pass by some evil play or evil talk, they pass by it with dignity. 

73. And those who, when they are reminded of the Ayat of their Lord, fall not deaf and blind thereat. 

74. And those who say: “Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders of those who have Taqwa.”}

 

More Attributes of the Servants of the Most Gracious

These are further attributes of the servants of the Most Gracious. They do not bear witness to falsehood, including lies, immorality, disbelief, foul speech and false words. Amr bin Qays said, this refers to gatherings of sexual immorality. It was said that the Ayah, “And those who do not bear witness to falsehood,” refers to giving false testimony, which means lying deliberately to someone else. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Bakrah said, “The Messenger of Allah said three times:

“Shall I not tell you of the greatest of major sins”

We said, “Of course, O Messenger of Allah.” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said:

“Associating others in worship with Allah and disobeying one’s parents.”

He was lying down, then he sat up and added: “Beware false speech, and bearing witness to falsehood.” and he kept repeating it until we thought, would that he would stop.” (Fath Al-Bari 5:309)

From the context it seems that what is meant by those who do not bear witness to falsehood is those who do not attend it or are not present when it happens. Allah says: “and if they pass by some evil play or evil talk, they pass by it with dignity.” They do not attend where falsehood occurs, and if it so happens that they pass by it, they do not let it contaminate them in the slightest. Allah says: “they pass by it with dignity.” “And those who, when they are reminded of the Ayat of their Lord, fall not deaf and blind thereat.” This is also a characteristic of the believers, “Those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Ayat are recited unto them, they increase their faith; and they put their trust in their Lord.” (8:2) Unlike the disbelievers. When they hear the Words of Allah, they are not affected by them or moved to change their ways. They persist in their disbelief, wrongdoing, ignorance and misguidance, as Allah says:”And whenever there comes down a Surah, some of them say: “Which of you has had his faith increased by it” As for those who believe, it has increased their faith, and they rejoice. But as for those in whose hearts is a disease, it will add doubt to their doubt” (9:124-125).

“fall not deaf and blind thereat.” means, unlike the disbelievers who, when they hear the Ayat of Allah, are not moved by them, but continue as they are, as if they did not hear them but are deaf and blind. His saying: “And those who say: “Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes…” means those who ask Allah to bring forth from their loins offspring who will obey Him and worship Him and not associate anything in worship with Him. Ibn `Abbas said, “This means (offspring) who will strive to obey Allah and bring them joy in this world and the Hereafter.” (At-Tabari 19:318)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Nufayr said: “We sat with Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad one day, and a man passed by and said, “How blessed are these two eyes which saw the Messenger of Allah! Would that we had seen what you saw and witnessed what you witnessed.” Al-Miqdad got angry, and I was surprised, because the man had not said anything but good. Then he turned to him and said, “What makes a man wish to be present when Allah had caused him to be absent, and he does not know how he would have behaved if he had been there By Allah, there are people who saw the Messenger of Allah , and Allah will throw them on their faces in Hell because they did not accept him or believe in him. Are you not grateful that Allah brought you forth from your mothers’ wombs believing in your Lord and in what your Prophet brought, and that the test went to others and not to you? Allah sent His Prophet during the most difficult time that any Prophet was ever sent, after a long period of ignorance, when the people could see no better religion than the worship of idols, and he brought the Criterion which distinguishes truth from falsehood and which would separate a father from his son. A man would realize that his father, son or brother was a disbeliever, and since Allah had opened his heart to Faith, he knew that if his relative died he would go to Hell, so he could not rest knowing that his loved one was in the Fire. This is what Allah referred to in the Ayah, “And those who say: “Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes…” Its chain of narrators is Sahih, although they did not report it. (Ahmad 6:2) “and make us leaders of those who have Taqwa.” Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Rabi` bin Anas said: “Leaders who would be taken as examples in good.” (At-Tabari 19:319)

Others said: “Guides who would call others to goodness.” They wanted their worship to be connected to the worship of their children and offspring, and their guidance to go beyond themselves and benefit others. This would be more rewarding and a better end, as it was recorded in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said: “When a son of Adam dies, his deeds cease apart from three: a righteous child who will pray for him, knowledge from which others may benefit after him, or ongoing charity.” (Muslim 3:1255)

{75. Those will be rewarded with the highest place because of their patience. Therein they shall be met with greetings and the word of peace and respect. 

76. Abiding therein – excellent it is as an abode, and as a place to rest in. 

77. Say: “My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation to Him. But now you have indeed denied. So the torment will be yours forever.”}

 

The Reward of the Servants of the Most Gracious, and a Warning to the People of Makkah

After mentioning the beautiful attributes of His believing servants, and their fine words and deeds, Allah then says: “Those” meaning, the people who are described in this manner, “will be rewarded” on the Day of Resurrection, “with the highest place”, which is Paradise. Abu Ja`far Al-Baqir, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said, “It was so called because of its elevation.” “because of their patience.” means, their patience in doing what they did. “Therein they shall be met” means, in Paradise. “with greetings and the word of peace and respect.” This means that they will be greeted first with words of welcome and honor. Peace will be theirs and they will be wished peace. And angels shall enter unto them from every gate, saying, “Peace be upon you for that you persevered in patience! Excellent indeed is the final home!” “Abiding therein” means, they will settle there and never leave or move or die, they will never exit or wish to move to somewhere else. This is like the Ayah, “And those who are blessed, they will be in Paradise, abiding therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure” (11:108). “excellent it is as an abode, and as a place to rest in.” Its appearance is beautiful and it is a good place in which to rest and to dwell. Then Allah says: “Say: “My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation to Him…” meaning, He would not care to pay attention to you if you did not worship Him, for He only created mankind to worship Him Alone and to glorify Him morning and evening.

His saying: “But now you have indeed denied.” “O you disbelievers.” “So the torment will be yours forever.” So your denial will remain with you forever, i.e., it will lead to your punishment, doom and destruction in this world and the Hereafter. This also refers to the day of Badr, as it was interpreted by `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Ubayy bin Ka`b, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others. (At-Tabari 19:324) “So the torment will be yours forever.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: “The Day of Resurrection.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:287) And there is no conflict between the two interpretations.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Furqan, all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Vol 7 (Abridged) Pages 182-209

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Surah Al-Furqan Ayat 25-50

{25. And (remember) the Day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down, with a grand descending. 

26. The sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty) of the Most Gracious, and it will be a hard Day for the disbelievers. 

27. And (remember) the Day when the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: “Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger.” 

28. “Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as an intimate friend!” 

29. “He indeed led me astray from the Reminder after it had come to me. And Shaytan is to man ever a deserter.”}

 

The Terrors of the Day of Resurrection, and how the Wrongdoers will wish that They had taken a Path with the Messenger

Here Allah tells us about the terror of the Day of Resurrection and the tremendous events that will happen, including the splitting of heavens when they are pierced by the clouds, that is the shadow of the magnificent light which dazzles all sight. The angels of heaven will come down on that Day and surround all creatures at the place of gathering, then the Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, will come to pass judgement. Mujahid said, “This is as Allah says: “Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds and the angels” (2:210) (At-Tabari 19:260) “The sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty) of the Most Gracious,” This is like the Ayah, “Whose is the kingdom this Day: It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistable!” (40:16)

In the Sahih it says:

“Allah, may He be exalted, will fold up the heavens in His Right Hand, and will take the earths in His other Hand, then He will say: “I am the Sovereign, I am the Judge. Where are the kings of the earth Where are the tyrants? Where are the arrogants?”

(Fath Al-Bari 11:379) “and it will be a hard Day for the disbelievers.” means it will be very difficult, because it will be the Day of justice and the decisive judgement, as Allah says: “Truly, that Day will be a hard Day – Far from easy for the disbelievers” (74:9-10). This is how the disbelievers will be on the Day of Resurrection. As for the believers, Allah says: “The greatest terror will not grieve them.” “And (remember) the Day when the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: “O! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger.”

Here Allah tells us of the regret felt by the wrongdoer who rejected the path of the Messenger and what he brought from Allah of clear truth concerning which there is no doubt, and followed another path. When the Day of Resurrection comes, he will feel regret but his regret will avail him nothing, and he will bite on his hands in sorrow and grief. Whether this Ayah was revealed concerning Uqbah bin Abi Muit or someone else among the doomed, it applies to every wrongdoer, as Allah says: “On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire” as mentioned in those two Ayat (33:66) Every wrongdoer will feel the ultimate regret on the Day of Resurrection, and will bite at his hands, saying: “O! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger. Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as an intimate friend!” meaning, the one among the propagators of misguidance who diverted him from true guidance and led him to follow the path of misguidance, whether this refers to Umayyah bin Khalaf or his brother Ubayy bin Khalaf, or to someone else. “He indeed led me astray from the Reminder” means the Qur’an, “after it had come to me.” means, after it had reached me. Allah says:“And Shaytan is to man ever a deserter (in the hour of need).” meaning, he leads him away from the truth and diverts him from it, and uses him for the purposes of falsehood and calls him to it.

{30. And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur’an.” 

31. Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals. But sufficient is your Lord as a Guide and Helper.}

 

The Messenger will complain against His Opponents

Allah tells how His Messenger and Prophet Muhammad will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur’an.” The idolators would not listen to the Qur’an, as Allah says: “And those who disbelieve say: “Listen not to this Qur’an, and make noise in the midst of it.” (41:26). When he would recite Qur’an to them, they would talk nonsense or speak about something else, so that they would not hear it. This is a form of forsaking it and rejecting it, and not believing in it is the same as forsaking it, and not pondering its meanings and trying to understand it is the same as forsaking it, and not acting upon it and following its commandments and heeding its prohibitions is the same as forsaking it, and turning away from it in favor of poetry or other words or songs or idle talk or some other way is the same as forsaking it. We ask Allah, the Most Generous, the Bestower of bounty, the One Who is able to do what He wills, to keep us safe from doing that which earns His wrath and to use us to do that which will earn His pleasure of preserving and understanding His Book, following its commandments night and day in the manner which He loves and which pleases Him, for He is Generous and Kind.

“Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.” means, ‘just as there is for you, O Muhammad, those people who scorned the Qur’an, so in all the previous nations did Allah make for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals, who called people to their misguidance and disbelief,’ as Allah says:“And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies – Shayatin among mankind and Jinn” as stated in these two Ayat. (6:112) Allah says here: “But sufficient is your Lord as a Guide and Helper.” meaning, for the one who follows His Messenger and believes in His Book, Allah will be his Guide and Helper in this world and the Hereafter. Allah says, “a Guide and Helper.” because the idolators used to try to prevent people from following the Qur’an lest anyone be guided by it. They wanted their way to prevail over the way of the Qur’an. Allah says: “Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.”

{32. And those who disbelieve say: “Why is not the Qur’an revealed to him all at once” Thus, that We may strengthen your heart thereby. And We have revealed it to you gradually, in stages. 

33. And no example or parable do they bring, but We reveal to you the truth, and the better explanation thereof. 

34. Those who will be gathered to Hell on their faces, such will be in an evil state, and most astray from the path.}

 

The Reason why the Qur’an was revealed in Stages, the Refutation of the Disbelievers, and their Evil

Allah tells us about the many objections raised by the disbelievers, their stubbornness, and how they spoke of things which were none of their concern. They said: “Why is not the Qur’an revealed to him all at once” meaning, why was this Qur’an, which was revealed to him, not sent down all at one time, as the previous Books, the Tawrah, Injil, Zabur and other Divine Books Allah answered them, telling them that it was revealed in stages over twenty-three years, according to events and circumstances, and whatever rulings were needed, in order to strengthen the hearts of the believers, as He says: “And (it is) a Qur’an which We have divided (into parts)…” (17:106). Allah says: “that We may strengthen your heart thereby. And We have revealed it to you gradually, in stages.” Qatadah said it means: “We have explained it.” Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said it means: “We have given its interpretation.”(At-Tabari 19:266)

“And no example or similitude do they bring,” This means no arguments or doubts, “but We reveal to you the truth, and the better explanation thereof.” They do not say anything in an attempt to oppose the truth, but We respond to them with the truth of that same matter, more clearly and more eloquently than anything they say.

Abu Abdur-Rahman An-Nasa’i recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “The Qur’an was sent down all at once to the first heaven on Laylatul-Qadr (the Night of Power), then it was revealed over twenty years.” (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:421) Allah says: “And no example or similitude do they bring, but We reveal to you the truth, and the better explanation thereof.” and: “And (it is) a Qur’an which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages” (17:106). Then Allah tells us about the terrible state of the disbelievers when they are raised on the Day of Resurrection and gathered into Hell: “Those who will be gathered to Hell on their faces, such will be in an evil state, and most astray from the path.” In the Sahih, it is reported from Anas that a man said, “O Messenger of Allah, how will the disbeliever be gathered on his face on the Day of Resurrection” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“The One Who caused him to walk on his two feet is able to make him walk on his face on the Day of Resurrection.” (Ahmad 3:229) 

{35. And indeed We gave Musa the Scripture, and placed his brother Harun with him as a helper; 

36. And We said: “Go you both to the people who have denied Our Ayat.” Then We destroyed them with utter destruction. 

37. And Nuh’s people, when they denied the Messengers, We drowned them, and We made them as a sign for mankind. And We have prepared a painful torment for the wrongdoers. 

38. And (also) `Ad and Thamud, and the Dwellers of Ar-Rass, and many generations in between. 

39. And for each We put forward examples, and each We brought to utter ruin. 

40. And indeed they have passed by the town on which was rained the evil rain. Did they not then see it Nay! But they used not to expect any resurrection.}

 

Frightening the Idolators of Quraysh

Allah threatens the idolators who denied and opposed His Messenger Muhammad and He warns them of the punishment and painful torment He sent upon the previous nations who rejected their Messengers. Allah begins by mentioning Musa, upon him be peace, whom He sent along with his brother Harun as a helper – i.e., as another Prophet who helped and supported him – but Firawn and his chiefs denied them both: “Allah destroyed them completely, and similar (awaits) the disbelievers” (47:10).

And when the people of Nuh denied him, Allah destroyed them likewise, for whoever denies one Messenger denies all the Messengers, because there is no difference between one Messenger and another. If it had so happened that Allah had sent all His Messengers to them, they would have denied them all. Allah says: “And Nuh’s people, when they denied the Messengers,” although Allah sent only Nuh to them, and he stayed among them for 950 years, calling them to Allah and warning them of His punishment, “And none believed with him, except a few” (11:40). For this reason Allah drowned them all and left no one among the sons of Adam alive on earth apart from those who boarded the boat, “and We made them a sign for mankind.” meaning a lesson to be learned. This is like the Ayah, “Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the boat. That We might make it a remembrance for you, and the keen ear may understand it” (69:11-12), which means: `We left for you ships that you ride upon to travel across the depths of the seas, so that you may remember the blessing of Allah towards you when He saved you from drowning, and made you the descendants of those who believed in Allah and followed His commandments.’ “And (also) `Ad and Thamud, and the Dwellers of Ar-Rass,” We have already discussed their story, which is referred to in more than one Surah, such as Surat Al-Araf, and there is no need to repeat it here. As for the Dwellers of Ar-Rass, Ibn Jurayj narrated from Ibn Abbas about the Dwellers of Ar-Rass that they were the people of one of the villages of Thamud. (At-Tabari 19:269) Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Bukayr from Ikrimah that Ar-Rass was a well where they buried (Rassu) their Prophet. (Al-Baghawi 3:369)  “and many generations in between.” means nations, many more than have been mentioned here, whom We destroyed. Allah said:“And for each We put forward examples,” meaning, `We showed them the proof and gave them clear evidence,’ as Qatadah said, “They had no excuse.” (At-Tabari 19:272) “and each (of them) We brought to utter ruin.” means, `We destroyed them completely.’ This is like the Ayah, “And how many generations (Qurun) have We destroyed after Nuh!” (17:17). “Generations” (Qurun) here refers to nations among mankind. This is like the Ayah,“Then, after them, We created other generations (Qurun).” (23:42) Some defined a generation as being 120 years, or it was said that a generation was one hundred years, or eighty, or forty, etc. The most correct view is that a generation refers to nations who are one another’s contemporaries, living at the same time. When they go and others succeed them, this is another generation, as it was recorded in the Two Sahihs:

“The best of generations is my generation, then the one that follows it, then the one that follows that.” (Fath Al-Bari 5:306)

“And indeed they have passed by the town on which was rained the evil rain.” refers to the town of the people of Lut, which was called Sodom, and the way in which Allah dealt with it, when He destroyed it by turning it upside down and by sending upon it the rain of stones of baked clay, as Allah says: “And We rained on them a rain. And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned!” (26:176), “Verily, you pass by them in the morning. And at night; will you not then reflect” (37:137-138), “And verily, they were right on the highroad.” (15:76), “They are both on an open highway, plain to see?” (15:79).

Allah says: “Did they not then see it?” meaning, so that they might learn a lesson from what happened to its inhabitants of punishment for denying the Messenger and going against the commands of Allah. “Nay! But they used not to expect any resurrection.” means, the disbelievers who passed by it did not learn any lesson, because they did not expect any resurrection, i.e., on the Day of Judgement.

{41. And when they see you, they treat you only in mockery (saying): “Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a Messenger?” 

42. “He would have nearly misled us from our gods, had it not been that we were patient and constant in their worship!” And they will know, when they see the torment, who it is that is most astray from the path! 

43. Have you seen him who has taken as his god his own vain desire? Would you then be a guardian over him?

44. Or do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are only like cattle – nay, they are even farther astray from the path.}

 

How the Disbelievers mocked the Messenger

Allah tells us how the disbelievers mocked the Messenger when they saw him. This is like the Ayah,“And when the disbelievers see you, they take you not except for mockery” (21:36), which means that they tried to find faults and shortcomings in him. Here Allah says: “And when they see you, they treat you only in mockery (saying): “Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a Messenger” i.e., they said this by way of belittling and trying to undermine him, so Allah put them in their place, and said: “And indeed Messengers before you were mocked at” (6:10) “He would have nearly misled us from our gods,” They meant: `he nearly turned us away from worshipping idols, and he would have done so, had we not been patient and persevered in our ways.’ So Allah said, warning and threatening them:“And they will know, when they see the torment…”

They took Their Desires as their gods and were more astray than Cattle

Then Allah tells His Prophet that if Allah decrees that someone will be misguided and wretched, then no one can guide him except Allah, glory be to Him:“Have you seen him who has taken as his god his own vain desire?” meaning, whatever he admires and sees as good in his own desires becomes his religion and his way. As Allah says:“Is he then, to whom the evil of his deeds is made fair seeming. So that he consider it as good. Verily, Allah sends astray whom he wills.” (35:8) “Would you then be a guardian over him” Ibn Abbas said: “During the Jahiliyyah, a man would worship a white rock for a while, then if he saw another that looked better, he would worship that and leave the first.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:260)

Then Allah said:“Or do you think that most of them hear or understand” meaning, they are worse than grazing cattle. Cattle only do what they were created to do, but these people were created to worship Allah Alone without associating partners with Him, but they worship others with Him, even though evidence has been established against them and Messengers have been sent to them.

{45. Have you not seen how your Lord spread the shadow. If He willed, He could have made it still – but We have made the sun its guide. 

