Surah Muhammad Ayat 1-19

Surah Muhammad

Chapter 47

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. Those who disbelieve and hinder (men) from the path of Allah, He will render their deeds vain.

2. But those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and believe in that which is sent down to Muhammad — for it is the truth from their Lord — He expiates from them their sins and amends their Bal.

3. That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth for mankind their parables.}

 

The Reward of the Disbelievers and the Believers

Allah says, “Those who disbelieve” meaning, in the Ayat of Allah. “and hinder (men)” Others. “from the path of Allah, He will render their deeds vain.” meaning, He renders their deeds vain and futile, and He denies them any rewards or blessings for them. This is similar to His saying, “And We will approach what they have done of deeds and make them as dispersed dust.” (25:23) Allah then says, “And those who believe and do righteous good deeds,” Which means that their hearts and souls have believed, and their limbs and their hidden and apparent acts have complied with Allah’s Law. “And believe in that which has been sent down to Muhammad” Adding this statement to the previous one is a method of adding a specific meaning to a general one. This provides proof that after Muhammad’s advent, believing in him is a required condition for the true faith. Allah then says, “For it is the truth from their Lord.” which is a beautifully placed parenthetical clause. Thus, Allah says “He expiates from them their sins and amends their Bal.” Ibn Abbas, said, “This means their matter.” Mujahid said, “This means their affair.” Qatadah and Ibn Zayd both said, “Their condition.” And all of these are similar in meaning. It has been mentioned (from the Prophet ) in the Hadith of the responding to one who sneezes,

“May Allah guide you and rectify your (Bal) affairs.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 8:11)

Then Allah says, “That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood,” meaning, ‘We only invalidate the deeds of the disbelievers and overlook the sins of the righteous, and amend their affairs, because those who disbelieve follow false- hood.’ Meaning, they choose falsehood over the truth. “while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth for the people their parables.” Thus He makes the consequence of their actions clear to them, and He shows them where they will end in their next life — and Allah knows best.

{4. So, when you meet those who disbelieve (in battle), smite (their) necks until you have fully defeated them, then tighten their bonds. Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity or ransom, until the war lays down its burden. Thus, and had Allah so willed, He could have taken vengeance against them;–but (He lets you struggle) so as to test with one another. But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.

5. He will guide them and amend their condition.

6. And admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.

7. O you who believe! If you support (in the cause of) Allah, He will support you, and make your foothold firm.

8. But as for those who disbelieve, misery awaits them, and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.

9. That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down; so He has made their deeds fruitless.}

 

The Command to strike the Enemies’ Necks, tighten Their Bonds, and then free Them either by an Act of Grace or for a Ransom

Guiding the believers to what they should employ in their fights against the idolators, Allah says, “So, when you meet those who disbelieve (in battle), smite their necks” which means, ‘when you fight against them, cut them down totally with your swords.’ “until you have fully defeated them,” meaning, ‘you have killed and utterly destroyed them.’ “tighten their bonds.” ‘This is referring to the prisoners of war whom you have captured. Later on, after the war ends and the conflict has ceased, you have a choice in regard to the captives: You may either act graciously toward them by setting them free without charge, or free them for a ransom that you require from them.’ It appears that this Ayah was revealed after the battle of Badr. At that time, Allah reproached the believers for sparing many of the enemy’s soldiers, and holding too many captives in order to take ransom from them. So He said then: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives of war until he had made a great slaughter (among the enemies) in the land. You desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. Allah is Mighty and Wise. Were it not for a prior decree from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.” (8:67-68) Allah’s saying, “…until the war lays down its burden.” Mujahid said: “Until Isa bin Maryam (peace be upon him) descends.” (At-Tabari 22:157) It seems as if he derived this opinion from the Prophet’s saying,

“There will always be a group of my Ummah victorious upon the truth, until the last of them fight against Ad-Dajjal.” (Abu Dawud 3:11)

Imam Ahmad recorded from Jubayr bin Nufayr who reported from Salamah bin Nufayl that he went to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon them, and said, “I have let my horse go, and thrown down my weapon, for the war has ended. There is no more fighting.” Then the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said to him,

“Now the time of fighting has come. There will always be a group of my Ummah dominant over others. Allah will turn the hearts of some people away (from the truth), so they (that group) will fight against them, and Allah will bestow on them (war spoils) from them (the enemies) — until Allah’s command comes to pass while they are in that state. Verily, the center of the believers’ abode is Ash-Sham. And goodness is tied around the horses’ foreheads till the Day of Resurrection.” (Ahmad 4:104)

An-Nasa’i also recorded this narration. (An-Nasai 6:214)

Allah then says, “Thus, and had Allah so willed, He could have taken vengeance against them” which means that had He so willed, He could have taken immediate vengeance against the disbelievers with a chastisement or exemplary punishment directly from Him. “but (He lets you struggle) so as to test with one another.” meaning, He has ordered Jihad and fighting against the enemies in order to try you and test your affairs. Allah also expresses His wisdom by the legislation of Jihad in the following two Surahs, Al Iman and At-Tawbah, in which He says, “Or did you think that you would enter the Paradise before Allah had made evident those of you who fight in His cause and made evident those who are steadfast?” (3:142) “Fight them; Allah will then punish them by your hands, disgrace them, grant you victory over them, satisfy the breasts of a believing people, and remove the fury of their (the believers’) hearts. Allah turns in forgiveness to whom He wills; Allah is Knowing and Wise.” ( 9:14-15)

Merit of the Martyrs

Since it is customary during wars that many of the believers die, Allah says: “But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.” which means that He would not let their good deeds go to waste, but would rather multiply and increase them. Some of them will continue being rewarded for their good deeds for the entire length of their stay in Al-Barzakh. This has been mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad on the authority of Kathir bin Murrah, who reported from Qays Al-Judhami, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“As the first drop of his blood gushes forth, a martyr is granted six merits: all of his sins are forgiven, he is shown his place in Paradise, he is married to wide-eyed Huris, he is secured from the great fear (on Judgement Day) and the torment of the grave, and he is adorned with the adornments of Iman.”

Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. (Ahmad 4:200) Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“A martyr is allowed to intercede for seventy members of his household.”

This was recorded by Abu Dawud, (Abu Dawud 2522) and there are numerous other Hadiths mentioning the merits of the martyrs.

As for Allah’s saying, “He will guide them” meaning, He will guide them to Jannah. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous good deeds, their Lord will guide them because of their Faith: beneath them rivers will flow in the Gardens of Pleasure.” (10:9) Allah says, “and amend their condition.” meaning, their situation and affairs. “And (He will) admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.” It means that He has acquainted them with Paradise and guided them to it. Mujahid said: “The people of Paradise will be guided to their houses and dwellings and whatever sections Allah has ordained for them in it. They will not make mistakes in this, nor will they ask anyone for directions to their dwellings — as if they had dwelt in it from the time they were first created.” (At-Tabari 22:160)

Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Said Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“After the believers securely pass the Fire (on the Day of Judgement), they will be held back upon a bridge between Paradise and the Fire. There, they will have any acts of injustice that they committed against one another in the life of this world rectified. After they are completely purified and cleansed (from injustice), they will be admitted into Paradise. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, each one of them will find his way to his dwelling in Paradise better than he found his way to his dwelling in the worldly life.” (Al-Bukhari 6535)

Support Allah’s Cause, He will then support You

Allah then says: “O you who believe! If you support (the cause of) Allah, He will support you and make your foothold firm.” This is similar to His saying, “Indeed, Allah will surely support those who support Him (His cause).” (22:40) That is because the reward is comparable to the type of deed that is performed. Thus, Allah says here, “and make your foothold firm.” Allah then says, “But as for those who disbelieve – misery awaits them” This misery is the opposite of making firm the footholds of the believers who support the cause of Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon them. It has been confirmed in a Hadith that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Misery awaits the servant of the Dinar; misery awaits the servant of the Dirham; misery awaits the servant of velvet. Misery awaits him, and degeneracy; and if he is pricked by a thorn, may he not find anyone to pull it for him.” (Fath Al Bari 6:95 and Ibn Majah 2:1386)

This means may Allah not cure him. Then Allah says, “and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.” meaning, He will nullify them and make them fruitless. Thus, Allah says, “That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down” which means that they did not want or like what Allah revealed. “so He made their deeds fruitless”

{10. Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what happened in the end to those before them? Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (awaits) the disbelievers.

11. That is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.

12. Certainly Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds, into Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise); while those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat; but the Fire will be their abode.

13. And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out We have destroyed, with none to help them!}

 

Admonition and Fire for the Disbelievers; Paradise for Those Who have Taqwa

Allah says, “Have they not traveled” meaning, those who associate partners with Allah and deny His Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon them. “through the land and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely,” which means that Allah punished them because of their denial and disbelief, and saved the believers from among them. That is why He says, “and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers.” Then Allah says, “That is because Allah is the Protector of all those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.” After the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb, the commander of the idolators at that time, inquired about the Prophet , Abu Bakr, and Umar, may Allah be pleased with them. When he heard no response, he announced: “Verily, those three have died!” Umar then responded to him: “You lie, O enemy of Allah! Allah has indeed saved those who will displease you. Indeed, those whom you mentioned are all alive!” Abu Sufyan then said: “Well, today makes up for (the defeat on) the day of Badr, and the war has its ups and downs. And indeed, you are going to find mutilation (in the bodies of your dead) that I did not command, nor did I prohibit.” Then he turned around chanting: “Glory to Hubal (their greatest idol), Glory to Hubal.” Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“Aren’t you going to respond to him?”

The Companions said: “What should we say, O Messenger of Allah?” He said:

“Say: “Allah is Most High and Most Glorious.”

Then Abu Sufyan said: “We have Al-Uzza (their second idol), and you have no Uzza. (honor).” Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“Aren’t you all going to respond to him?”

They said: “What should we say, O Messenger of Allah?” He said:

“Say: “Allah is our Protector, and you have no protector.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:188)

Allah then says, “Verily, Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds into Gardens through which rivers flow.” meaning, on the Day of Resurrection. “Whereas those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat.” Which means that the disbelievers enjoy their worldly life and eat in it like animals, munching and gnawing (with greed). They have no concern other than that. Thus, it has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“A believer eats with one intestine, and a disbeliever eats with seven intestines.” (Fath Al-Bari 9:446)

Then Allah says, “but the Fire will be their abode.” meaning, on the Day of their Reckoning. Allah then says, “And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out” meaning, Makkah. “We have destroyed, with none to help them!” This is a great threat and severe warning to the people of Makkah because they rejected Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon them, who was the chief of the Messengers and the last of the Prophets. If Allah had destroyed the previous nations because of their denial of their Messengers, what then would those (people of Makkah) expect that Allah would do to them in the worldly life and the Hereafter And if the torment were to be lifted off some of them in this life by the blessing of the presence of the Messenger, the Prophet of Mercy, the torment will be stored for them in their next life, as Allah says, “Their torment will be doubled! They could not bear to hear (the preaching), and they used not to see (the truth).” (11:20) Concerning Allah’s saying, “than Your town that has driven you out” This means, ‘its people who have driven you (Muhammad) out from amongst them (the people of Makkah).’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that when Allah’s Messenger left Makkah (at the time of Hijrah – migration), and he reached the cave and hid inside it, he looked back toward Makkah and said,

“You are the most beloved to Allah among Allah’s lands, and you are also the most beloved to me among Allah’s lands. Were it not that the idolators have driven me out from you, I would never have left you.”