46. Then We withdraw it towards Ourselves – a gradual withdrawal. 

47. And it is He Who makes the night a covering for you, and the sleep (as) a repose, and makes the day Nushur.}

 

Evidence of the existence of the Creator and the extent of His Power

Here Allah begins explaining the evidence for His existence and His perfect power to create various things and pairs of opposites. Allah says: “Have you not seen how your Lord spread the shadow?” Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, Masruq, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others said, “This refers to the period from the beginning of the dawn until the sun rises.” (At-Tabari 19:275) “If He willed, He could have made it still” meaning, immobile, never changing. This is like the Ayat:“Say : “Tell me! If Allah made the night continuous for you…” (28:71) “but We have made the sun its guide.” means, were it not for the sun rising, it would not be there, for a thing can only be known in contrast to its opposite. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “The sun is a guide which follows the shade until the shade disappears. ” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:262)  “Then We withdraw it towards Ourselves – a gradual withdrawal.” This refers to the shade. “gradual” meaning slowly. As-Suddi said: “A gentle, concealed, withdrawal until there is no shade left on earth except under a roof or a tree, and the sun is shining on whatever is above it.” “a gradual withdrawal.” Ayyub bin Musa said: “Little by little. (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:262)  “And it is He Who makes the night a covering for you,” It covers and conceals all things. This is like the Ayah: “By the night as it envelops” (92:1).“and the sleep a repose” means, a halt to movement so that bodies may rest. For the faculties and limbs get tired from their constant movement during the day when one goes out to earn a living. When night comes, and it becomes quiet, they stop moving, and rest; so sleep provides a rejuvenation for both the body and the soul.

“and makes the day Nushur” meaning, people get up and go out to earn a living and attend to their business. This is like the Ayah: “It is out of His mercy that He has made for you the night and the day that you may rest therein and that you may seek of His bounty…” (28:73)

{48. And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy; and We send down pure water from the sky, 

49. That We may give life thereby to a dead land, and We give to drink thereof many of the cattle and men that We have created. 

50. And indeed We have distributed it among them in order that they may remember the grace of Allah, but most men refuse (out of) gratitude.}

 

This is also part of His complete power and supreme authority

Allah sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, i.e., they bring the clouds behind them. The winds are of many different types, depending on the purpose for which they are sent. Some of them form the clouds, others carry the clouds or drive them, and others come ahead of the clouds as heralds announcing their coming. Some of them come before that to stir up the earth, and some of them fertilize or “seed” the clouds to make it rain. Allah says: “and We send down pure water from the sky”, meaning, as a means of purifying it.

Abu Sa`id said, “It was said: “O Messenger of Allah, can we perform Wudu’ with the water of the well of Buda`ah For it is a well in which rubbish and the flesh of dogs are thrown. He said: “Water is pure and nothing makes it impure.” This was recorded by Ash-Shafi`i and Ahmad, who graded it Sahih, and also by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Hasan, and by An-Nasa’i. (Musnad Ash-Shafi 1:21)

His saying: “That We may give life thereby to a dead land,” means, a land that waited a long time for rain. It is devoid of vegetation or anything at all. When the rain comes to it, it becomes alive and its hills are covered with all kinds of colourful flowers, as Allah says: “but when We send down water to it, it is stirred to life and growth…” (41:39). His saying: “and We give to drink thereof many of the cattle and men that We had created.” means, so that animals such as cattle can drink from it, and people who are in desperate need of water can drink from it and water their crops and fruits. This is like the Ayah: “And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired,” (42:28) “Look then at the effects of Allah’s mercy, how He revives the earth after its death.” (30:50) His saying: “And indeed We have distributed it among them in order that they may remember” means, `We cause rain to fall on this land and not on that, and We cause the clouds to pass over one land and go to another, where We cause sufficient rain to fall so that its people have plenty, but not one drop falls on the first land.’ There is a reason and great wisdom behind this. Ibn Abbas and Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with them said: “One year does not have more rain than another, but Allah distributes the rain as He wills. Then he recited this Ayah: “And indeed We have distributed it (rain or water) amongst them in order that they may remember the grace of Allah, but most men refuse (out of) ingratitude.” (At-Tabari 19:280) meaning, so that they may be reminded, when Allah brings the dead earth back to life, that He is able to bring the dead and dry bones back to life, or that those from whom rain is withheld are suffering this because of some sin they have committed, so that they may give it up. “but most men refuse (out of) ingratitude.” `Ikrimah said, “This refers to those who say that rain comes because of such and such a star.” (At-Tabari 19:280)This view of `Ikrimah is similar to the authentic Hadith recorded in Sahih Muslim: One day after a night’s rain, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to his Companions:

“Do you know what your Lord says?”

They said: “Allah and His Messenger know best.” He said:

“He says: “This morning some of My servants became believers in Me, and some became disbelievers. As for the one who said, `We have been given rain by the mercy and grace of Allah,’ he is a believer in Me and a disbeliever in the stars. As for the one who said, `We have been given rain by such and such a star,’ he is a disbeliever in Me and a believer in the stars.” (Muslim 1:83)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Abridged (Vol 7) Pages 164-182

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Surah Al-Furqan Ayat 1-24

Surah Al-Furqan

Chapter 25

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. Blessed be He Who sent down (Nazzala) the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to all nations. 2. He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Who has begotten no son and for Whom there is no partner in the dominion. He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.}

 

Blessed be Allah

Here Allah praises Himself for the Noble Qur’an He has revealed to His noble Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. This is like the Ayat: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has sent down to His servant the Book, and has not placed therein any crookedness. (He has made it) straight to give warning of a severe punishment from Him, and to give glad tidings to the believers, who do righteous deeds…” (18:1-2) Here Allah says: “Blessed be He.” The verbal form used here implies an ongoing, permanent, eternal blessing. “Who sent down the criterion” The verb Nazzala is a form which implies something done a great deal and often. This is like the Ayah:“And the Book which He (Nazzala) sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He (Anzala) sent down to those before (him)” (4:136). Each of the previous Books was sent down at one time, but the Qur’an was revealed gradually, in stages, Ayat after Ayat, rulings after rulings, Surahs after Surahs. This is more eloquent and indicative of greater care for the one to whom it is revealed, as Allah says later in this Surah: “And those who disbelieve say: “Why is not the Qur’an revealed to him all at once?” Thus, that We may strengthen your heart thereby. And We have revealed it to you gradually, in stages. And no example or similitude do they bring, but We reveal to you the truth, and the better explanation thereof.” (25:32-33) This Surah was named Al-Furqan, because it is the criterion that decides between truth and falsehood, guidance and misguidance, right and wrong, lawful and unlawful. “to His servant” This description is one of praise and commendation, because here Allah is connecting him to Himself, describing him as His servant. Allah also described him in this manner when referring to the noblest of events, the Night of the Isra’, as He said: “Glorified be He Who took His servant for a journey by night” (17:1). Allah also described him in this way when He described how he stood and called to Him: “And when the servant of Allah stood up invoking Him in prayer they (the Jinn) just made round him a dense crowd as if sticking one over the other (in order to listen to the Prophet’s recitation).” (72:19) This description is also used here when Allah describes how the Book is revealed to him and how the angel comes down to him: “Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to all nations.” “that he may be a warner to all nations.” means, he alone has been blessed with this great, detailed, clear Book which,“Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah).” (41:42) The One Who made it the mighty criterion, singled him out to convey it to those who seek the shade of trees and to those who live on the land (i.e., to all of mankind, nomad and settled alike), as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“I have been sent to the red and the black.” (Ahmad 5:145)

And he said:

“I have been given five things which no Prophet before me was given.”

Among them he mentioned:

“[Before me] a Prophet was sent only to his own people, but I have been sent to all of mankind.” (Fath Al-Bari 1:634) 

And Allah says: “Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah…” (7:158), meaning, the One Who has sent me is the Sovereign of the heaven and the earth, who merely says to a thing “Be!” and it is. He is the one who gives life and causes death. Allah says here: “He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Who has begotten no son and for Whom there is no partner in the dominion.” Allah states that He is above having any offspring or partner. Then He tells us: “He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.”  meaning, everything apart from Him is created and subject to Him. He is the Creator, Lord, Master and God of all things, and everything is subject to His dominion, control and power.

{3. Yet they have taken besides Him other gods who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.}

 

The Foolishness of the Idolators

Allah tells us of the ignorance of the idolators in taking other gods instead of Allah, the Creator of all things, the One Who controls the affairs of all things; whatever He wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen. In spite of that, they still worshipped others besides Him, idols who could not even create the wing of a gnat, but were themselves created. They could neither do harm nor bring benefit to themselves, so how could they do anything for their worshippers “and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” means, they could not do any of that at all; that power belongs only to Allah, Who is the One Who gives life and death, and is the One Who will bring all people, the first and the last, back to life on the Day of Resurrection. “The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as (the creation and resurrection of) a single person” (31:28). This is like the Ayat; “And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.” (54:50) “But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth alive after their death” (79:13-14) “It will be a single Zajrah, and behold, they will be staring!” (37:19) “It will be but a single Sayhah, so behold they will all be brought up before Us!” (36:53). He is Allah besides Whom there is no other God and besides Whom there is no other Lord. No one should be worshipped except Him because whatever He wills happens and whatever he does not will does not happen. He has no offspring nor progenitor, nor equal nor likeness nor rival nor peer. He is the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.

{4. Those who disbelieve say: “This is nothing but a lie that he has invented, and others have helped him in it.” In fact, they have produced an unjust wrong and a lie. 

5. And they say: “Tales of the ancients which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.” 

6. Say: “It has been sent down by Him Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”}

 

What the Disbelievers said about the Qur’an

Allah tells us about the foolishness of the disbelievers’ ignorant minds, when they said about the Qur’an:“This is nothing but a lie”, meaning an untruth.“that he has invented,” meaning the Prophet . “and others have helped him in it.” means, he asked other people to help him compile it. So Allah said: “In fact, they have produced an unjust wrong and a lie.” meaning, they are the ones who are telling a lie, and they know that it is false, for their own souls know that what they are claiming is not true. “And they say: “Tales of the ancients which he has written down…” meaning, the ancients wrote them down, and he has copied it. “and they are dictated to him” means, they are read or recited to him. “morning and afternoon.” at the beginning and end of the day. Because this idea is so foolish and is so patently false, everyone knows that it is not true. It is known through Mutawatir reports and is a common fact that Muhammad the Messenger of Allah never learned to read or write, either at the beginning or the end of his life. He grew up among them for approximately forty years, from the time he was born until the time when his mission began. They knew all about him, and about his honest and sound character and how he would never lie or do anything immoral or bad. They even used to call him Al-Amin (the Trustworthy One) from a young age, until his mission began, because they saw how truthful and honest he was. When Allah honored him with that which He honored him, they declared their enmity towards him and came up with all these accusations which any reasonable person would know he was innocent of. They were not sure what to accuse him of. Sometimes they said that he was a sorcerer, at other times they would say he was a poet, or crazy, or a liar. So Allah said: “See what examples they have put forward for you. So they have gone astray, and never can they find a way.” (17:48) In response to their stubbornness, Allah says here: “Say: “It has been sent down by Him Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth”.) meaning, He has revealed the Qur’an which includes true information about the earlier and later generations, information which concurs with the realities of the past and future.

 “Who knows the secret” means, Allah is the One Who knows the unseen in the heavens and on the earth; He knows their secrets just as He knows what is visible therein.“Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

This is an invitation to them to repent and turn back to Allah, telling them that His mercy is vast and His patience is immense. Whoever repents to Him, He accepts his repentance. Despite all their lies, immorality, falsehood, disbelief and stubbornness, and saying what they said about the Messenger and the Qur’an, He still invites them to repent and give up their sin, and to come to Islam and true guidance. This is like the Ayat:“Surely, disbelievers are those who said: “Allah is the third of the three.” But there is no god but One God. And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall on the disbelievers among them. Will they not turn with repentance to Allah and ask His forgiveness For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (5:73-74) “Verily, those who put into trial the believing men and believing women, and then do not turn in repentance, then they will have the torment of Hell, and they will have the punishment of the burning Fire.” (85:10)

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: “Look at this kindness and generosity! They killed His friends and He is calling them to repentance and mercy.”

{7. And they say: “Why does this Messenger eat food, and walk about in the markets. Why is not an angel sent down to him to be a warner with him?” 

8. “Or (why) has not a treasure been granted to him, or why has he not a garden whereof he may eat?” And the wrongdoers say: “You follow none but a man bewitched.” 

9. See how they coin similitudes for you, so they have gone astray, and they cannot find a path. 

10. Blessed be He Who, if He wills, will assign you better than (all) that – Gardens under which rivers flow and will assign you palaces.  

11. Nay, they deny the Hour, and for those who deny the Hour, We have prepared a flaming Fire. 

12. When it sees them from a far place, they will hear its raging and its roaring. 

13. And when they shall be thrown into a narrow place thereof, chained together, they will exclaim therein for destruction. 

14. Exclaim not today for one destruction, but exclaim for many destructions.}

 

What the Disbelievers said about the Messenger, refutation of Their Words, and Their ultimate Destiny

Allah tells us about the disbelievers’ stubborn resistance to and rejection of the truth, with no proof or evidence for doing so. Their excuse was, as they said: “Why does this Messenger eat food?”  meaning, ‘as we eat, and why does he need food as we need it’ “and walk about in the markets.” means, he walks around and goes there often seeking to trade and earn a living. “Why is not an angel sent down to him to be a warner with him” They were saying: why doesn’t an angel come down to him from Allah, to be a witness that what he is claiming is true This is like when Fira`wn said: “Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him” (43:53). These people had a similar mentality and said the same kind of thing. They said: “Or (why) has not a treasure been granted to him” meaning, treasure that he could spend on his needs and wants. “or why has he not a garden whereof he may eat” meaning, a garden that would go with him wherever he went. All of this is easy for Allah, but He had a reason for not doing any of these things, and with Him is the perfect proof and argument. “And the wrongdoers say: “You follow none but a man bewitched.” Allah said: “See how they coin similitudes for you, so they have gone astray,” meaning, they accused you and belied you when they said that you were a sorcerer or bewitched or crazy or a liar or a poet, but all of these are false ideas. Everyone who has the slightest understanding will recognize that they are lying. Allah says: “so they have gone astray”  from the path of guidance. “and they cannot find a path.” Everyone who steps outside of the way of truth and guidance has gone astray, no matter what direction he takes, because the truth is one and its methodology is unified, parts of it confirming other parts.

Then Allah tells His Prophet that if He willed, He could bestow on him in this world something far better than what they were saying. He said: “Blessed be He Who, if He wills, will assign you better than (all) that…” Mujahid said, “This means in this world.” And he said: “The Quraysh used to call every house that was made of stone a ‘palace’, whether it was large or small.” (At-Tabari 19:243)

“Nay, they deny the Hour,” means, they say this in stubborn disbelief, not because they are seeking insight and guidance, but because their disbelief in the Day of Resurrection makes them say what they say. “And We have prepared” means, `We have made ready,’“for those who deny the Hour, a flaming Fire.” means, an unbearably hot and painful torment in the fire of Hell. “When it sees them” means, when Hell sees them, “from a far place,” means from the place of gathering “on the Day of Resurrection”“they will hear its raging and its roaring.” means, “it will make those sounds” out of hatred towards them. This is like the Ayah, “When they are cast therein, they will hear the (terrible) drawing in of its breath as it blazes forth. It almost bursts up with fury” (67:7-8), which means that parts of it almost separate from other parts because of its intense hatred towards those who disbelieved in Allah.

Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir narrated that Ibn `Abbas said: “A man will be dragged towards Hell, which will be expanding and contracting, and Ar-Rahman will say to it: `What is the matter with you?’ It will say: `He is seeking refuge from me.’ So Allah will say, `Let My servant go.’ Another man will be dragged towards Hell and he will say, `O Lord, I never expected this from You.’ Allah will say, ‘What did you expect?’ The man will say, `I expected that Your mercy would be great enough to include me.’ So Allah will say, `Let My servant go.’ Another man will be dragged towards Hell, and Hell will bray at him like a donkey braying at barley. Then it will give a moan that will instill fear in everyone.” (At-Tabari 9:370) Its chain of narrators is Sahih.

“they will hear its raging and its roaring.” `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that `Ubayd bin `Umayr said: “Hell will utter a moan such that there will be no angel who is close to Allah and no Prophet sent to mankind, but he will fall on his face, shaking all over. Even Ibrahim, peace be upon him, will fall to his knees and say: `O Lord, I do not ask You for salvation this Day except for myself.” (Abdur Razzaq 3:67) “And when they shall be thrown into a narrow place thereof, chained together,” Qatadah narrated from Abu Ayyub that `Abdullah bin `Amr said: “Like the point of a spear, i.e., in its narrowness.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:240) “chained together,” Abu Salih said, “This means, tied from their shoulders.” “they will exclaim therein for destruction.” means, they will utter cries of woe, regret and sorrow.“Exclaim not today for one destruction…”

{15. Say: “Is that better or the Paradise of Eternity which is promised to those who have Taqwa?” It will be theirs as a reward and final destination. 

16. For them there will be therein all that they desire, and they will abide (therein forever). It is upon your Lord a Wa`dan Mas’ula.}

 

Is the Fire better, or Paradise?

Here Allah says: `O Muhammad, this that We have described to you about the state of those who are doomed, who will be dragged on their faces to Hell, which will receive them with a scowling face, with hatred and moans. There they will be thrown into their constricted spaces, tied up to their shoulders, unable to move or call for help, and unable to escape their plight – is this better, or the eternal Paradise which Allah has promised to the pious among His servants, which He has prepared for them as a reward and ultimate destiny in return for their obedience to Him in this world’ “For them there will be therein all that they desire,” of delights such as food, drink, clothing, dwellings, means of transportation and scenery, and other things that no eye has seen, no ear has heard, nor the heart of anyone can comprehend. They will abide therein forever; it will never cease or come to an end, and they will never leave it. This is what Allah has promised to those whom He has blessed and to whom He has shown His favor. He says: “It is a upon your Lord a Wa`dan Mas’ula” meaning, it must inevitably come to pass. Abu Ja`far bin Jarir reported from some of the scholars of the Arabic language that the words “Wa`dan Mas’ula” mean: a binding pledge.(At-Tabarani 19:247)

In this Surah Allah mentions Hell, then refers to the situation of the people of Paradise. This is similar to the passage in Surat As-Saffat where Allah mentions the status of the people of Paradise, with its beauty and joy, then He says: “Is that better entertainment or the tree of Zaqqum? Truly, We have made it a trial for the wrongdoers. Verily, it is a tree that springs out of the bottom of Hellfire, The shoots of its fruit stalks are like the heads of Shayatin. Truly, they will eat thereof and fill their bellies therewith. Then on the top of that they will be given boiling water to drink so that it becomes a mixture. Then thereafter, verily, their return is to the flaming fire of Hell. Verily, they found their fathers on the wrong path. So they hastened in their footsteps!” (37:62-70)

{17. And on the Day when He will gather them together and that which they worship besides Allah. He will say: “Was it you who misled these My servants or did they stray from the path?” 

18. They will say: “Glorified be You! It was not for us to take any Awliya’ besides You, but You gave them and their fathers comfort till they forgot the warning, and became a lost people.” 