Ibn Abbas then said, “The worst of enemies is he who transgresses against Allah in His own sacred place, who kills a person who is not trying to kill him, or who kills because of Jahiliyyah vengeance. Allah then revealed to His Prophet , “And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out have We destroyed, with none to help them!” (At-Tabari 22:165)

{14. Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord, be like those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts

15. The description of Paradise which is promised to those who have Taqwa, (is that) in it are rivers of water that are not Asin, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink it, and rivers of refined honey; and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, and forgiveness from their Lord. Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink boiling water that severs their intestines?}

The Worshipper of the Truth and the Worshipper of Lust are not Equal

Allah says: “Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord…” This means a person who is upon clear vision and certainty concerning Allah’s commands and His religion, because of the guidance and knowledge that Allah has revealed in His Book, and because of the pure nature upon which Allah has created him. “(Can he) be likened to those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts?” which means that they cannot be equal. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “Can he who knows that what has been revealed unto you from your Lord is the truth be like him who is blind?” (13:19) And, “Not equal are the people of the Fire and the people of Paradise. The People of Paradise will be the successful ones.” (59:20)

Description of Paradise and Its Rivers

Allah then says: “The description of Paradise which is promised for those who have Taqwa…” Ikrimah said, “The description of Paradise” “This means its description.” “In it are rivers of water that are not Asin” Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said, “It does not change.” (At-Tabari 22:166) Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, and Ata’ Al-Khurasani all said, “It is not foul-smelling.” The Arabs say Asin if its (water) scent changes. (At-Tabari 22:167) “rivers of milk, the taste of which never changes,” which means that the milk is of utmost whiteness, sweetness, and richness. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet “Their milk did not come out of the udders of cattle.” “rivers of wine delightful to those who drink it,” which means that the wine does not have a bad taste or foul smell like that of the worldly life. Rather, it is good in its appearance, taste, smell, and effect, as Allah says, “it (the wine) has no bad effects, nor does it cause intoxication.” (37:47) and, “From which (the wine) they will have no headache, nor will they be intoxicated.” (56:19) “white, delicious to the drinkers.” (37:46) It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him,

“Their wine was not pressed under men’s feet.”

“and rivers of refined honey” which means that the honey is of utmost purity and pleasant color, taste, and smell. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet , “Their honey did not come out of the bellies of bees.”

Imam Ahmad recorded from Hakim bin Muawiyah who narrated from his father that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, there is in Paradise a lake of milk, a lake of water, a lake of honey, and a lake of wine. The rivers then gush out of them.” (Ahmad 5:5)

At-Tirmidhi reported this narration in his section of the Description of Paradise, and he said, “Hasan Sahih. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:287) In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing be upon him, said,

“When you ask Allah, ask Him for Al-Firdaws, because it is the central and highest part of the Paradise, and from it gush the rivers of the Paradise and above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:14)

Allah says, “…and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, …” This similar to His saying, “They will call in it for every kind of fruit in peace and security.” (44:55) And His saying, “In them will be every kind of fruits in pairs.” (55:52) Allah says “…and forgiveness from their Lord.” meaning, in addition to all of the above. Allah says, “Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire?” meaning, ‘can those that We have described their position in the Paradise be like those who will abide eternally in the Fire’ They are not equal, and nor are those who will be in the high ranks (in the Paradise) and those who will be in the lowest depths (Hell). “and are given to drink boiling water” meaning, extremely hot; so hot that it is unbearable. “that severs their intestines” meaning, that will cut their insides – both bowels and intestines. We seek refuge in Allah from that.

{16. And among them are some who listen to you till when they go out from you, they say to those who have received knowledge: “What is it that he has said just now?” Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.

17. And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance and bestows on them their Taqwa.

18. Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly? But already there have come (some of) its portents; and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder

19. So know that La ilaha illallah and ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and women. And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.}

 

The Description of the Situation of the Hypocrites and the Command to maintain Tawhid and seek Forgiveness

Allah describes the hypocrites’ stupidity and limited understanding. They used to sit before Allah’s Messenger and listen to his words without understanding anything. Then when they left from his presence, “they say to those who have received knowledge” from the Companions “What is it that he has said just now?” meaning, at this moment. They did not understand what he said, nor did they care about it. Allah says, “Such are the men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.” which means that they had neither sound understanding nor correct intentions. Allah then says, “And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance” which means that those who seek guidance, Allah facilitates it for them; He guides them to it, makes them firm on it, and gives them more of it. “and bestows on them their Taqwa.” meaning, He inspires them to their righteous guidance. Allah then says, “Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly?” meaning, while they are unaware of it. “But already there have come (some of) its portents” meaning, the signs of its approach. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “This is a warner of the warners of old. The approaching Day has drawn near.” (53:56-57) And His saying, “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has split.” (54:1) And His saying, “The command of Allah is coming, so do not be impatient for it.” (16:1) And His saying, “The people’s Day of Reckoning has approached while they turn away in heedlessness.” (21:1) Thus, the Messenger’s advent is one of the signs of the Hour, because he is the Finality of the Messengers. With him, Allah has completed the religion and established the evidence against all people in a way that was never done by a previous Prophet. Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, has most clearly informed about the signs and indications of the Hour, as we have discussed elsewhere. Al-Bukhari recorded from Sahl bin Sad, may Allah be pleased with him, that he saw Allah’s Messenger bring his index and middle fingers together while he said,

“I have been sent before the Hour as these two (fingers).” (Fath Al-Bari 8:560)

Allah continues, “and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder” meaning, how would remembering benefit the disbelievers when the Hour comes upon them This is similar to Allah’s saying, “On that Day will the human being remember, but what would that remembrance avail him then” (89:23) And His saying, “They will say (in the Hereafter): “Now we believe in it!” But how could they claim belief from such a far place” (34:52) Allah then says, “So know that La ilaha illallah” This is a declaration that there is no true God except Allah. It is not something that is easy for him to command the people to have knowledge of. That is why Allah connected it with, “and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and women.” In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah’s Messenger used to say,

“O Allah, forgive my sin, my ignorance, my immoderation in my affairs, and all that You know better about my (faults) than myself. O Allah, forgive for me my joking, my seriousness, my unintended error, and my deliberate (mistakes) – and I have done of all that.” (Fath Al-Bari 11:200)

It is also reported in the Sahih that he used to say at the end of the prayer,

“O Allah, forgive for me what I have previously done, what I may commit in future, what I have committed secretly, what I have committed openly, what I have done excessively, and all sins that You know better than me. You are my God. There is no (true) God except You.” (Fath Al-Bari 13:473)

It is also recorded in the Sahih that he used to say,

“O people! Repent to your Lord! Verily, I ask Allah for forgiveness and repent to Him more than seventy times every day.” (Fath Al-Bari 11:104)

Allah then says, “And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.” means, He knows how you behave during the day, and where you settle at night. This is similar to His saying, “It is He Who takes your souls by night and knows all that you do by day.” (6:60) And He says, “And there is no moving creature on earth but its provision is up to Allah, and He knows its dwelling place and its deposit (before birth and after death) — all is in a clear register.” (11:6)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 84-106

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Surah Al-Ahqaf Ayat 21-35 (end)

{21. And remember the brother of Ad, when he warned his people in Al-Ahqaf. And surely, warners had already passed on before him and after him (saying): “Worship none but Allah; truly, I fear for you the torment of a mighty Day.”

22. They said: “Have you come to delude us from our gods? Then bring us that with which you threaten us, if you are one of the truthful!”

23. He said: “The knowledge (of that) is only with Allah. And I convey to you that wherewith I have been sent, but I see that you are a people given to ignorance!”

24. Then, when they saw it as a dense cloud approaching their valleys, they said: “This is a cloud bringing us rain!” Nay, but it is that which you were asking to be hastened – a wind wherein is a painful torment!

25. Destroying everything by the command of its Lord! So they became such that nothing could be seen except their dwellings! Thus do We recompense the criminal people!}

The Story of Ad

Allah says, consoling His Prophet in regard to the rejection of those who opposed him among his people, “And remember the brother of Ad,” This refers to Hud, peace be upon in him. Allah sent him to the first people of Ad who inhabited Al-Ahqaf. Ahqaf is plural of Haqf. According to Ibn Zayd, it means a sand dune (At-Tabari 22:125) ; and according to Ikrimah, it means a mountain or a cave. Qatadah said: “We were informed that Ad was a tribe in Yemen. They dwelt among sand (hills), and overlooked the sea in a land called Ash-Shihr.” (At-Tabari 22:124)

Under the chapter, “He Who supplicates should first mention Himself,” Ibn Majah recorded that Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet said: “May Allah have mercy on us and the Brother of Ad.” Allah then says, “And surely, warners had already passed on before him and after him.” meaning, Allah had sent Messengers and warners to the towns surrounding the land of Ad. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “And We made it a deterrent punishment for those who were present and those who succeeded them.” (2:66) And it is also similar to Allah’s saying, “But if they turn away, then say: “I have warned you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt that struck Ad and Thamud. (That occurred) when the Messengers had come to them from before them and after them (saying): “Worship none but Allah.” (41:13-14)

Allah then says, “truly, I fear for you the torment of a mighty Day.” meaning, Hud said this to them (his people), and they responded to him saying, “Have you come to delude us from our gods?” meaning, to prevent us. “from our gods” “Then bring us that with which you threaten us, if you are one of the truthful!” They sought to hasten Allah’s torment and punishment, believing that it will not happen. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “Those who do not believe in it (the Last Hour) seek to hasten it” (42:18). Hud’s response was, “He said: “The knowledge (of that) is only with Allah.” which means, Allah knows best about you. If you deserve the punishment to be hastened, He will do that to you. As for me, my duty is to deliver my message to you.’ “But I see that you are a people given to ignorance!” which means, ‘you have no comprehension or understanding.’ Allah then says, “Then, when they saw it as a dense cloud approaching their valleys,” meaning, when they saw the punishment coming towards them, they thought it to be clouds full of rain. That made them happy and joyful, because they had a drought and needed rain.

Allah then said, “Nay, but it is that which you were asking to be hastened – a wind wherein is a painful torment!” meaning, this is the torment that you called for saying, “Bring to us what you promise us if you should be of the truthful.” “Destroying every thing” meaning, destroying every part of their land that could normally be destroyed. “by the command of its Lord!” meaning, it had Allah’s permission to do that. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “It spared nothing that it reached, but blew it into broken spreads of rotten ruins.” (51:42) meaning, like something dilapidated (or decrepit). Because of this, Allah says, “So they became such that nothing could be seen except their dwellings!” means, all of them were destroyed, and none of them were spared. Allah then says: “Thus do We recompense the criminal people!” which means that this is Our judgement regarding those who reject Our Messengers and disobey Our commands.

Imam Ahmad recorded from A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that she said, “I never saw Allah’s Messenger fully laughing so that I would see his uvula. He would only smile.” She added that when Allah’s Messenger saw clouds or wind, that would reflect on his face (as discomfort). She asked him: “O Allah’s Messenger! When the people see clouds, they become happy, hoping that they bring them rain. But I notice that when you see them, displeasure appears on your face.” Allah’s Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, replied,

“O A’ishah! What would guarantee to me that they do not bring punishment? Some nations had been punished with wind. On seeing the punishment approaching them, a nation once said: “This is a cloud bringing us rain.” (Ahmad 6:66)

This is also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said that when Allah’s Messenger saw clouds on any of the horizons, he would leave whatever he was doing — even if he was in prayer — and say: “O Allah! I seek refuge with you from any harm that it (the cloud) contains.” If Allah removed those clouds, the Prophet would praise Allah, and if rain fell, he would say: “O Allah! Make it pouring and beneficent.” (Ahmad 6:190) Muslim also recorded in his Sahih from A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that when the wind blew, Allah’s Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, would say,

“O Allah! I ask You of its good, the good that it contains, and the good with which it has been sent. And I seek refuge in You from its evil, the evil that it contains, and the evil with which it has been sent.”

She added that if the sky became cloudy, his color would change; he would exit, enter, come, and go. When it rained, his anxiety would be relieved. When A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, noticed that, she asked him about it and he said: “O A’ishah! It could be like what the people of Ad said, “Then, when they saw it as a dense cloud approaching their valleys, they said: “This is a cloud bringing us rain!” (Muslim 2:616) We have previously mentioned the story of the destruction of the people of Ad in both Surat Al-Araf and Surah Hud. Thus, there is no need to repeat it here; and verily Allah is worthy of all praise and gratitude.

{26. And indeed We had firmly established them with that wherewith We have not established you! We also gave them hearing, vision, and hearts. But their hearing, vision, and hearts availed them nothing since they used to deny the Ayat of Allah, and they were completely encircled by that which they used to ridicule!