19. Thus they will deny you in what you say; then you can neither avert nor find help. And whoever among you does wrong, We shall make him taste a great torment.}

The gods of the Idolators will disown Them on the Day of Resurrection

Allah tells us about what will happen on the Day of Resurrection, when those whom the idolators used to worship instead of Allah, angels and others, will rebuke them. Allah says: “And on the Day when He will gather them together and that which they worship besides Allah.” Mujahid said, “This means `Isa, `Uzayr and the angels.”(At-Tabari 19:247)  “He will say: “Was it you who misled these My servants…” Allah will say to those who were worshipped: `Did you call these people to worship you instead of Me, or was it their own idea to worship you, without any call to that on your part’ This is like the Ayah, “And when Allah will say: “O `Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: `Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah’ ” He will say: “Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my innerself though I do not know what is in Yours; truly, You, only You, are the All-Knower of all that is hidden. Never did I say to them aught except what You did command me to say.” (5:116-117)

Describing how those who were worshipped will respond on the Day of Resurrection, Allah says: “They will say: “Glorified be You! It was not for us to take (Nattakhidh) any Awliya’ besides You…” Most of the scholars recite a Fathah on the Nun of the word Nattakhidh in His saying: “…for us to take (Nattakhidh) any Awliya’ besides You,” meaning, `it is not right for any created being, neither us nor them, to worship anyone except You; we did not call them to do that, but they did it of their own accord, without us telling them to do it or accepting what they did. We are innocent of them and their worship.’ This is like the Ayah, “And (remember) the Day when He will gather them all together, then He will say to the angels: “Was it you that these people used to worship” They (the angels) will say: “Glorified be You!” (34:40-41) Other scholars understand this phrase to mean: ‘it is not proper for us to take anyone except You as protectors or helpers (Awliya’)’ meaning, ‘it is not proper for anyone to worship us, for we are Your servants and in need of You.’ This meaning is close to the first.

“but You gave them and their fathers comfort” means, `You made such a long period of time pass that they forgot the Reminder, i.e., they forgot what had been sent down to them through the Messengers, calling them to worship You alone with no partner or associate.’

“and became a lost people.” Ibn Abbas said, “This means, they were destroyed.” (At-Tabari 19:248) Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Malik narrated from Az-Zuhri: “There was no good in them.” (At-Tabari 19:248)

And Allah says:“Thus they will deny you because of what you say” meaning, `those whom you used to worship besides Allah will show you to be liars in your claims that they were your helpers and protectors bringing you closer to Allah.’ This is like the Ayat: “And who is more astray than one who calls on besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their calls to them. And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.” (46:5-6) “then you can neither avert nor find help.” means: they will not be able to avert the punishment from themselves, nor will they be able to help themselves. “And whoever among you does wrong,” means by associating others in worship with Allah, “We shall make him taste a great torment.”

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Surah Nur Ayat 63-64 (end)

{63. Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another. Allah knows those of you who slip away under shelter. And let those beware who oppose the Messenger’s commandment, lest some Fitnah should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.}

The Etiquette of addressing the Prophet

Ad-Dahhak said, reporting from Ibn `Abbas: “They used to say, `O Muhammad,’ or `O Abu Al-Qasim,’ but Allah forbade them to do that, as a sign of respect towards His Prophet, peace , and told them to say, `O Prophet of Allah,’ ‘O Messenger of Allah.”’ (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:230) This was also the view of Mujahid and Said bin Jubayr. (At-Tabari 19:230) Qatadah said: “Allah commanded that His Prophet should be treated with respect and honor, and that he should be a leader.” (At-Tabari 19:230) Muqatil said concerning the Ayah:“Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.” “When you address him, do not say, `O Muhammad,’ or `O son of `Abdullah’; rather honor him and say, `O Prophet of Allah,’ or, `O Messenger of Allah.’“Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.” A second view concerning the meaning of the Ayah is that it means `do not think that if he prays against you it is like when anyone else prays against you, because his prayers will be answered; so beware lest he prays against you and you will be doomed.’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this from Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Atiyyah Al-Awfi. And Allah knows best.“Allah knows those of you who slip away under shelter.” Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “This refers to the hypocrites who used to find it too difficult to listen to the Khutbah on Fridays, so they would hide behind some of the Companions of Muhammad and sneak out of the Masjid. It was not proper for a man to leave on Fridays once the Khutbah began, unless he had permission from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. If one of them wanted to leave, he would make a gesture to the Prophet with his finger, and the Prophet would give permission without the man speaking. This is because if the Prophet was giving the Khutbah and a man spoke, it would invalidate his Friday prayer.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:231) As-Suddi said, “If they were with him for a congregational prayer, they would hide behind one another so that he could not see them.”

The Prohibition of going against the Messenger’s Commandment
“And let those beware who oppose the Messenger’s commandment” This means going against the commandment of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, which is his way, methodology and Sunnah. All words and deeds will be measured against his words and deeds; those that are in accordance with his words and deeds will be accepted, and whatever does not match up will be rejected, no matter who the person is who said and did them. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs and elsewhere that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Whoever does a deed that is not in accordance with this matter of ours will have it rejected.” (Fath Al-Bari 4:416)

meaning, let those beware who go against the Shari`ah of the Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in secret and in the open, “lest some Fitnah should befall them”, i.e., lest some disbelief or hypocrisy or innovation enter their hearts.“or a painful torment be inflicted on them.” means in this world afflicting them with capital punishment, or by law of prescribed punishment, or by confinement in prison, or so on. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him  said:

“The parable of me and you is as the example of a man who kindled a fire and when it illuminated all around him, moths and other creatures started falling into the fire, and he was trying to stop them but they overwhelmed him and still kept falling in. This is the parable of me and you. I am trying to restrain you and keep you away from the fire, but you overwhelm me and fall in.”

This was also narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. (Ahmad 2:312, Muslim 2284)

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Surah An-Nur Ayat 53-62

{53. They swear by Allah their strongest oaths that if only you would order them, they would leave. Say: “Swear you not; obedience is known. Verily, Allah knows well what you do.” 

54. Say: “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way.}

Allah says about the hypocrites who had promised the Messenger and sworn that if he were to command them to go out for battle, they would go: “Say: “Swear you not…”  meaning, do not swear this oath.“obedience is known.” It was said that the meaning is, your obedience is known, i.e., it is known that your obedience is merely verbal and is not accompanied by action. Every time you swear an oath you lie. This is like the Ayah: “They swear to you that you may be pleased with them…” (9:96) And Allah says: “They have made their oaths a screen (for their evil actions).” (58:16) It is part of their nature to tell lies, even in the issues they choose, as Allah says: “Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the people of the Scripture who disbelieve: “If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey any one against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.” But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars. Surely, if they are expelled, never will they go out with them; and if they are attacked, they will never help them. And if they do help them, they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.” (59:11-12) Then Allah says: “Say: “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger…” meaning, follow the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon them. “but if you turn away,” if you ignore what he has brought to you, “he is only responsible for the duty placed on him”, conveying the Message and fulfilling the trust. “and you for that placed on you.” accepting that, and venerating it and doing as it commanded. “If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance.” because he calls to the straight path,“The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth…” (42:53) “The Messenger’s duty is only to convey in a clear way.” This is like the Ayat: “your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.” (13:40) “So remind them – you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.” (88:21-22)

 

{55. Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them. And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear if they worship Me and do not associate anything with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the rebellious.}

 

Allah’s Promise to the Believers that He would grant them Succession

This is a promise from Allah to His Messenger that He would cause his Ummah to become successors on earth, i.e., they would become the leaders and rulers of mankind, through whom He would reform the world and to whom people would submit, so that they would have in exchange a safe security after their fear. This is what Allah did indeed do, may He be glorified and exalted, and to Him be praise and blessings. For He did not cause His Messenger to die until He had given him victory over Makkah, Khaybar, Bahrayn, all of the Arabian Peninsula and Yemen; and he took Jizyah from the Zoroastrians of Hajar and from some of the border lands of Syria; and he exchanged gifts with Heraclius the ruler of Byzantium, the ruler of Egypt and Alexandria, the Muqawqis, the kings of Oman and An-Najashi of Abyssinia, who had become king after Ashamah, may Allah have mercy on him and grant him honor.

Then when the Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, died, his successor (Khalifah) Abu Bakr As-Siddiq took over the reins of power and united the Ummah, preventing its disintegration. He took control of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and he sent the Islamic armies to the land of Persia, under the leadership of Khalid bin Al-Walid, may Allah be pleased with him, who conquered a part of it and killed some of its people. He sent another army under the leadership of Abu Ubaydah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the other commanders who came after him in the lands of Syria. He sent a third army under the leadership of Amr bin Al-As, may Allah be pleased with him, to Egypt. Allah enabled the army sent to Syria to conquer Busra and Damascus and their provinces the land of Hawran and its environs. Then Allah chose for Abu Bakr to honor him with Him and he died.

The people of Islam were blessed that As-Siddiq was inspired to appoint Umar Al-Faruq as his successor, so he took the reins of power after him and did a perfect job. After the Prophets, the world never saw anyone like Umar in excellence of conduct and perfect justice. During his time, the rest of Syria and Egypt, and most of Persia, was conquered. Kisra was defeated and utterly humiliated, and he retreated to the furthest point of his kingdom. Mighty Caesar was brought low, his rule over Syria was overthrown, and he retreated to Constantinople. Their wealth was spent for the sake of Allah, as the Messenger of Allah had foretold and promised. May Allah’s perfect peace and purest blessing be upon him.

During the rule of Uthman, the Islamic domains spread to the furthest points of the earth, east and west. The lands of the west were conquered as far as Cyprus and Andalusia, Kairouan [Current day Tunisia] and Sebta which adjoins the Atlantic Ocean. Towards the east, the conquests extended as far as China. Kisra was killed, his kingdom was utterly destroyed and the cities of Iraq, Khurasan and Al-Ahwaz were conquered. The Muslims killed a great number of Turks and Allah humiliated their great king Khaqan. Taxes were collected from the east and the west, and brought to the Commander of the faithful Uthman bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him. This was a blessing brought by his recitation and study of the Qur’an, and his bringing the Ummah together to preserve and protect it. In the Sahih it was recorded that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Allah showed me the earth and I looked at the east and the west. The dominion of my Ummah will reach everywhere I was shown.” (Muslim 4:2215)

And now we are enjoying that which Allah and His Messenger promised us, for Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth. We ask Allah to give us faith in Him and His Messenger, and to help us to give thanks to Him in a manner that will earn us His pleasure. “Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them. And He will surely, give them in exchange a safe security after their fear…” Ar-Rabi bin Anas narrated that Abu Al-Aliyah said, “The Prophet and his Companions were in Makkah for nearly ten years, calling people in secret to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. They were in a state of fear and were not instructed to fight until after they were commanded to migrate to Al-Madinah. When they came to Al-Madinah, then Allah instructed them to fight. In Al-Madinah they were afraid and they carried their weapons morning and evening. This is how they remained for as long as Allah willed…” Then Allah revealed this Ayah. (At-Tabari 19:209)

He caused His Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to prevail over the Arabian Peninsula, and then they felt safe and put down their weapons. Then Allah took His Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and they remained safe throughout the time of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until what happened happened, and fear again prevailed over them, so they instituted a police force and guards. They changed, so their situation changed. One of the Salaf said, “The Khilafah of Abu Bakr and Umar was true and adhered to the Book of Allah. Then he recited this Ayah.”

Al-Bara’ bin Azib said, “This Ayah was revealed when we were in a state of extreme fear.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 6:215) This Ayah is like the Ayah: “And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land” Until His statement:“so that you might be grateful” (8:26). “as He granted succession to those before them,” This is like the Ayah where Allah tells us that Musa said to his people: “It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors on the earth…” (7:129) And Allah says: “And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak in the land,” until the two Ayat there after. (28: 5-6) “and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them…” As the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to Adiyy bin Hatim when he came to him in a delegation:

“Do you know Al-Hirah?”

He said, “I do not know it, but I have heard of it.” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, Allah will make this matter [i.e., Islam] prevail until a woman riding a camel will come from Al-Hirah [modern Iraq] and perform Tawaf around the House without needing the protection of anybody, and the treasures of Kisra the son of Hurmuz will be opened.”

He asked, “Kisra the son of Hurmuz?” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Yes, Kisra the son of Hurmuz, and wealth will be given until there will be no one who will accept it.”

Adiyy bin Hatim said: “Now it is happening that a woman riding a camel comes from Al-Hirah and performs Tawaf around the House without needing the protection of anybody, and I was among those who opened the treasure of Kisra the son of Hurmuz. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, the third thing will also come to pass, because the Messenger of Allah said it.” (Ahmad 4:257)

“if they worship Me and do not associate anything with Me.” Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas that Mu`adh bin Jabal told him, “While I was riding behind the Prophet on a donkey, with nothing between me and him but the back of his saddle, he said,

“O Mu`adh bin Jabal.”

I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ Then a while passed, then he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“O Mu`adh bin Jabal.”

I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ Then a while passed, then he said,

“O Mu`adh bin Jabal.”

I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ He, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Do you know the rights that Allah has over His servants?”

I said, `Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said,

“The rights that Allah has over His servants are that they should worship Him and not associate anything with Him.”

Then a while passed, then he said,

“O Mu`adh bin Jabal.”

I said, `Here I am at your service, O Messenger of Allah.’ He said,

“Do you know the rights that people have over Allah if they do that?”

I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“The rights that people have over Allah is that He will not punish them.” (Ahmad 5:242)

This was also recorded in the Two Sahihs. (Fath Al-Bari 10:412)

“But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the rebellious.” means, ‘whoever then stops obeying Me after that, has stopped obeying the command of his Lord, and that is a great sin.’ The Companions – may Allah be pleased with them – were the most committed of people after the Prophet to the commands of Allah and the most obedient to Allah. Their victories were in accordance with their level of commitment. They caused the Word of Allah to prevail in the east and the west, and Allah supported them so much that they governed all the people and all the lands. When the people subsequently fell short in their commitment to some of the commandments, their strength and victory fell short accordingly, but it is confirmed through more than one route in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“There will remain a group of my Ummah adhering to the truth, and those who forsake them or oppose them will not harm them until the Day of Resurrection.” (Muslim 3:1523)

According to another report:

“.. until the command of Allah comes to pass and they are like that.” (Muslim 1:137)

According to another report:

“… until they fight the Dajjal.” (Ahmad 437)

According to another report:

“… until `Isa bin Maryam comes down and they are prevailing.” (Fath Al-Bari 13:306)

All of these reports are Sahih, and there is no contradiction between them.

{56. And perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and obey the Messenger that you may receive mercy. 

57. Consider not that the disbelievers can escape in the land. Their abode shall be the Fire – and worst indeed is that destination.}

 

The Command to pray, give the Zakah and obey the Messenger; the inability of the Disbelievers to escape, and the ultimate Destiny

Allah commands His believing servants to establish prayer, which means worshipping Allah Alone with no partner or associate; to pay the Zakah, which is an act of kindness towards His poor and weak creatures; and by doing so to obey the Messenger of Allah , i.e., to do as he commands them and to avoid what he forbids them, so that Allah will have mercy on them for that. No doubt, whoever does that, Allah will have mercy on him, as Allah says in another Ayah: “Allah will have His mercy on them” (9:71) “Consider not” means, ‘do not think, O Muhammad,’ that: “the disbelievers” meaning, those who opposed and denied you, “can escape in the land.” means, that they can flee from Allah. No, Allah is able to deal with them and He will punish them most severely for that. Allah says: “Their abode” meaning, in the Hereafter, “shall be the Fire – and worst indeed is that destination.”  means, how terrible the consequences will be for the disbelievers, how evil a place to stay in and how awful a place to rest!

{58. O you who believe! Let your slaves and slave-girls, and those among you who have not come to the age of puberty ask your permission on three occasions: before the Fajr prayer, and while you put off your clothes during the afternoon, and after the `Isha’ prayer. (These) three (times) are of privacy for you; other than these times there is no sin on you or on them to move about, attending to each other. Thus Allah makes clear the Ayat to you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. 

59. And when the children among you come to puberty, then let them (also) ask for permission, as those senior to them (in age) ask permission. Thus Allah makes clear His Ayat for you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. 

60. And the Qawa`id among women who do not hope for marriage, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain is better for them. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.}

 

The Times when Servants and Young Children should seek Permission to enter

These Ayat include a discussion of how people who are closely related should seek permission to enter upon one another. What was mentioned earlier in the Surah had to do with how unrelated people should seek permission to enter upon one another. Allah commanded the believers to ensure that their servants and their children who have not yet reached puberty should seek permission at three times: the first is before the Fajr prayer, because people are asleep in their beds at that time. “and while you put off your clothes during the afternoon,” means, at the time of rest, because a man may be in a state of undress with his wife at that time. “and after the Isha’ prayer.” because this is the time for sleep. Servants and children are commanded not to enter upon household members at these times, because it is feared that a man may be in an intimate situation with his wife and so on. Allah says: “(These) three (times) are of privacy for you; other than these times there is no sin on you or on them” If they enter at a time other than these, there is no sin on you if you let them enter, and no sin on them if they see something at a time other than these times. They have been given permission to enter suddenly, because they are those who go around in the house, i.e., to serve you etc., and as such they may be forgiven for things that others will not be forgiven. Although this Ayah is quite clear and has not been abrogated, people hardly follow it, and Abdullah bin Abbas denounced the people for that.

Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn Abbas said: “Most of the people do not follow it, the Ayah that speaks about asking permission, but I tell my servant woman to seek permission to enter.” Abu Dawud said: Ata’ also narrated that Ibn Abbas commanded this. (Abu Dawud 5:377) Ath-Thawri narrated that Musa bin Abi A’ishah said, “I asked Ash-Shabi about the Ayah: “Let your slaves and slave-girls ask your permission.” He said, ‘It has not been abrogated.’ I said: `But the people do not do that.’ He said, `May Allah help them.”’ (At-Tabari 19:213) Then Allah says:“And when the children among you come to puberty, then let them (also) ask for permission, as those senior to them (in age)” meaning: when the children who used to seek permission at the three times of privacy reach puberty, then they have to seek permission at all times, i.e., with regard to those who are non-relatives, and at times when a man may be in a state of intimacy with his wife, even if it is not one of the three times stated above.

There is no Sin on Elderly Women if They do not wear a Cloak
“And the Qawa`id among women.” Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said that these are the women who no longer think that they can bear children,“who do not hope for marriage,” meaning, they no longer have any desire for marriage,“it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment.” meaning, they do not have to cover themselves in the same way that other women have to.
Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah:“And tell the believing women to lower their gaze” (24:31) was abrogated and an exception was made in the case of: “the past childbearing among women who do not hope for marriage.” (Abu Dawud 4:361) “it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing” Ibn Mas`ud said about (outer) clothing,, “The Jilbab or Rida’.(At-Tabari 19:217) ” A similar view was also narrated from Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Ash-Shatha’, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri, Al-`Awza`i and others. (At-Tabari 19:217)  “in such a way as not to show their adornment.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “They should not make a wanton display of themselves by removing their outer garment so that their adornment may be seen.” “But to refrain is better for them.” means, not removing their outer garment, even though that is permissible for them, is better for them. “And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Surah An-Nur Ayat 36-52

{36. In houses which Allah has ordered to be raised, in them His Name is remembered. Therein glorify Him in the mornings and in the evenings, 

37. Men whom neither trade nor business diverts from the remembrance of Allah nor from performing the Salah nor from giving the Zakah. They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned. 

38. That Allah may reward them according to the best of their deeds, and add even more for them out of His grace. And Allah provides without measure to whom He wills.}

 

The Virtues of the Masjids, the Correct Etiquette, and the Virtues of Those who take care of them

Having likened the heart of the believer and what it contains of guidance and knowledge to a lamp lit with good oil shining in a clear glass, Allah then states where it belongs, which is in the Masjids, the places on earth that are most beloved to Allah. The Masjids are His houses where He Alone is worshipped. So Allah says: “In houses which Allah has ordered to be raised,” meaning, Allah has commanded that they be established and that they be kept clean of any filth, idle talk or words or deeds that are inappropriate. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas concerning this Ayah:“In houses which Allah has ordered to be raised,” he said; “Allah forbade idle talk in them.” (At-Tabari 19:191) This was also the view of `Ikrimah, Abu Salih, Ad-Dahhak, Nafi` bin Jubayr, Abu Bakr bin Sulayman bin Abi Hathamah, Sufyan bin Husayn and others among the scholars of Tafsir.