27. And indeed We have destroyed towns round about you, and We have shown (them) the signs in various ways so that they might return.

28. As for those whom they had taken for gods besides Allah, as the means of approach to Him, why then did they not aid them? Nay, but they vanished completely from them. And that was their falsehood, and what they were fabricating.}

Allah says, ‘We have granted the earlier nations wealth and offspring in the worldly life. That which We granted them, we did not give you anything similar or close to it.’ Furthermore, “We also gave them hearing, vision, and hearts. But their hearing, vision, and hearts availed them nothing when they used to deny Allah’s signs, and they were completely encircled by that which they used to ridicule!” meaning, they were encircled by the torment and exemplary punishment that they denied and whose occurrence they doubted. This means, you listeners must beware of being like them lest a punishment similar to theirs strikes you in this life and the Hereafter. Allah then says, “And indeed We have destroyed towns round about you,” This is addressed to the people of Makkah. Allah destroyed the nations who disbelieved in the Messengers who lived around Makkah, such as Ad who were at Al-Ahqaf in Hadramawt near Yemen, Thamud whose dwellings were between Makkah and Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), Saba’ who were in Yemen, the people of Madyan who were on the route and passage to Ghazzah (Western Palestine), and the people of Lut who dwelt by the lake (the Dead Sea) which they used to pass by (on the way to Jordan) as well. Allah then says, “and We have shown (them) the signs in various ways” meaning, ‘We explained and clarified them.’ “so that perhaps they might return. As for those whom they had taken for gods besides Allah, as the means of approach to Him, why then did they not aid them” meaning, did they help them when they were in the greatest need for them “but they vanished completely from them.” Rather, they completely left them alone when they needed them the most. “And that was their falsehood,” meaning, their lie. “and what they were fabricating.” which means that they fabricated lies by taking them as gods, and they lost and failed in their worship of them and their reliance upon them – and Allah knows best.

{29. And (remember) when We sent toward you a group of the Jinn, to listen to the Qur’an. When they attended it, they said: “Listen quietly!” And when it was concluded, they returned to their people, as warners.

30. They said: “O our people! Verily, we have heard a Book sent down after Musa, confirming what came before it, it guides to the truth and to the straight path.”

31. “O our people! Respond to Allah’s Caller, and believe in him. He (Allah) will forgive you some of your sins, and protect you from a painful torment.”

32. “And whosoever does not respond to Allah’s Caller, he cannot escape on earth, and he will not have besides Allah any protectors. Those are in manifest error.”}

The Story of the Jinns listening to the Qur’an

Imam Ahmad recorded from Az-Zubayr that he commented on the Ayah; “And (remember) when We sent towards you a group of the Jinn, to listen to the Qur’an.” “They were at a place called Nakhlah [a valley between Makkah and Ta’if] while Allah’s Messenger was performing the Isha’ prayer, and “they crowded on top of each other to hear him.” (72:19) Sufyan said, “They stood on top of each other like piled wool.” (Ahmad 1:167) Ahmad was alone in recording this. Imam Ahmad and the famous Imam, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi in his book Dala’il An-Nubuwwah, both recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Allah’s Messenger never recited Qur’an to the Jinns, nor did he see them. Allah’s Messenger was heading with a group of his Companions towards the Ukaz market. At that time, the devils had been prevented from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens, and they were being attacked by burning flames (whenever they tried to listen). When the devils went back to their people, they asked them what happened to them, and they answered, ‘We have been prevented from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens, and burning flames now attack us.’ Their people told them, ‘You have only been prevented from eavesdropping on the information of the heavens because of something (major) that has happened. So go all over the earth, east and west, and see what is it that has obstructed you from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens.’ Thus they traveled all over the earth, east and west, seeking that which had obstructed them from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens. A group of them went towards Tihamah, [a village about seventy-two miles towards the west of Al-Madinah] and found Allah’s Messenger while he was at a place called Nakhlah along the way to the Ukaz market. He was leading his Companions in the Fajr prayer. When the Jinns heard the recitation of the Qur’an, they stopped to listen to it, and then they said: ‘By Allah! This is what has prevented you from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens.’ Then they returned to their people and told them: ‘Our people! We certainly have heard an amazing recitation (the Qur’an), it guides to the right path. So we have believed in it, and we will join none in worship with our Lord.’ So Allah revealed to His Prophet , “Say: It has been revealed to me that a group of Jinns have listened (to the Qur’an).” (72:19) Thus, what was revealed to him was only the saying of the Jinns.” Al-Bukhari recorded a similar narration, and Muslim recorded it (as it is here). At-Tirmidhi also recorded it, as did An-Nasa’i in his Tafsir. (Bukhari 773)

Abdullah bin Masud reported that the Jinns came down upon the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, while he was reciting the Qur’an at a place called Nakhlah. When they heard him, “They said: “Listen quietly.” meaning, hush! They were nine in number, and one of them was called Zawba’ah. So Allah revealed, “And when We sent toward you a group of Jinns, to listen to the Qur’an. When they attended it, they said: “Listen quietly!” And when it was concluded, they returned to their people as warners.” until His saying: “manifest error.” (Al-Hakim 2:456) Thus, this report along with the above one by Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, indicate that Allah’s Messenger was not aware of the presence of the Jinns at that time. They only listened to his recitation and went back to their people. Later on, they came to him in groups, one party after another, and one group after another. As for Allah’s saying, “they returned to their people as warners.” It means that they went back to their people and warned them about what they heard from Allah’s Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. This is similar to Allah’s saying, “…that they may obtain understanding in religion and warn their people when they return to them, so that they might be cautious (of evil).” (9:122) This Ayah has been used as evidence that the Jinns have warners from among themselves, but no Messengers. There is no doubt that Allah did not send Messengers from among the Jinns, because He says,“And We did not send before you as Messengers any but men, to whom We revealed from among the people of cities.” (12:109) And Allah says, “And We never sent before you any of the Messengers but verily they ate food and walked in the markets.” (25:20) And He says about Ibrahim Al-Khalil, upon him be peace, “…And We placed in his descendants prophethood and Scripture.” (29:27) Thus, every Prophet whom Allah sent after Ibrahim was from his offspring and progeny. As for Allah’s saying in Surat Al-Anam, “O company of Jinns and human beings! Did there not come to you Messengers from among you?” (6:130) It only applies to the two kinds collectively, but specifically pertains to just one of them, which is the human. This is like Allah’s saying, “From both of them (salty and fresh waters) emerge pearl and Marjan.” (55:22) Although He said “both of them” this applies to only one of the two types of water “the salty water”. Allah then explains how the Jinns warned their people. He says, “They said: “O our people! Verily, we have heard a Book sent down after Musa…” They did not mention Isa, peace be upon him, because the Injil that was revealed to him contained admonitions and exhortations, but very few permissions or prohibitions. Thus, it was in reality like a complement to the legislation of the Tawrah, the Tawrah being the reference. That is why they said, “Sent down after Musa.” This is also the way that Waraqah bin Nawfal spoke when the Prophet told him about his first meeting with Jibril, An-Namus, peace be upon him. He said: “Very good, very good! This is (the angel) that used to come to Musa. I wish that I was still a young man (to support you).”

“Confirming what came before it,” meaning, the Scriptures that were revealed before it to the previous Prophets. They then said, “it guides to the truth” means in belief and information. “and to the straight path.” which means, in deeds. For verily, the Qur’an contains two things: information and commandments. Its information is true, and its commandments are all just, as Allah says, “And the Word of Your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice.” (6:115) Allah says, “It is He Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth.” (9:122) The guidance is the beneficent knowledge, and the religion of truth means the righteous good deeds. Thus, the Jinns said, “it guides to the truth” in matters of belief, “and to the straight path.” meaning, in regard to actions. “O our people! Respond to Allah’s Caller,” This is proof that Muhammad has been sent to both the human beings and the Jinns. Thus, Allah says, “Respond to Allah’s Caller and believe in him.” Then Allah says, “He will then forgive you some of your sins,” Some scholars say that “some” here is auxiliary, but this is questionable since it is rarely used to strengthen an affirmative meaning. Others say that it means partial forgiveness. “and protect you from a painful torment.” meaning, He will protect you from His painful punishment. Then Allah informs that they said, “And whosoever does not respond to Allah’s Caller, he cannot escape on earth,” meaning, Allah’s power encompasses him and surrounds him. “and he will not have besides Allah any protectors.” meaning, no one can protect him against Allah. “Those are in manifest error.” This is a threat and warning. Thus, those Jinns called their people with encouragement and warning. Because of this, many of the Jinns took heed and came to Allah’s Messenger in successive delegations; and verily, Allah is worthy of all praise and gratitude, and Allah knows best.

{33. Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead? Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.

34. And on the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said to them): “Is this not the truth?” They will say: “Yes, by our Lord!” He will say: “Then taste the torment, because you used to disbelieve!”

35.Therefore be patient as did those of determination among the Messengers and be in no hurry for them. On the Day when they will see what they are promised, it will be as though they had not remained (in the world) except an hour in a day. (This is) a clear Message. But will any be destroyed except the defiantly rebellious people}

Commanding the Prophet to persevere

Allah then commands His Messenger to observe patience with those who rejected him among his people. He says, “Therefore be patient as did those of determination among the Messengers.” meaning, as they were patient with their people’s rejection of them. “Those of determination” among the Messengers are Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and the last of all of the Prophets, Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. Allah has specifically mentioned their names in two Ayat: Surat Al-Ahzab (33:7) and Surat Ash-Shura (42:13). “and be in no hurry for them.” which means, ‘do not rush the punishment for them.’ This is similar to Allah’s saying: “And leave Me alone to deal with the rejectors, those who are in possession of good things of life. And give them respite for a little while.” (73:11) “So allow time for the disbelievers, and leave them for a while.” (86:17) Then Allah says: “On the Day when they will see that which they are promised, it will be as though they had not remained (in the world) except an hour in a day.” Which is similar to Allah’s saying, “On the Day they see it (the Hour), it will be as though they had not remained (in the world) except for a day’s afternoon or its morning.” (79:46) and as He says, “And on the Day when He shall gather them together, (it will be) as if they had not stayed but an hour of a day. They will recognize each other.” (10:45) Then Allah says, “A clear message.” meaning, this Qur’an provides a clear concept. “But will any be destroyed except the defiantly rebellious people” Which means that Allah does not destroy anyone except those who choose the way of destruction. It is part of Allah’s justice that He does not punish anyone except those who deserve the punishment – and Allah knows best.

This concludes the explanation of Surat Al-Ahqaf.

And all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

Both success and protection from faults are by His help.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Abridged (Vol 9) Pages 66-83

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Surah Al-Ahqaf Ayat 1-20

Surah Al-Ahqaf

(The Wind-Curved Sandhills) 

Chapter 46

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

{1. Ha Mim.

2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.

3. We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for a specified term. But those who disbelieve, turn away from that whereof they are warned.

4. Say: “Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah? Show me what have they created of the earth? Or have they a share in (the creation of) the heavens? Bring me a scripture prior to this or some trace of knowledge, if you are truthful!”

5. And who is more astray than those who invoke besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them?

6. And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worship.}

The Qur’an is a Revelation from Allah and the Universe is His True Creation

Allah informs that He has revealed the Book to His servant and Messenger Muhammad — may Allah’s blessings be upon him until the Day of Judgement. Allah then describes Himself as being of unimaginable glory, possessing ultimate wisdom in His statements and actions. Allah then says, “We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except in truth,” meaning, not in idle play and falsehood. “and for a specified term.” meaning, for a fixed and specified duration that will not increase or decrease. Allah continues, “But those who disbelieve, turn away from that of which they are warned.” Meaning, the disbelievers are distracted from what is intended for them. Allah has indeed revealed to them a Book and sent to them a Messenger. Yet, they obstinately turn away from all of that. Therefore, they will soon realize the consequence of their behavior.

Refuting the Idolators

Allah then says, “Say” meaning, to these idolators who worship others besides Allah. “Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah Show me what they have created of the earth” (46:4) meaning, ‘show me the place that they have independently created from the earth.’ “Or have they a share in the heavens” which means that they are not partners in anything in the heavens, nor on earth. They do not own even the thin membrane covering a date’s pit. The dominion and control only belong to Allah, Exalted is He. ‘How then would you worship others or join them as partners with Him Who guided you to that Who called you to that Did He command you to do it, or is it something that you suggested yourselves’ Thus, He says, “Bring me a scripture prior to this” meaning, ‘bring a book from among the Books of Allah that have been revealed to the Prophets, that commands you to worship these idols.’ “or some trace of knowledge,” meaning, ‘some clear evidence justifying this way you have chosen.’ “if you are truthful!” meaning, ‘you have absolutely no evidence for that — neither textual (from revelation) nor rational.’ For this reason, some recited it; “or something inherited from knowledge” (At-Tabari 22:94) meaning, ‘or true knowledge that you have inherited from anyone before you.’ This is similar to Mujahid’s statement when he said, “or some trace of knowledge.” “Or anyone who has inherited any knowledge.” Allah then says, “And who is more astray than those who invokes besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them” meaning, no one is more misguided than those who invoke idols instead of Allah, asking them for things that they cannot give — until the Day of Judgment. They (the idols) are unaware of what he asks, they can neither hear, see, or act. This is because they are inanimate, senseless stones. Allah then says, “And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worship.” This is similar to Allah’s saying: “They have taken gods beside Allah, that they might give them dignity. No! They will deny their worship of them, and will be opponents to them.” (19:81, 82) meaning, they will betray them when they need them the most. (Ibrahim) Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, said: “You have taken only idols besides Allah! The love between you is only in the life of this world. On the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helpers.” (29:25)

{7. And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them, the disbelievers say of the truth when it reaches them: “This is plain magic!”

8. Or say they: “He has fabricated it.” Say: “If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you! And He is the Oft–Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”

9.Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am but a plain warner.”}

Refuting Claims of the Idolators about the Qur’an and the Messenger

Concerning the disbelief and rebellion of the idolators, Allah says that when the clear Ayat of Allah are recited to them they say; “This is plain magic!” meaning, simple magic. In this statement of theirs, they have lied, invented a falsehood, went astray and disbelieved. “Or they say: “He has fabricated it.”  They are referring to Muhammad . Allah responds saying, “Say: “If I have fabricated it, you have no power to support me against Allah…” which means, ‘if I lie against Allah and falsely claim that He sent me when He actually had not, then He would punish me with a severe punishment. No one on the earth — you or anyone else — would then be able to protect me from Him.’ It is similar to Allah’s saying, “Say: “None can protect me from Allah, nor would I find a refuge except in Him. (My duty) is only to convey from Allah and (deliver) His Messages. ” (72:22-23) Allah says, “And if he made up a false saying concerning Us, We surely would have seized him by the right hand. Then we would have cut off his life artery. And none of you could withhold Us from (punishing) him.” (69:44-47) Thus, Allah says here, “Say: “If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it (i.e. this Qur’an)! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you!…” This is a severe threat, intimidation and warning for them. Allah then says, “And He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” This is an encouragement for them to repent and turn to Allah. It means, ‘despite all of this, if you turn back and repent, Allah will accept your repentance, pardon you, forgive you, and have mercy upon on.’ This is similar to Allah’s saying in Surat Al-Furqan, “And they say: “(This Book is) legends of the ancients that he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.” Say: “It has been sent down by the One Who knows every secret within the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful.” (25:5-6) Allah then says, “Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers…” which means, ‘I am not the first Messenger who ever came to the world. Rather, Messengers came before me. Therefore, I am not an unprecedented incident that should cause you all to reject me and doubt my being sent to you. Indeed, Allah has sent before me all of the Prophets to various nations.’

Allah then says, “nor do I know what will be done with me or with you.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas that he said, “It (this Ayah) was followed in revelation by, “That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future”. (At-Tabari 22:99) Similarly, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said that this Ayah was abrogated by the Ayah; “That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future”. They said that when the latter Ayah was revealed, one of the Muslims said to Allah’s Messenger , “Allah has declared what He will do for you. But what will He do for us” Then Allah revealed; “That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow”. (At-Tabari 22:99,100) This is what they said. That which has been confirmed in the Sahih is that the believers said, “May you enjoy that, O Allah’s Messenger! But what do we get?” So Allah revealed this Ayah. (Fath Al-Bari 7:516)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Kharijah bin Zayd bin Thabit, reported that Umm Al-Ala’ – a woman from the Ansar who had given her pledge of loyalty to Allah’s Messenger – said,

“When the Ansar drew lots regarding taking in the Muhajirun to dwell with them, our lot was to have Uthman bin Mazun. Later, Uthman fell sick in our house, so we nursed him until he died, and we wrapped him in his garments (for burial). Allah’s Messenger then came in, and I said, ‘O Abu As-Sa’ib! May Allah have mercy on you. I bear witness that Allah has indeed honored you.’

Allah’s Messenger asked,

“How do you know that Allah has honoured him?”

I said, ‘I do not know — may my father and mother both be ransomed for you!’ Allah’s Messenger then said,

“As for him, certainty (death) has reached him from his Lord, and I surely wish well for him. But by Allah, even though I am Allah’s Messenger, I do not know what will happen to me (after death).”

I then said, ‘Never will I claim a person to be pious after this.’ This incident caused me some distress, and I went to sleep thereafter. I saw in my dream that Uthman owned a running water spring. I went to Allah’s Messenger and told him about that. Allah’s Messenger said,

“That was his (good) deeds.” (Ahmad 6:436)

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith but Muslim did not. In one of the narrations, Allah’s Messenger said,

“Even though I am Allah’s Messenger, I do not know what will happen to him.” (Fath Al-Bari 3:137)

This and similar texts indicate that it is not allowed to declare that a specific person will enter Jannah except for those who were distinctly indicated by Allah or his Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. Examples of those are the Ten [Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Talhah, Az-Zubayr, Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, Sad bin Abi Waqqas, Said bin Zayd, and Abu Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah], Ibn Sallam, Al-Ghumaysa’ [Better known as Umm Sulaym, may Allah be pleased with her, the mother of Anas bin Malik], Bilal, Suraqah, Abdullah bin Amr bin Haram (Jabir’s father), the Seventy Recitors (of Qur’an) who were assassinated near the Well of Maunah, Zayd bin Harithah, Jafar, Ibn Rawahah, and other similar individuals, may Allah be pleased with them.

Allah then says, “I only follow that which is revealed to me,” which means, ‘I only follow what Allah has revealed to me of the revelation.’ “and I am but a plain warner.” meaning, ‘my warnings are obvious to every person with sound intellect and reason.’ And Allah knows best.

{10. Say: “Tell me! If it was from Allah and you disbelieved it, (at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you rejected (the truth)!” Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

11. And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been a good thing, they (the poor believers) would not have preceded us to it!” And when they have not been guided by it, they say: “This is ancient falsehood!”

12. And before this was the Scripture of Musa as a guide and a mercy. And this is a Book confirming in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.

13. Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allah,” and thereafter stand firm, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

14. Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) – a reward for what they used to do.}

The Qur’an is Allah’s True Speech and the Position of the Disbelievers and the Muslims towards it

Allah says, “Say” meaning, ‘O Muhammad to these idolators who disbelieve in the Qur’an.’ “Tell me! If it was” meaning, this Qur’an. “from Allah, and you disbelieved in it” meaning, `what do you think that Allah will do to you if this Book that I have come to you with is actually revealed to me from Him in order that I convey it to you, and yet you disbelieve in it and deny it “(at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar” meaning, ‘the previous Scriptures that were revealed to the Prophets before me all testify to its truthfulness and authenticity. They have prophecied, well in advance, about things similar to that which this Qur’an informs of.’ Concerning Allah’s statement, “and believed” ‘this person who testified to its truthfulness from the Children of Israel, due to his realization that it was the truth.’ “while you rejected (the truth)!” ‘whereas you have arrogantly refused to follow it.’ Masruq said: “That witness believed in his Prophet and Book, while you disbelieved in your Prophet and Book.” (At-Tabari 22:103-104) “Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.” The witness here refers to any witness in general. It includes Abdullah bin Salam [The Jewish scholar who accepted Islam] and other from them as well. For indeed, this Ayah was revealed in Makkah before Abdullah bin Salam had accepted Islam. This is similar to the statement of Allah, “And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed, even before it we have been Muslims.” (28:53) It is also similar to Allah’s saying, “Verily! Those who were given knowledge before it – when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, and they say: “Exalted is our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord has been fulfilled.” (17:107-108) It has been narrated from Sad, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said, “I have not heard Allah’s Messenger say about anyone walking on the surface of the earth that he is of the people of Jannah – except for Abdullah bin Salam. Concerning him the following Ayah was revealed, “(at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar” This has been recorded in the Two Sahihs and An-Nasa’i. (At-Tabari 22:104) Similarly, Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ikrimah, Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Salam, Hilal bin Yasaf, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas and Ibn Zayd all said that this refers to Abdullah bin Salam. (At-Tabari 22:104-105)

Allah then says, “And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” which means that those who disbelieve say of those who believe in the Qur’an: “Had it (the Qur’an) been any good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” By that, they meant Bilal, Ammar, Suhayb, Khabbab, may Allah be pleased with them, and others like them of the weak, the male servants, and female servants. The pagans said this only because they thought that they held a high status with Allah, and that He took special care of them. By that, they made a great and obvious error, as Allah says: “Thus have We tried some of them with others, that they might say: “Is it these whom Allah has favoured from among us?” (6:53) meaning, they wonder how could those weaklings be the ones who were guided from among them. Thus, Allah says, “Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” Contrary to this is the position of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah: They say about any act or saying that has not been reported from the Companions: “It is an innovation. If there was any good in it, they would have preceded us in doing it, because they have not left off any of the good characteristics except that they hurried to perform them.” Allah continues, “And when they have not been guided by it,” meaning, the Qur’an. “they say: “This is an ancient falsehood!” meaning, an old lie. They mean by this that the Qur’an has been quoted and taken from the ancient people, thereby belittling the Qur’an and its followers. This is clear arrogance, as Allah’s Messenger, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, said:

“(Arrogance is) rejecting the truth and belittling the people.” (Muslim 1:93) 

Allah then says, “And before this was the Scripture of Musa” and it was the Tawrah. “as a guide and mercy. And this is a Book” meaning, the Qur’an. “confirming” meaning, that which came before it of the previous Books. “in the Arabic tongue,” means that it is eloquent and clear. “to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.” meaning, it contains a warning to the dis- believers and glad tidings for the belie- vers. Allah then says: “Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allah,” and thereafter stand firm,” The explanation of this has been discussed earlier in Surat As-Sajdah. [See 41:30] Allah then says, “on them shall be no fear,” meaning, con- cening their future. “nor shall they grieve.” meaning, over what they have left behind. Allah continues, “Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) – a reward for what they used to do.” meaning, the deeds are a cause for their attaining the mercy and their being engulfed by it – and Allah knows best.

{15. And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship. And she delivers him with hardship. And (the period of) his gestation and the weaning of him is thirty months, till when he attains full strength and reaches forty years, he says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You, and make my offspring good. Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.”

16. They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise. That is a promise of truth that they had been promised.}

Allah’s Advice about the Parents

After mentioning that one must confess His Oneness, worship Him with sincerity, and remain upright in obeying Him, Allah follows that by giving instructions regarding the parents. These appear together in many places of the Qur’an, such as Allah’s saying, “Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents.” (17:23) Allah says, “Be grateful to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.” (31:14) There are many other Ayat like this as well. Here Allah says, “And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.” (46:15) meaning, ‘We have commanded him to treat them well and show compassion towards them. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Sad bin Abi Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, that his mother said to him: “Hasn’t Allah commanded that you obey your parents? Then I will not eat any food or drink any drink until you disbelieve in Allah.” Thus she stubbornly abstained from eating and drinking, until they had to open her mouth with a stick. Then this Ayah was revealed, “And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.” (Musnad At-Tayalisi: 28) This was also recorded by Muslim and the Sunan compilers, except for Ibn Majah. (Muslim 4:1878)

Allah continues, “His mother bears him with hardship.” which means that the mother suffers hardship because of her child, such as fatigue, sickness, vomiting, heaviness, distress, and other forms of hardship that the pregnant women suffer. “And she delivers him with hardship.” meaning, she also delivers him with hardship, suffering the pains of labor and their severity. “And (the period of) his gestation and weaning is thirty months,” Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, used this Ayah along with the following two Ayat to prove that the minimum period of pregnancy (gestation) is six months: “And his weaning is in two years.” (31:14) and “The mothers suckle their children two complete years – for those who desire to complete the term of suckling.” (2:233) This is a strong and valid conclusion, and it was approved by Uthman and a number of the Companions.

Ibn Abi Hatim related from his father that Farwah bin Abi Al-Maghra’ told them that Ali bin Mushir narrated to them from Dawud bin Abi Hind, who narrated from Ikrimah that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When a woman delivers after nine months, the baby will only need twenty-one months of suckling. When she delivers after seven months, the baby will need twenty-three months of suckling. When she delivers after six months, the baby will need two full years of suckling, because Allah says, “and his gestation and weaning is thirty months, till when he attains full strength.” (Al-Bayhaqi 7:332) meaning, he becomes strong, youthful, and attains full ability. “and reaches forty years,” meaning, his complete intellect, understanding, and patience reach the level of maturity. It has also been said that usually one will not change his ways once he reaches the age of forty. “He says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability” meaning, ‘inspire me.’ “that I may be grateful for Your favour which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You,” meaning, in the future. “and make my offspring good.” meaning, my offspring and descendants. “Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.” This contains an instruction for anyone who reaches forty years of age to renew his repentance and turn to Allah with strong resolution. Allah then says, “Those are the ones from whom We shall accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise.” meaning, those to whom applies the above description – those who repent to Allah, turn back to Him, and rectify their shortcomings through repentance and seeking forgiveness – those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. Many of their errors will be forgiven and Allah will accept from them a modest amount of deeds. “among the dwellers of Paradise.” which means that they will be among the dwellers of Paradise. That is Allah’s ruling concerning them, as He has promised for those who repent and turn to Him. Thus, He says, “That is the promise of truth that they had been promised.”

{17. But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised up when generations before me have passed?” While they invoke Allah for help: “Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.” But he says: “This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.”

18. They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away. Verily, they are ever the losers.

19. And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did, so that He might fully recompense for their deeds. And they will not be wronged.

20. On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein. Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah’s command.}

Mention of the Undutiful Children and Their End

In the previous Ayat, Allah mentions the dutiful offspring who supplicate for their parents and treat them with kindness. He describes the success and salvation He has prepared for them. Here He connects to that discussion the situation of the wretched offspring who are undutiful toward their parents. Allah says, “But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! …” As for the saying “Uff” in this Ayah, it is a general description applying to anyone who says it to his parents. Some people claim that it was revealed about Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr. But this claim is weak and rejected, because Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr embraced Islam after this was revealed. His adherence to Islam was excellent, and he was among the best of his contemporaries. Al-Bukhari recorded from Yusuf bin Mahak that Marwan (bin Al-Hakam) was governor of Hijaz (Western Arabia), appointed by Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan. He (Marwan) delivered a speech in which he mentioned Yazid bin Muawiyah and urged the people to give a pledge of allegiance after his father. Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr said something to him in response to that, upon which Marwan commanded his men: “Arrest him!” But he entered Aishah’s house, and they were not able to capture him. Marwan then said: “This is the one about whom Allah revealed: “But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised – when generations before me have passed”’ From behind the curtain, Aishah responded: “Allah did not reveal any Qur’an in our regard (i.e. the children of Abu Bakr), except for the declaration of my innocence.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:439)

In another report recorded by An-Nasa’i, Muhammad bin Ziyad reported that when Muawiyah was soliciting people to pledge allegiance to his son, and Marwan declared: “This follows the tradition of Abu Bakr and Umar.” On hearing this, Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr said: “Rather, this is the tradition of Heraclius and Caesar.” Marwan responded: “This is the one about whom Allah revealed, “But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you!” When that was conveyed to A’ishah, she said: “Marwan is lying! By Allah, that was not revealed about him. If I wish to name the person meant by it, I could. On the other hand, Allah’s Messenger placed a curse on Marwan’s father (Al- Hakam bin Abi Al-‘As) when Marwan was still in his loins, so Marwan (bin Al-Hakam) is an outcome of Allah’s curse.” (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:458) As for Allah’s statement: “Do you promise me that I will be raised?” meaning, resurrected. “when generations before me have passed” meaning, generations of people have already passed away, and none of them has ever returned to tell “what happened to them” “While they invoke Allah for help” meaning, they ask Allah to guide him, and they say to their son, “Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.” But he says: “This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.” Allah then says, “They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away.Verily, they are ever the losers.” This indicates that all such people will be among their likes and their peers among the disbelievers, who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Allah’s saying, “Those are” after He said, “But he who says” confirms what we have mentioned above that the latter is a general description of a type of people including all those who fall under that description. Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said, “This applies to the disbelieving, sinful person who is undutiful to his parents and who denies resurrection.” (At-Tabari 22:118) Allah then says, “And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did,” meaning that there will be degrees of punishment for each of them according to what they did. “so that He might fully recompense them for their deeds, and they will not be wronged.” which means Allah will not be unjust to them even in the amount of a speck of dust or less. Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “The levels of the Fire descend, and those of Paradise ascend.” (At-Tabari 22:119) Allah then says, “On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein…” which means that this will be said to them by way of blame and reprimand. The Commander of the faithful, Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave up many of the joys of food and drink and refrained from them while saying, “I am afraid of being like those whom Allah has reproached and condemned by saying, “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein.” Abu Mijlaz said: “Some people will lose good deeds that they had in the worldly life, and they will be told, “You received your good things in the life of the world.” Then Allah says, “Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah’s command.” which indicates that their punishment will be of a type comparable to their deeds. They enjoyed themselves, were arrogant in their denial of the truth, and were involved in sinning and disobedience. Thus, Allah punishes them with extreme humiliation, disgrace, severe pains, continued sorrow, and positions in the terrible depths of Hell – may Allah protect us from all of that.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 42-66

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Surah Al-Jathiyah Ayat 1-37 (end)

Surah Al-Jathiyah

(The Kneeling)

Chapter 45

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. Ha Mim.

2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.

3. Verily, in the heavens and the earth are signs for the believers.

4. And in your creation, and what He spread (through the earth) of moving creatures are signs for people who have faith with certainty.

5. And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the turning about of the winds, are signs for a people who understand.}

A Directive to contemplate over Allah’s Ayat

Allah directs His servants to contemplate His favors and gifts, as well as His great power that is demonstrated by His creating the heavens and the earth and the various types and categories of creatures in them. There are the angels, Jinns, humans, animals, birds, beasts, carnivores, insects and various kinds of sea creatures. The night and day alternate, each follows the other in succession, never ceasing to come, as decreed. One brings darkness and one brings light. Allah the Exalted also sends down the rain from the clouds when it is most needed. He is calling the rain, ‘provision’, because it is the resource that produces various provisions, “and revives therewith the earth after its death,” after it was dry and had no vegetation or life of any kind. Allah said next, “and in the turning about of the winds,” sometimes towards the south and sometimes towards the north. Some are easterly winds and some are westerly winds, some bringing sea breezes and some blow from the land, some coming at night and some by day. Some winds bring rain, some cause pollination and some winds just revive the soul, while some others bear no benefit. Allah said first, “are signs for the believers”, then “who have faith with certainty”, then “who understand”, thus ascending from one honourable stage to what is more honourable and higher in grade. These Ayat are similar to an Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah, “Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving creatures of all kinds that He has spread therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed signs for people of understanding.” (2:164)

{6. These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth. Then in which speech after Allah and His Ayat will they believe?

7. Woe to every sinful liar.

8. Who hears the Ayat of Allah Tutla (recited) to him, yet persists with pride as if he heard them not. So announce to him a painful torment!

9. And when he learns something of Our Ayat, he makes them a jest. For such there will be a humiliating torment.

10. In front of them there is Hell. And that which they have earned will be of no profit to them, nor those whom they have taken as protective friends besides Allah. And theirs will be a great torment.

11. This is guidance. And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of their Lord, for them there is a painful torment of Rijz.}

The Description of the Sinful Liar and His Requital

Allah the Exalted says, “These are the Ayat of Allah” – in reference to the Qur’an with the proofs and evidences that it contains, “which We recite to you with truth.” for they contain the truth from the Truth (i.e., Allah). Therefore, if they do not believe in Allah’s Ayat nor abide by them, what speech after Allah and His Ayat will they then believe in Allah said next, “Woe to every sinful liar.” who lies in his speech, often swears, who is worthless, commits and utters sinful acts and statements, and disbelieves in Allah’s Ayat, “Who hears the Ayat of Allah Tutla (recited) to him,” meaning, being recited to him, “yet persists” in his disbelief, denial, pride and rebellion, “as if he heard them not.” as if he did not hear them being recited to him, “So announce to him a painful torment!” convey the news to him that on the Day of Resurrection, he will have a painful, severe torment from Allah. Allah said, “And when he learns something of Our Ayat, he makes them a jest.” if he learns anything from the Qur’an, he disbelieves in it and takes it as the subject of jest and ridicule, “For such there will be a humiliating torment.” as recompense for ridiculing the Qur’an and jesting about it. In the Sahih, Muslim recorded from Abdullah bin Umar that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, prohibited traveling with the Qur’an to enemy lands for fear that the Qur’an might be desecrated by the enemy. (Muslim 3:1491)

Allah explained the type of torment that these people earn on the Day of Return; “In front of them there is Hell.” meaning, all those who have these evil characteristics will end up in Hellfire on the Day of Resurrection, “And that which they have earned will be of no profit to them,” their wealth and children will not avail them, “nor those whom they have taken as protecting friends besides Allah.” nor will the false gods that they worshipped besides Allah benefit them in the least, “And theirs will be a great torment.” Allah the Exalted said, “This is Huda (guidance).” in reference to the Qur’an, “And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of their Lord, for them there is a painful torment of Rijz.” that is agonizing and severe. Allah knows best.

{12. Allah, it is He Who has subjected to you the sea, that ships may sail through it by His command, and that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may be thankful.

13. And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all (as a favor and kindness) from Him. Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.

14. Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah, that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.

15. Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.}

The Subjugation of the Sea, etc., is among Allah’s Signs

Allah the Exalted mentions some of the favours He gave to His servants, such as subjecting the sea for their service, “that ships may sail through the sea by His command,” i.e., of Allah the Exalted, Who ordered the sea to carry ships, “and that you may seek of His bounty,” in commercial and business transactions, “and that you may be thankful.” for earning various provisions brought to you from far away provinces and distant areas through the sea. Allah the Exalted said, “And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth” the stars, the mountains, the seas, the rivers and all that you use for your benefit; these are all from His favor, kindness and bounty. Allah’s statement next, “it is all from Him.” Alone without partners in giving any of it. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah, “And whatever of blessings you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you unto Him you cry aloud for help.” (16:53) Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said about Allah’s statement, “And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all from Him.” “Everything is from Allah, and that is a Name from His Names. So it all comes from Him without rivals to dispute His authority; surely, this fact is completely certain.” (At-Tabari 22:65) Allah said. “Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.”

The Command to be Patient with the Harm of Idolators

Allah’s saying; “Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah,” means, let the believers forgive the disbelievers and endure the harm that they direct against them. In the beginning of Islam, Muslims were ordered to observe patience in the face of the oppression of the idolators and the People of the Scriptures so that their hearts may incline towards Islam. However, when the disbelievers persisted in stubbornness, Allah legislated for the believers to fight in Jihad. Statements of this meaning were collected from Abdullah bin Abbas and Qatadah. (At-Tabari 22:66, 67) Mujahid said about Allah’s statement, “those who hope not for the Days of Allah,” “They do not appreciate Allah’s favors.” Allah said, “that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.” meaning, if the believers forgive the disbelievers in this life, Allah will still punish the disbelievers for their evil in the Hereafter. Allah’s statement next, “Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.” meaning, you will all return to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, when you and your actions will be displayed before Him. Then, He will recompense you for your deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

{16. And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations.

17. And gave them clear proofs in matters. And they differed not until after the knowledge came to them, through envy among themselves. Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ.

18. Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that, and follow not the desires of those who know not.

19. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another, but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.

20. This is a clear insight and evidence for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.}

Preference of Allah to the Children of Israel and their dispute thereafter

Allah the Exalted mentions the favors He granted the Children of Israel, such as revealing the Divine Books to them, sending the Messengers to them and granting them kingship. Allah said, “And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things,” such as foods and drinks, “and preferred them above the nations.” of their time, “And gave them clear proofs in matters.” ‘We gave them evidences, proofs and unequivocal signs.’ Therefore, the proof has been established against them, yet they differed among themselves after the proof came to them, out of transgression against each other, “Verily, your Lord” ‘O Muhammad’, “will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ.” He will judge between them by His just judgement.

Warning to this Ummah against following the Ways of the Children of Israel

This Ayah contains a warning to the Muslim Ummah as well. It warns them not to take the path the Jews took nor adopt their ways. This is why Allah said, “Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that.” ‘follow what was revealed to you from your Lord, O Muhammad, there is no true deity except Him, and turn away from the idolators.’ Allah said, “and follow not the desires of those who know not. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another,” Allah says, ‘what will the loyalty that the idolators give each other avail them’ Indeed, all they will earn from their protecting friends is more loss, destruction and demise, “but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.” and He will deliver them from the darkness to the light. In contrast, all the false deities are the protecting friends of those who disbelieve, taking them out of the light to the darkness. Allah said, “This is a clear insight and evidence for man-kind,” in reference to the Qur’an, “and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.”

{21. Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their present life and after their death? Worst is the judgement that they make.

22. And Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth, in order that each person may be recompensed what he has earned, and they will not be wronged.

23. Have you seen him who takes his own lust as his god? And Allah, left him astray with knowledge, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allah Will you not then remember}

The Life and the Death of the Believers and the Disbelievers are not Equal

Allah the Exalted states here that the believers and the disbelievers are never equal. Allah said in another Ayah, “Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.” (59:20) Allah said here, “Or do those who earn evil deeds think” those who commit and practice evil, “that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their life and their death” treat them equally in the present life of the world and in the Hereafter “Worst is the judgement that they make.” ‘worst is the thought that they have about Us and about Our justice, thinking that We will ever make the pious and the wicked equal in the Hereafter or this life.’ At–Tabarani recorded that Shubah said that Amr bin Murrah narrated that Abu Ad-Duha said that Masruq said that Tamim Ad-Dari once stood in voluntary prayer through the night until the morning only reciting this Ayah, “Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds?” (At-Tabarani 2:50) Allah said in reply: “Worst is the judgement that they make.” Allah said, “And Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth,” meaning, in justice, “in order that each person may be recompensed what he has earned, and they will not be wronged.” Allah the Exalted said, “Have you seen him who takes his own lust as his god?”, who abides by his lust, and whatever his lust portrays as good he implements it, and whatever his lust portrays as evil, he abandons it! Allah’s statement, “And Allah left him astray with knowledge,” has two meanings. One of them is that Allah knew that this person deserves to be misguided, so He left him astray. The second meaning is that Allah led this person astray after knowledge reached him and the proof was established before him. The second meaning includes the first meaning, but not the opposite. Allah said, “and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight.” so he does not hear what benefits him, understands not what would lead him to the guidance and sees not the evidence with which he can be enlightened. This is why Allah said, “Who then will guide him after Allah? Will you not then remember” Allah said in a similar Ayah, “Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him; and He lets them wander blindly in their transgressions.” (7:186).

{24. And they say: “There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr (time). And they have no knowledge of it, they only presume.

25. And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them, their argument is no other than that they say: “Bring back our (dead) fathers, if you are truthful!”

26. Say (to them): “Allah gives you life, then causes you to die, then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. But most of mankind know not.”}

The Conviction of the Disbelievers, Their Argument and the Refutation of it

Allah mentions here the creed of Ad-Dahriyyah and the Arab idolators who embraced their creed, denying Resurrection, “And they say: “There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live….” They say that there is only this life, some people die while others are born to life, without Resurrection or Judgement. This was the creed of Arab idolators who used to deny Resurrection, in addition to, the creed of the atheist philosophers among them who denied the creation and Resurrection. This was also the statement of atheist philosophers who deny the Creator and think that the world will return to its original form once every thirty – six thousand years, when everything will restart its life – cycle again! They claim that this cycle was repeated for infinity, thus contradicting the sound reason and the divine revelation. They said, “and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr (time).” Allah the Exalted said in reply, “And they have no knowledge of it, they only presume.” they speculate and guess!

As for the Hadith recorded by the two collectors of the Sahih, and Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Allah the Exalted says, “The Son of Adam annoys Me when he curses Ad-Dahr (time), while I am Ad-Dahr. In My Hand are all matters; I cause the alternation of his days and nights.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:437)

In another narration;

“Do not curse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.” (Muslim 4:1763)

Ash-Shafi, Abu Ubaydah and several other Imams of Tafsir explained the meaning of the Prophet’s statement,

“Do not abuse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.”

They said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, when an affliction, a calamity or a disaster struck them, the Arabs used to say, ‘Woe to Ad-Dahr (time)!’ So they used to blame such incidents on Ad-Dahr, cursing Ad-Dahr in the process. Surely, it is Allah the Exalted and Most Honored Who causes these (and all) things to happen. This is why when they cursed Ad-Dahr, it was as if they were cursing Allah Himself, since truthfully, He causes all incidents to happen. Therefore, abusing Ad-Dahr was prohibited due to this consideration, for it was Allah Whom they meant by abusing Ad-Dahr, which – as we said – they accused of causing (distressful) incidents.”

This is the best explanation for this subject, and it is the desired meaning. Allah knows best. We should mention that Ibn Hazm and those of the Zahiriyyah like him made an error when they used this Hadith to include Ad-Dahr among Allah’s most beautiful Names. Allah’s statement, “And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them,” means, when the truth is made plain to them and used as evidence against them, asserting that Allah is able to resurrect the bodies after they have perished and disintegrated, “their argument is no other than that they say: “Bring back our fathers, if you are truthful!” ‘bring them back to life, if what you say is true.’ Allah the Exalted said, “Say (to them): “Allah gives you life and then causes you to die…” ‘for you are witnesses that He brings you (or new life) to existence after non–existence,’ “How can you disbelieve in Allah? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life.” (2:28) Therefore, He Who is able to initiate creation, is able to restart it, as well and more obviously, “And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.” (30:27) Allah said next, “then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.” ‘when He resurrects you, it will be on and for the Day of Resurrection, not in this life. Therefore, your statement is groundless,’ Bring back our (dead) fathers, if you are truthful! Allah said, The Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering. (64:9), “For what Day are these signs postponed For the Day of sorting out.” (77:12-13), and, “And We delay it only for a term (already) fixed.” (11:104) Allah said here, “then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.” there is no doubt that it will come, “But most of mankind know not.” and this is why they deny Resurrection and discount the fact that the bodies will be brought back to life. Allah the Exalted said, “Verily, they see it afar off. But We see it (quite) near.” (70:6), they discount the possibility that Resurrection will ever come, while the believers believe that its occurrence is easy and imminent.

{27. And to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. And on the Day that the Hour will be established — on that Day the followers of falsehood shall lose.

28. And you will see each nation humbled to their knees (Jathiyah), each nation will be called to its Record (of deeds). This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do.

29. This Our Record speaks about you with truth. Verily, We were recording what you used to do.}

Some of the Conditions of the Day of Resurrection and its Horrors

Allah mentions that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth, and the Only Ruler over them in this life and the Hereafter. Allah’s statement, “And on the Day that the Hour will be established” on the Day of Resurrection, “the followers of falsehood shall lose.” those who disbelieve in Allah and reject the clear proofs and unequivocal evidences that He has sent down to His Messengers. Allah said, “And you will see each nation humbled to their knees (Jathiyah),” kneeling, fearful of the tremendous calamity and events. It was said that this will occur when Hellfire will be brought forth, for she will exhale once, and everyone will fall to their knees, including Ibrahim, the Khalil. He will proclaim, “Myself, myself, myself! Today, I will not ask You (O Allah) but about myself.” And even Isa, will proclaim, “Today, I will only argue before You on my own behalf, I will not ask You about Maryam, who gave birth to me.” Allah said next, “each nation will be called to its Record.” meaning, Record of deeds. Allah said in a similar Ayah, “And the Book will be presented; and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward” (39:69). This is why Allah said here, “This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do.” ‘you will be judged according to your deeds, good and evil.’ Allah said in similar Ayat; “On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind. Nay! Man will be a witness against himself, though he may put forth his excuses.” (75:13-15) Allah said, “This, Our Record speaks about you with truth.” It contains the record of all your actions, without addition or deletion. Allah also said: “And the Book will be presented, and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is therein. They will say:”Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a big thing, but has recorded it with numbers!” And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.” (18:49) Allah’s statement, “Verily, We were recording what you used to do.” means, ‘We ordered Our scribe angels to record your deeds.’ Ibn Abbas and others commented, “The angels record the deeds of the servants and then ascend to heaven with them. There, they meet the angels entrusted with the Records of deeds sent down from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz on each Night of Al-Qadr, containing what Allah has written will occur from the servants, long before He created them. They will compare their records and find out that not a single letter was added or deleted.” He then recited this Ayah, “Verily, We were recording what you used to do.”

{30. Then, as for those who believed and did good deeds, their Lord will admit them to His mercy. That will be the evident success.

31. But as for those who disbelieved (it will be said to them): “Were not Our Ayat recited to you? But you were proud, and you were a people who were criminals.”

32. And when it was said: “Verily, Allah’s promise is the truth, and there is no doubt about the coming of the Hour,” you said: “We know not what is the Hour: we do not think it but conjecture, and we have no firm convincing belief (therein).”

33. And the evil of what they did will appear to them, and that which they used to mock at will completely encircle them.

34. And it will be said: “This Day We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours. And your abode is the Fire, and there is none to help you.”

35. This, because you took the revelations of Allah in mockery, and the life of the world deceived you. So this Day, they shall not be taken out from there (Hell), nor shall they be returned to the worldly life.

36. So all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth, and the Lord of all that exists.

37. And His is the majesty in the heavens and the earth, and He is Al-Aziz, Al-Hakim.}

“Then, as for those who believed and did good deeds,” Those whose hearts believed and their limbs performed good deeds, in sincerity to Allah and conforming with Islamic legislation; “their Lord will admit them to His mercy.” and that is Paradise. In the Sahih, Allah said to Paradise; “You are My mercy, with which I grant mercy to whom I will,” (Fath Al-Bari 8:460) Allah said; “That will be the evident success.” clear and apparent. Allah said, “But as for those who disbelieved (it will be said to them): “Were not Our Ayat recited to you? But you were proud…” They will be admonished and criticized with this statement, that means, ‘have not the Ayat of Ar-Rahman been recited to you But you did not follow them out of pride and turned away upon hearing them,’ “and you were a people who were criminals”, ‘by your actions, as well as, the denial that your hearts contained.’ “And when it was said: “Verily, Allah’s promise is the truth, and there is no doubt about the coming of the Hour,” ‘when the believers said these words to you;’ “you said: “We know not what is the Hour…” ‘we do not recognize what you are talking about,’ “we do not think it but conjecture,” ‘we only remotely think that it might come,’ “and we have no firm convincing belief (therein).” ‘we are not sure of it.’ Allah said, “And the evil of what they did will appear to them,” the repercussion of their evil deeds will become apparent to them, “and will completely encircle them.” from all directions, “that which they used to mock at” of the coming torment and punishment, “And it will be said: “This Day We will forget you…” ‘We will treat you as if We have forgotten you, casting you in the fire of Jahannam,’ “as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours.” ‘and did not work for it because you did not believe in its coming,’ “And your abode is the Fire, and there is none to help you.” In the Sahih, it is reported that Allah the Exalted will ask some of His servants on the Day of Resurrection,

“Have I not given you a spouse, honoured you and subjected the camels and horses to you? Have I not allowed you to be a chief and a master?” The servant will say in answer, “Yes, O Lord!” Allah will say, “Did you think that you would ever meet Me?” He will say, “No.” Allah the Exalted will say, “Then this Day, I will forget you as you forgot Me.” (Muslim 4:2279)

Allah the Exalted said, “This, because you took the revelations of Allah in mockery.” ‘We gave you this punishment as retribution because you mocked Allah’s proofs that He sent to you, and made them the subject of jokes and jest,’ “and the life of the world deceived you.” ‘this life fooled you and you were seduced by to it, thus becoming among the ultimate losers,’ “So this Day, they shall not be taken out from there”, from Hellfire, “nor shall they be returned to the worldly life.” no apologies shall be sought from them, but they will be punished without limit or delay, just as a group of the believers will enter Paradise without limit or delay. After Allah mentioned His judgement for the believers and the disbelievers, He said, “So all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth,” He is their Owner and the Owner of all that is in and on them, and surely, “and the Lord of all that exists.” Allah said next, “And His is the majesty in the heavens and the earth,” meaning, the kingship, according to Mujahid. This Ayah means, Allah is the Almighty, Worthy of all praise; everything and everyone is subservient and in complete need of and dependent upon Him. In an authentic Hadith, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Allah the Exalted said, “Glory is My robe and pride is My garment; whoever rivals Me for either of them, I will make him reside in My Fire!” (Abu Dawud 4:350)

Muslim collected a similar Hadith. (Muslim 4:2023) Allah said, “and He is the Al-Aziz” Who is never resisted or rivaled, “Al-Hakim” all wise in His statements, actions, legislation and the decree that He appoints; all glory and praise are due to Him, none has the right to be worshipped but He, Alone.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Jathiyah.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah alone.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 17-41

 

 

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Surah Ad-Dukhaan Ayat 1-59 (end)

Surah Ad-Dukhaan

(The Smoke)

Chapter 44

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. Ha Mim. 

2. By the manifest Book that makes things clear. 

3. We sent it down on a blessed night. Verily, We are ever warning. 

4. Therein (that night) is decreed every matter, Hakim. 

5. As a command from Us. Verily, We are ever sending, 

6. (As) a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. 

7. The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you (but) have a faith with certainty. 

8. La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death — your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.}

The Qur’an was revealed on Laylatul-Qadr

Allah tells us that He revealed the Magnificent Qur’an on a blessed night, Laylatul-Qadr “the Night of Decree”, as He says elsewhere: “Verily, We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadr” (97:1). This was in the month of Ramadan, as Allah tells us: “The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an” (2:185). We have already quoted the relevant Hadiths in (the Tafsir of) Surat Al-Baqarah, and there is no need to repeat them here. “Verily, We are ever warning.” means, telling them what is good for them and what is harmful for them, according to Shariah, so that the proof of Allah may be established against His servants. “Therein (that night) is decreed every matter, Hakim.” means, on Laylatul-Qadr, the decrees are transferred from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz to the (angelic) scribes who write down the decrees of the (coming) year including life span, provision, and what will happen until the end of the year. This was narrated from Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Abu Malik, Ad-Dahhak and others among the Salaf. (At-Tabari 22:9)  “Hakim” means decided or confirmed, which cannot be changed or altered. Allah says: “As a command from Us” meaning, everything that happens and is decreed by Allah and the revelation that He sends down — it all happens by His command, by His leave and with His knowledge. “Verily, We are ever sending,” means, to mankind, sending Messenger who will recite to them the clear signs of Allah. The need for this was urgent. “(As) a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them,” means, the One Who sent down the Qur’an is the Lord, Creator and Sovereign of the heavens and the earth and everything in between them. “if you (but) have a faith with certainty.” Then Allah says: “La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death — your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.” This is like the Ayah: “Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah – to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death…” (7:158)

{9. Nay! They play about in doubt. 

10. Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke, 

11. Covering mankind, this is a painful torment. 

12. (They will say): “Our Lord! Remove the torment from us, really we shall become believers!” 

13. How can there be for them an admonition, when a Messenger explaining things clearly has already come to them? 

14. Then they had turned away from him and said: “(He is) one taught, a madman!” 

15. Verily, We shall remove the torment for a while. Verily, you will revert. 

16. On the Day when We shall strike you with the great Batshah. Verily, We will exact retribution.}

Alarming the Idolators with News of the Day when the Sky will bring forth a visible Smoke

Allah says, these idolaters are playing about in doubt, i.e., the certain truth has come to them, but they doubt it and do not believe in it. Then Allah says, warning and threatening them: “Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.” It was narrated that Masruq said, “We entered the Masjid – i.e., the Masjid of Kufah at the gates of Kindah – and a man was reciting to his companions, “the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.” He asked them; ‘Do you know what that is?’ That is the smoke that will come on the Day of Resurrection. It will take away the hearing and sight of the hypocrites, but for the believers it will be like having a cold.” He said, “We came to Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him, and told him about that. He was lying down, and he sat up with a start and said, Allah said to your Prophet “Say: “No wage do I ask of you for this, nor am I one of the pretenders.” (38:86). And it is part of knowledge that when a man does not know something, he should say, “Allah knows best.” I will tell you a Hadith about that. When the Quraysh did not respond to Islam and they grew stubborn, the Messenger of Allah invoked Allah against them that they would have years like the years “of drought and famine” of Yusuf. They became so exhausted and hungry that they ate bones and dead meat. They looked at the sky, but they saw nothing but smoke.” (Muslim 4:2155) According to another report: “A man would look at the sky and he would see nothing between him and the sky except a smoky haze, because of his exhaustion.” (Muslim 4:2156)

“Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke, covering the people, this is a painful torment” A man came to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Pray to Allah to send rain to Mudar, for they are dying. So the Prophet prayed for rain for them, and they got rain. Then the Ayah was revealed: “Verily, We shall remove the torment for a while. Verily, you will revert.” Ibn Masud said, “Do you think that the torment will be removed for them on the Day of Resurrection? When they were granted ease, they reverted to their former state. Then Allah revealed: “On the Day when We shall strike you with the Great Batshah. Verily, We will exact retribution.” He said, “This means the day of Badr.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:434) Ibn Masud said, “Five things have come to pass: the smoke, the (defeat of the) Romans, the (splitting of the) moon, the Batshah, and the torment.” This Hadith was narrated in the Two Sahihs. (Fath Al-Bari 8:434) It was also recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, and by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i in their (Books of) Tafsir, and by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim with a number of chains of narration. (Ahmad 1:380) A number of the Salaf, such as Mujahid, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ad-Dahhak and Atiyah Al-Awfi concurred with Ibn Masud’s interpretation of this Ayah and his view that the smoke already happened. (At-Tabari 22:16) This was also the view of Ibn Jarir.

According to the Hadith of Abu Sarihah, Hudhayfah bin Asid Al-Ghifari, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah looked out upon us from a room while we were discussing the Hour. He said:

“The Hour will not come until you see ten signs. The rising of the sun from the west; the smoke; the beast; the emergence of Ya’juj and Ma’juj; the appearance of Isa bin Maryam; the Dajjal; three cases of the earth collapsing – one in the east, one in the west, and one in the Arabian Peninsula; and a fire which will emerge from the bottom of Aden and will drive the people – or gather the people – stopping with them when they stop to sleep at night or rest during the day.” 

This was recorded only by Muslim in his Sahih. (Muslim 4:2225)

Allah says: “Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.” meaning, clearly visible, such that all people will see it. According to Ibn Masud’s interpretation, this was a vision which they saw because of their intense hunger and exhaustion. He also interprets the Ayah “Covering mankind,”meaning, it covered them and overwhelmed them. But if it was only an illusion which happened to the idolators of Makkah, Allah would not have said “covering mankind.” “this is a painful torment.” means, this will be said to them by way of rebuke. This is like the Ayah: “The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing. This is the Fire which you used to deny.”(52:13-14). Or some of them will say that to others. “(They will say): “Our Lord! Remove the torment from us, really we shall become believers!” means, when the disbelievers witness the punishment of Allah, they will ask for it to be taken away from them. This is like the Ayat: “If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: “Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!” (6:27) “And warn mankind of the Day when the torment will come unto them; then the wrongdoers will say: “Our Lord! Respite us for a little while, we will answer Your Call and follow the Messengers!” (It will be said): “Had you not sworn aforetime that you would not leave (the world for the Hereafter).” (14:44) Allah says here: “How can there be for them an admonition, when a Messenger explaining things clearly has already come to them. Then they had turned away from him and said: “(He is) one taught, a madman!” meaning, ‘what further admonition do they need when We have sent them a Messenger with a clear Message and warning? Yet despite that, they turned away from him, opposed him and rejected him, and they said: (He is) one taught (by a human being), a madman.’ This is like the Ayah: “On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him” (89:23) “And if you could but see, when they will be terrified with no escape, and they will be seized from a near place. And they will say (in the Hereafter): “We do believe (now);” but how could they receive “faith and its acceptance by Allah) from a place so far off…” (34:51-52) “Verily, We shall remove the torment for a while. Verily, you will revert.” means, ‘if We were to remove the torment from you for a while, and send you back to the world, you would go back to your former state of disbelief and denial.’ This is like the Ayat: “And though We had mercy on them and removed the distress which is on them, still they would obstinately persist in their transgression, wandering blindly.” (23:75) “But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars” (6:28)

The Meaning of the “Great Batshah”

“On the Day when We shall strike you with the great Batshah. Verily, We will exact retribution.” Ibn Mas`ud interpreted this to mean the day of Badr. (At-Tabari 22:22) This is also the view of a group who agreed with Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, about the meaning of the smoke, as discussed above. It was also narrated from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, in a report related to him from Al-Awfi (At-Tabari 22:22) and from Ubayy bin Kab, may Allah be pleased with him. (At-Tabari 22:23) This is possible, but the apparent meaning is that it refers to the Day of Resurrection, although the day of Badr was also a day of vengeance.

Ibn Jarir said, “Yaqub narrated to me; Ibn Ulayyah narrated to me, Khalid Al-Hadhdha narrated to us, from Ikrimah who said, Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him, said that “the great Batshah” is the day of Badr, and I say that it is the Day of Resurrection.” This chain of narration is Sahih to him. This is also the view of Al-Hasan Al-Basri and of Ikrimah according to the more authentic of the two reports narrated from him. And Allah knows best.

{17. And indeed We tried before them Firawn’s people, when there came to them a noble Messenger. 

18. Saying: “Deliver to me the servants of Allah. Verily, I am to you a Messenger worthy of all trust.” 

19.”And exalt not yourselves against Allah. Truly, I have come to you with a manifest authority.” 

20. “And truly, I seek refuge with my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me.” 

21. “But if you believe me not, then keep away from me and leave me alone.” 

22. So he (Musa) called upon his Lord (saying): “These are indeed the people who are criminals.” 

23. (Allah said): “Depart you with My servants by night. Surely, you will be pursued.” 

24. “And leave the sea as it is (quiet and divided). Verily, they are a host to be drowned.” 

25. How many of gardens and springs that they (Firawn’s people) left behind, 

26. And green crops (fields) and goodly places, 

27. And comforts of life wherein they used to take delight! 

28. Thus (it was)! And We made other people inherit them. 

29. And the heavens and the earth wept not for them, nor were they given respite. 

30. And indeed We saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment, 

31. From Firawn; verily, he was arrogant and was of the excessive . 

32. And We chose them above the nations (Al-Alamin) with knowledge, 

33. And granted them signs in which there was a plain trial.}

The Story of Musa and Firawn, and how the Children of Israel were saved

Allah tells us, ‘before these idolators, We tested the people of Firawn, the copts of Egypt.’ “when there came to them a noble Messenger.” means, Musa, peace be upon him, the one to whom Allah spoke. “Deliver to me the servants of Allah.” This is like the Ayah: “So let the Children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!” (20:47) “Verily, I am to you a Messenger worthy of all trust.” means, ‘what I convey to you is trustworthy.’ “And exalt not yourselves against Allah.” means, ‘and do not be too arrogant to follow His signs. Accept His proof and believe in His evidence.’ This is like the Ayah: “Verily, those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!” (40:60) “Truly, I have come to you with a manifest authority.”means, with clear and obvious proof. This refers to the clear signs and definitive evidence with which Allah sent him. “And truly, I seek refuge with my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me.” Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Abu Salih said, “This refers to a verbal assault, which means insults.” (At-Tabari 22:26) Qatadah said, “Meaning ‘stoning’ in the literal sense, so that the meaning is: ‘I seek refuge with Allah, Who created me and you, from your making any harmful words or actions reach me.”’ (At-Tabari 22:27)

“But if you believe me not, then keep away from me and leave me alone.” means, ‘then let us leave one another alone and live in peace until Allah judges between us.’ After Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, had stayed among them for a long time, and the proof of Allah had been established against them, and that only increased them in disbelief and stubbornness, he prayed to his Lord against them, a prayer which was answered. Allah says: “And Musa said: “Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Firawn and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your path. Our Lord! Destroy their wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment.” Allah said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the straight way.” (10:88-89) And Allah says here: “So he (Musa) called upon his Lord (saying): “These are indeed the people who are criminals.” Whereupon Allah commanded him to bring the Children of Israel out from among them, without the command, consent or permission of Firawn. Allah said: “Depart you with My servants by night. Surely, you will be pursued.” This is like the Ayah: “And indeed We revealed to Musa (saying): Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid “of drowning in the sea”. (20:77) “And leave the sea as it is (quiet and divided)Verily, they are a host to be drowned.”

When Musa and the Children of Israel has crossed the sea, Musa wanted to strike it with his staff so that it would go back as it had been, and it would form a barrier between then and Firawn and prevent him from reaching them. But Allah commanded him to leave it as it was, quiet and divided, and gave him the glad tidings that they were a host to be drowned, and that he should not fear either being overtaken by Firawn or drowning in the sea. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “And leave the sea as it is (quiet and divided).” means, leave it as it is and keep moving. (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:410) Mujahid said: “as it is” means, a dry path, as it is. ‘Do not command it to go back; leave it until the last of them have entered it.’ (At-Tabari 22:30) This was also the view of Ikrimah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd, Kab Al-Ahbar, Simak bin Harb and others. (At-Tabari 22:30)

“How many of gardens and springs that they left behind. And green crops” this refers to rivers and wells. and goodly places, means, fine dwellings and beautiful places. Mujahid and Sad bin Jubayr said: “and goodly places,” means elevated places. (At-Tabari 22:32) “And comforts of life wherein they used to take delight!”means, a life which they were enjoying, where they could eat whatever they wanted and wear what they liked, with wealth and glory and power in the land. Then all of that was taken away in a single morning, they departed from this world and went to Hell, what a terrible abode! “Thus (it was)! And We made other people inherit them.”namely the Children of Israel. “And the heavens and the earth wept not for them,” means, they had no righteous deeds which used to ascend through the gates of the heavens, which would weep for them when they died, and they had no places on earth where they used to worship Allah which would notice their loss. So they did not deserve to be given a respite, because of their disbelief, sin, transgression and stubbornness.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Said bin Jubayr said, “A man came to Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and said to him: ‘O Abu Al-Abbas, Allah says, ”And the heavens and the earth wept not for them, nor were they given respite” – do the heavens and the earth weep for anybody’ He, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘Yes, there is no one who does not have a gate in the heavens through which his provision comes down and his good deeds ascend. When the believer dies, that gate is closed; it misses him and weeps for him, and the place of prayer on earth where he used to pray and remember Allah also weeps for him. But the people of Firawn left no trace of righteousness on the earth and they had no good deeds that ascended to Allah, so the heavens and the earth did not weep for them.”’ (At-Tabari 22:34) Al-Awfi reported something similar from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. (At-Tabari 22:35)

“And indeed We saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment from Firawn; verily, he was arrogant and was of the excessive.” Here Allah reminds them of how He saved them from their humiliation and subjugation at the hands of Firawn, when they were forced to do menial tasks. “From Firawn; verily, he was arrogant” means, he was proud and stubborn. This is like the Ayah: “Verily, Firawn exalted himself in the land” (28:4). “but they behaved insolently and they were people self-exalting” (23:46). He was one of the excessive and held a foolish opinion of himself. “And We chose them above the nations (Al-Alamin) with knowledge,” Mujahid said, “This means that they were chosen above those among whom they lived.” Qatadah said, “They were chosen above the other people of their own time, and it was said that in every period there are people who are chosen above others.” This is like the Ayah: “(Allah) said: “O Musa I have chosen you above men.” (7:144), which means, above the people of his time. This is also like the Ayah: “and (Allah has) chosen you (Maryam) above the women of the nations (Al-Alamin).” (3:42), i.e., Maryam was chosen above the women of her time. For Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her, is higher than her in status or is equal to her, as was Asiyah bint Muzahim, the wife of Firawn. And the superiority of A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, over all other women is like the superiority of Tharid over all other dishes. “And granted them signs” means clear proofs and extraordinary evidence. “in which there was a plain trial.” means, an obvious test to show who would be guided by it.

{34. Verily, these people are saying: 

35. “There is nothing but our first death, and we shall not be resurrected.” 

36. “Then bring back our forefathers, if you speak the truth!” 

37. Are they better or the people of Tubba and those before them? We destroyed them because they were indeed criminals.}

Refutation of Those Who deny the Resurrection

Here Allah denounces the idolators for their denial of the Resurrection and their belief that there is nothing after this life and no life or resurrection after death, which they based on the fact that their forefathers had died and had not returned. They said, If the resurrection is true, “Then bring back our forefathers, if you speak the truth!” This is false evidence and a specious argument, for the resurrection will happen on the Day of Judgement, not in this world; it will happen when this world has ended and ceased to be. Allah will bring all creatures back, created anew. He will make the evildoers fuel for the fire of Hell, and on that Day you will be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger will be a witness over you. Then Allah threatens them and warns them of the irresistible torment other idolators like who denied the resurrection, suffered. Such as the people of Tubba, i.e., Saba’. Allah destroyed them, wreaked havoc upon their land and scattered them here and there throughout the land, as we have already seen in Surah Saba‘. This was brought about because the idolators denied the Resurrection. Here too, the idolaters are compared to them. They Tubba were Arab descendants of Qahtan, just as these people (Quraysh) were Arab descendants of Adnan. Among the people of Himyar – who are also known as Saba’ – when a man became their king, they called him Tubba, just as the title Chosroes was given to the king of Persia, Caesar to the king of the Romans, Firawn to the disbelieving ruler of Egypt, Negus to the king of Ethiopia, and so on among other nations.

But it so happened that one of the Tubba left Yemen and went on a journey of conquest until he reached Samarqand, expanding his kingdom and domain. He is the one who founded Al-Hirah. It is agreed that he passed through Al-Madinah during the days of Jahiliyyah. He fought its inhabitants but they resisted him; they fought him by day and supplied him with food by night, so he felt ashamed before them and refrained from harming them. He was accompanied by two Jewish rabbis who advised him and told him that he would never prevail over this city, for it would be the place to which a Prophet would migrate towards the end of time. So he retreated and took them (the two rabbis) with him to Yemen. When he passed by Makkah, he wanted to destroy the Kabah, but they told him not to do that either. They told him about the significance of this House, that it had been built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, and that it would become of great importance through that Prophet who would be sent towards the end of time. So he respected it, performed Tawaf around it, and covered it with a fine cloth. Then he returned to Yemen and invited its people to follow the religion of guidance along with him. At that time, the religion of Musa, peace be upon him, was the religion followed by those who were guided, before the coming of the Messiah, peace be upon him. So the people of Yemen accepted the religion of guidance along with him.

Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“I do not know whether Tubba was a Prophet or not.” (Al-Baghawi 4:154)

It was narrated that Tamim bin Abdur-Rahman said: “Ata’ bin Abi Rabah said, ‘Do not revile Tubba, for the Messenger of Allah forbade reviling him.” (Abdur Razzaq 3:209) And Allah knows best.

{38. And We created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, for mere play. 

39. We created them not except with truth, but most of them know not. 

40. Verily, the Day of Judgement is the time appointed for all of them — 

41. The Day when a near relative cannot avail a near relative in aught, and no help can they receive, 

42. Except him on whom Allah has mercy. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.}

This World was created for a Wisdom

Here Allah tells us of His justice, and that He is far above mere play, folly and falsehood. This is like the Ayah: “And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them without purpose! That is the consideration of those who disbelieve! Then woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire!” (38:27) “Did you think that We had created you in play, and that you would not be brought back to Us? So Exalted be Allah, the True King: La ilaha illa Huwa, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!” (23:115-116) Then Allah says: “Verily, the Day of Judgement is the time appointed for all of them” This is the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will judge between all creatures, and He will punish the disbelievers and reward the believers. “is the time appointed for all of them” means, He will gather all of them, the first and the last of them. “The Day when a near relative cannot avail a near relative in aught,” means, no relative will be able to help another relative. This is like the Ayah: “Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.” (23:101) “And no friend will ask a friend (about his condition). Though they shall be made to see one another” (70:10-11) which means, he will not ask his brother about how he is, even though he can see him with his own eyes. “and no help can they receive,” means, no relative will help another, and no help will come to him from outside. “Except him on whom Allah has mercy.” means, and nothing will be of any avail that Day except the mercy of Allah towards His creation. “Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.” means, he is the Almighty, with immense mercy.

{43. Verily, the tree of Zaqqum 

44. Will be the food of the sinners. 

45. Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, 

46. Like the boiling of scalding water. 

47. (It will be said:) “Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire,” 

48. “Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water.” 

49. “Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous.” 

50. “Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt!”}

The Condition of the Idolators and Their Punishment on the Day of Resurrection

Allah tells us how He will punish the disbelievers who deny the meeting with Him: “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners.” Those who sinned by their words and in deeds. These are the disbelievers. More than one commentator stated that this referred to Abu Jahl; undoubtedly he is included among those referred to in this Ayah, but it is not specifically about him. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ was reciting to a man: “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners.” The man said, “The food of the orphan.” Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Say, the tree of Zaqqum is the food of the evildoer.” (At-Tabari 22:43) i.e., he will not have any other food apart from that. Mujahid said, “If a drop of it were to fall on the earth, it would corrupt the living of all the people of earth.” (At-Tabari 22:43) A similar Marfu report has been narrated earlier. “Like boiling oil,” means, like the dregs of oil. “it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.” means, because of its heat and rancidity. “Seize him” means the disbeliever. It was reported that when Allah says to the keepers of Hell, “Seize him,” seventy thousand of them will rush to seize him. “and drag him” means, drag him by pulling him and pushing him on his back. Mujahid said: “Seize him and drag him” means, take him and push him. “into the midst of blazing Fire.” means, into the middle of it. “Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water.” This is like the Ayah: “boiling water will be poured down over their heads. With it will melt what is within their bellies, as well as (their) skins.” (22:19-20). The angel will strike him with a hooked rod of iron and split his head open, then he will pour boiling water over his head. It will go down through his body, melting through his stomach and intestines, until it goes through his heels; may Allah protect us from that. “Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous.” means, they “the keepers of Hell” will say that to him by way of ridicule and rebuke. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “This means, you are neither mighty nor generous.”

And Allah’s saying: “Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt!” is like His saying: “The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing. This is the Fire which you used to deny. In this magic, or do you not see” (52: 13-15) Similarly Allah said: “Verily, this is that where of you used to doubt!”

{51. Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in place of security. 

52. Among Gardens and Springs, 

53. Dressed in Sundus and Istabraq, facing each other, 

54. So (it will be). And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes, 

55. They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security; 

56. They will never taste death therein except the first death, and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire,

 57. As a bounty from your Lord! That will be the supreme success! 

58.Certainly, We have made this (Qur’an) easy in your tongue, in order that they may remember. 

59. So wait thou and watch; for they (too) are