Many Hadiths have been narrated concerning the construction of Masjids, honoring them, respecting them, and perfuming them with incense etc. This has been discussed in more detail elsewhere, and I have written a book dealing with this topic on its own, praise and blessings be to Allah. With Allah’s help we will mention here a few of these Hadiths, if Allah wills. In Allah we put our trust and reliance.

`Uthman bin `Affan, the Commander of the faithful, may Allah be pleased with him, said; “I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say:

“Whoever builds a Masjid seeking the Face of Allah, Allah will build for him something similar to it in Paradise.”

It was narrated in the Two Sahihs. (Fath Al-Bari 1:648)

Ibn Majah narrated that `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, said; “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Whoever builds a Masjid in which the Name of Allah is remembered, Allah will build for him a house in Paradise.” (Ibn Majah 1:243)

An-Nasa’i mentioned something similar. (An-Nasai 2:31) There are very many Hadiths which say this. `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “The Messenger of Allah commanded us to build Masjids among the houses, and to clean them and perfume them.” This was recorded by Ahmad and the Sunan compilers with the exception of An-Nasa’i. (Ahmad 6:279) Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded a similar report from Samurah bin Jundub.(Ahmad 5:17)

Al-Bukhari said: “`Umar said: `Build for the people a place to worship Allah, and beware of using red or yellow for adornment and decoration and distracting the people thereby.”’ (Fath Al-Bari 1:642)

Abu Dawud narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“I was not commanded to Tashyid the Masjids.”

Ibn `Abbas said, “Decorating them as the Jews and Christians did.” (Abu Dawud 1:310)

Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“The Hour will not come until people show off in building Masjids.”

It was recorded by Ahmad and the compilers of the Sunan, with the exception of At-Tirmidhi. (Ahmad 3:314)

Buraydah narrated that a man called out in the Masjid and said, “Has any body said anything about a red camel” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“May you never find it! The Masjids were built only for what they were built for.”

This was narrated by Muslim. (Muslim 1:397)

Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“If you see someone buying or selling in the Masjid, say to him, “May Allah never make your business profitable!” And if you see someone calling out about lost property, say, “May Allah never return it to you!”

This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said: “Hasan Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 4:550)

Al-Bukhari recorded that As-Sa’ib bin Yazid Al-Kindi said, “I was standing in the Masjid and a man threw pebbles at me, so I looked and saw `Umar bin Al-Khattab who said, `Go and bring me these two men.’ I went and brought them to him, and he said, `Who are you?’ Or, `Where do you come from?’ They said, `We are from At-Ta’if.’ `Umar said, `If you had been from this town I would have hit you, for you are raising your voices in the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah .”’ (Fath Al-Bari 1:667)

An-Nasa’i recorded that Ibrahim bin `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf said: “`Umar heard the voice of a man in the Masjid and said: `Do you know where you are”’ This is also Sahih. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 8:4)

Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la Al-Musili recorded from Ibn `Umar that `Umar used to burn incense in the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah every Friday. Its chain of narration is Hasan and there is nothing wrong with it, Allah knows best.

It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“A man’s prayer in congregation is twenty-five times better than his prayer in his house or the marketplace. That is because if he performs Wudu’ and does it well, then he goes out to go to the Masjid, and for no other purpose than to pray, he does not take one step but he increases in one level in status and one sin is removed. When he prays, the angels continue sending blessings on him as long as he is in the place where he prays, [they say], “O Allah, send blessings on him, O Allah, have mercy on him.” And he will remain in a state of prayer as long as he is waiting for the prayer.” (Al-Bukhari 647)

The following is recorded in the Sunan:

“Those who walk to the Masjids when it is dark, give them the glad tidings of complete Light on the Day of Resurrection.” (Abu Dawud 561)

When entering the Masjid, it is recommended to enter with one’s right foot, and to say the supplication recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari, where it is narrated from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to say, when he entered the Masjid:

“I seek refuge with Allah Almighty and with His Noble Face, and with His Eternal Domain, from the accursed Shaytan.”

[He (one of the narrators) asked, `Is that all?’ He answered, “Yes”.]

If he says this, the Shaytan says: “He will be protected from me all day long.” (Abu Dawud 2:318)

Muslim recorded that Abu Humayd or Abu Usayd said: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“When anyone of you enters the Masjid, let him say: “O Allah, open the gates of Your mercy for me. And when he comes out, let him say: “O Allah, I ask You of Your bounty.” (Muslim 1:494)

An-Nasa’i also recorded this from them from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“When anyone of you enters the Masjid, let him invoke blessings on the Prophet then let him say: “O Allah, open the gates of Your mercy for me.” When he comes out, let him invoke blessings on the Prophet and say, “O Allah, protect me from the accursed Shaytan.” (An-Nasai 2:53)

This was also recorded by Ibn Majah, as well as Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban in their Sahihs. (Ibn Majah 1:254)

“in them His Name is remembered.” meaning, the Name of Allah. This is like the Ayat:“O Children of Adam! Take your adornment to every Masjid…” (7:31) “and you should face (Him only) in each and every Masjid, and invoke Him only making your religion sincere to Him” (7:29).“And the Masjids are for Allah” (72:18). “in them His Name is remembered.” Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that His Book is recited therein.”(At-Tabari 19:191)  “Therein glorify Him in the mornings and in the evenings.” “Men whom neither trade nor business diverts from the remembrance of Allah” This is like the Ayat:“O you who believe! Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah.” (63:9) “O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the Salah on Friday, hasten earnestly to the remembrance of Allah and leave off business.” (62:9) Allah says that this world and its adornments, attractions and marketplaces should not distract them from remembering their Lord Who created them and sustains them, those who know that what is with Him is better for them than what they themselves possess, because what they have is transient but that which is with Allah is eternal. Allah says:“Men whom neither trade nor business diverts from the remembrance of Allah nor from performing the Salah nor from giving the Zakah”. meaning, they give priority to obeying Allah and doing what He wants and what pleases Him over doing what they want and what pleases them. It was reported from Salim from `Abdullah bin `Umar that he was in the marketplace when the Iqamah for prayer was called, so they closed their stores and entered the Masjid. Ibn `Umar said: “Concerning them the Ayah was revealed: “Men whom neither trade nor business diverts from the remembrance of Allah”. This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir. (Ibn Abi Hatim 8:2607)

“Men whom neither trade nor business diverts from the remembrance of Allah”. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This meant from the prescribed prayers.” (At-Tabari 19:193) This was also the view of Muqatil bin Hayyan and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. As-Suddi said: “From prayer in congregation.” Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “That does not distract them from attending the prayer and establishing it as Allah commanded them, and from doing the prayers at the prescribed times and doing all that Allah has enjoined upon them in the prayer.” “They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned.” means, the Day of Resurrection when people’s hearts and eyes will be overturned, because of the intensity of the fear and terror of that Day. This is like the Ayah:“And warn them of the Day that is drawing near…” (40:18), “but He gives them respite up to a Day when the eyes will stare in horror” (14:42). “And they give food, inspite of their love for it, to the poor, the orphan, and the captive, (saying:) “We feed you seeking Allah’s Face only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you. Verily, We fear from our Lord a Day, hard and distressful, that will make the faces look horrible.” So Allah saved them from the evil of that Day, and gave them a light of beauty and joy. And their recompense shall be Paradise, and silken garments, because they were patient” (76:8-12).

And Allah says here: “That Allah may reward them according to the best of their deeds,” meaning, “They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds.” “and add even more for them out of His grace.” means, He will accept their good deeds and multiply them for them, as Allah says: “Surely, Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust.” (4:40) “Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit.” (6:160) “Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan?” (2:245) “Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills.” (2:261) And Allah says here:“And Allah provides without measure to whom He wills.”

{39. As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a Qi`ah. The thirsty one thinks it to be water until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing; but he finds Allah with him, Who will pay him his due. And Allah is swift in taking account. 

40. Or like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, for him there is no light.}

 

Two Examples of two kinds of Disbelievers

These are two examples which Allah sets forth of two kinds of disbelievers. Similarly He sets forth two parables of the hypocrites at the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah: one involving fire and the other involving water. (See Surat Al-Baqarah 2:17-19) Similarly, in Surat Ar-Ra`d He gives two parables of the guidance and knowledge that are instilled in the heart, again involving fire and water; (See Surah Ar-Rad 13:17)  we have discussed each of them in the appropriate place and there is no need to repeat it here, praise be to Allah. The first of these two examples is that of the disbelievers who call others to their disbelief, thinking that they have good actions and beliefs, when this is not in fact the case. Their likeness is that of a mirage which is seen in a desert plain, looking from a distance as if it is a deep sea. The word Qi`ah refers to a vast, flat, level area of land in which the mirage may appear. There are different kinds of mirage, one which appears after midday, and another which appears in the morning and looks like water between heaven and earth. If a person who is in need of water sees the mirage, he thinks that it is water so he heads towards it in order to drink from it, but when he reaches it, “he finds it to be nothing.” Similarly the disbeliever thinks that he is doing something good and that he has achieved something, but when Allah judges him on the Day of Resurrection, and brings him to account and examines his deeds, he will find that nothing has been accepted at all, either because of a lack of sincere belief or because he did not follow the proper ways of the Shari`ah. As Allah says: “And We shall turn to whatever deeds they did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust.” (25:23). And He says here: “but he finds Allah with him, who will pay him his due. And Allah is swift in taking account.” A similar view was also narrated from Ubayy bin Ka`b, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and others. (At-Tabari 19:196)

In the Two Sahihs, it is reported that on the Day of Resurrection it will be said to the Jews, “What did you used to worship” They will say, “We used to worship `Uzayr the son of Allah.” It will be said to them, “You have lied. Allah has not begotten a son. What do you want” They will say, “O Lord, we are thirsty, give us something to drink.” It will be said to them, “Do you not see?” Then Hell will be shown to them as if it is a mirage, parts of it consuming other parts, and they will go and fall into it.(Fath Al-Bari 13:431)

This is the parable of one whose ignorance is deep and advanced. As for those whose ignorance is simple, those who are uneducated and foolish and blindly follow the leaders of disbelief, knowing and understanding nothing, their parable is as Allah says: “Or like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it!” meaning, he can hardly see it because it is so intensely dark. This is the parable of the heart of the disbeliever whose ignorance is simple, who merely follows and does not know the true nature of the one whom he follows or where he is going. He is like the ignorant man in the parable who was asked, “Where are you going” He said, “With them.” He was asked, “Where are they going” He said, “I do not know.” “darkness upon darkness” Ubayy bin Ka`b said: “He is enveloped in five types of darkness: his speech is darkness, his deeds are darkness, his coming in is darkness, his going out is darkness and his destiny on the Day of Resurrection will be darkness in the fire of Hell.” (At-Tabari 19:198) As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas also said something similar. “And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, for him there is no light.” One whom Allah does not guide is ignorant and doomed, an utter loser and disbeliever. This is like the Ayah:“Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him” (7:186) This is in contrast to what Allah says about the believers: “Allah guides to His Light whom He wills.” (24:35) We ask Allah the Almighty to put light in our hearts and give us light on our right and on our left, and to increase us in light.

{41. See you not that Allah, He it is Whom glorify whosoever is in the heavens and the earth, and the birds with wings outspread Of each one He knows indeed his Salah and his glorification; and Allah is All-Aware of what they do. 

42. And to Allah belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and to Allah is the return.}

 

Everything glorifies Allah, may He be exalted, and to Him belongs the Sovereignty

Allah tells us that whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth, i.e., the angels, mankind, Jinn, animals and even inanimate objects, all glorify Him. This is like the Ayah: “The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him” (17:44),“and the birds with wings outspread” means, while they are flying they glorify their Lord and worship Him with the glorification with which they are inspired and to which they are guided. Allah knows what they are doing, and so He says:“Of each one He knows indeed his Salah and his glorification” meaning, He has guided every creature to its own way of worshipping Allah, may He be glorified. Then Allah tells us that He knows all of that and nothing at all is hidden from Him. He says:“and Allah is All-Aware of what they do.” Then Allah tells us that to Him belongs the sovereignty of heaven and earth, and that He is the Ruler and Controller, the God Who is worshipped and besides Whom none other is to be worshipped, and there is none to put back His judgement. “and to Allah is the return” means, on the Day of Resurrection, when He will judge as He wills, “that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done…” (53:31) He is the Creator and Sovereign, and His is indeed the Authority in this world and the next. To Him be praise at the beginning and in the end.

{43. See you not that Allah drives the clouds gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap of layers, and you see the rain come forth from between them; and He sends down from the sky, from mountains in it of ice, and strikes therewith whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its (clouds) lightning nearly blinds the sight. 

44. Allah causes the night and the day to succeed each other. Truly, in this is indeed a lesson for those who have insight.}

 

The Power of Allah to create the Clouds and that which comes from Them

Allah tells us that He drives the clouds from the beginning, when they are formed and are still weak. This is the “Gentle driving.” “then joins them together,” means, He brings them together after they have been scattered.“then makes them into a heap of layers,” means, He piles them up on top of one another.“and you see the Wadq” meaning the rain,“come forth from between them” means, from the gaps between them. This is how it was understood by Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak. (At-Tabari 19:202) Ubayd bin Umayr Al-Laythi said: “Allah sends the scatterer [wind], which stirs up that which is on the surface of the earth. Then he sends the generator [wind], which forms the clouds. Then He sends the joiner [wind] which brings them together. Then He sends the fertilizer [wind] which fertilizes or `seeds’ the clouds.” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 19:201)

“and He sends down from [Min] the sky, from [Min] mountains in it of [Min] ice,” Some of the grammarians said that the first Min describes the place from which it is coming, the second specifies from which part of the sky it comes, and the third means some kind of mountains. This is based on the view of those scholars of Tafsir who say that,“from [Min] mountains in it of [Min] ice” means that there are mountains of hail in the sky from which Allah sends down ice. As for those who say that “mountains” here is used as a metaphor for clouds, they think that the second Min is also used to describe the place from which the ice is coming, and is thus interchangeable with the first. And Allah knows best. “and strikes therewith whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills.” It may be that the phrase “and strikes therewith” means, with what He sends down from the sky of different kinds of rain and hail. So then the phrase “and strikes therewith whom He wills” means, by His mercy towards them, and “and averts it from whom He wills.” means, He withholds rain from them. Or it may be that “and strikes therewith” means, with hail, as a punishment towards whomever He wills, striking their fruits and destroying their crops and trees. And He averts it from whomever He wills as a mercy towards them. “The vivid flash of its lightning nearly blinds the sight.” the brightness of its lightning almost takes away their sight if the eyes follow it and try to look at it. “Allah causes the night and the day to succeed each other.” He is controlling them, so that He takes something from the length of one and adds it to the other, which is short, until they become equal, then He does the opposite so that the one which was short becomes long and vice versa. Allah is the One Who is controlling that by His command, power, might and knowledge. “Truly, in this is indeed a lesson for those who have insight.” means, this is an indication of His greatness, may He be exalted. This is like the Ayah: “Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.” (3:190) and thereafter.

{45. Allah has created every moving creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, and some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.}

 

Allah’s Power in His creation of the Animals

Allah mentions His complete and almighty power to create all the different kinds of animals with their various forms, colors and ways of moving and stopping, from one kind of water. “Of them there are some that creep on their bellies,” like snakes and so on; “and some that walk on two legs,” like humans and birds; “and some that walk on four,” like cattle and all kinds of animals. Allah says:“Allah creates what He wills.” meaning by His power, because what He wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. So he says:“Verily, Allah is able to do all things.”

{46. We have indeed sent down manifest Ayat. And Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.}

Allah states that in this Qur’an He has revealed many clear and unambiguous rulings, words of wisdom and parables, and that He guides people of understanding, insight and intellect to ponder and understand them. He says: “And Allah guides whom He wills to the Straight Path.”

 

{47. They say: “We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,” then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not believers. 

48. And when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, lo! a party of them refuses and turns away. 

49. But if the truth is on their side, they come to him willingly with submission. 

50. Is there a disease in their hearts Or do they doubt or fear lest Allah and His Messenger should wrong them in judgement. Nay, it is they themselves who are the wrongdoers.

 51. The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.” And such are the successful. 

52. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, fears Allah, and has Taqwa of Him, such are the successful.}

 

The Treachery of the Hypocrites and the Attitude of the Believers

Allah tells us about the characteristics of the hypocrites who show one thing while hiding another, and who say with their tongues, “We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,” then a party of them turn away thereafter,” meaning, their actions contradict their deeds, and they say that which they do not do. Allah says: “such are not believers.” “And when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them…” means, when they are asked to follow the guidance which Allah has revealed to His Messenger , they turn away and are too arrogantly proud of themselves to follow him. This is like the Ayah: “Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you,” until His saying: “you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion” (4: 60-61). “But if the truth is on their side, they come to him willingly with submission.” means, if the ruling will be in their favor and not against them, then they will come and will listen and obey, which is what is meant by the phrase “willingly with submission.” But if the ruling will go against him, he turns away and demands something that goes against the truth, and he prefers to refer for judgement to someone other than the Prophet so that his false claims may prevail. His acceptance in the beginning was not because he believed that it was the truth, but because it happened to be in accordance with his desires. So when the truth went against what he was hoping for, he turned away from it. Allah said: “Is there a disease in their hearts…” meaning, their situation cannot be anything else, they must necessarily have a disease in their hearts, or else they have some doubts about the religion, or they are afraid that Allah and His Messenger will be unjust in their ruling against them. Whichever it is, it is pure disbelief, and Allah knows which of these characteristics each one of them has.“Nay, it is they themselves who are the wrongdoers.” means, they are the evildoers who commit immoral actions, and Allah and His Messenger are innocent of the injustice and unfairness that they imagine; exalted be Allah and His Messenger above such a thing. Then Allah tells us about the attributes of the believers who respond to Allah and His Messenger and who seek no other way apart from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger . Allah says: “The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey”.” meaning, to hear to obey. Allah describes them as having attained success, which is achieving what one wants and being saved from what one fears. So Allah says: “And such are the successful.” Concerning the Ayah: “they say: “We hear and we obey”, Qatadah said: “We were told that when `Ubadah bin As-Samit, who had been present at Al-`Aqabah and at Badr, and was one of the leaders of the Ansar, was dying, he said to his nephew Junadah bin Abi Umayyah: `Shall I not tell you what you must do and what is your due’ He said, `Yes.’ He said: `You have to listen and obey when times are easy and when they are hard, when you feel energetic and when you do not want to, and when you feel selfish. You have to train your tongue to speak the truth. Do not go against those who are in authority, unless they openly command you to commit acts of disobedience to Allah. Whenever you are commanded to do something that goes against the Book of Allah, then follow the Book of Allah.”’ (Ibn Abi Hatim 8:2623)

Qatadah said: We were told that Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “There is no Islam except through obedience to Allah, and no goodness except in Jama`ah. Sincerity is to Allah and His Messenger, and to the Khalifah and all the believers.” He said: “And we were told that `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, used to say; `The bonds of Islam are La ilaha illallah, establishing prayer, paying Zakah and obeying those whom Allah has given authority over the affairs of the Muslims.”’ This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. (Ibn Abi Hatim 8:2623) There are very many Hadiths and reports which state that it is obligatory to obey the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger, the Rightly-Guided Khalifahs and the Imams when they command us to obey Allah; there are too many of these reports to quote them all here.“And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger,” in what he is commanded with, and avoid what he is forbidden,“fears Allah,” means, for his past sins,“and has Taqwa of Him,” regarding sins he may commit in the future.“such are the successful.” means, those who will attain all goodness and be saved from all evil in this world and the Hereafter.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 7 Pages 89-111

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment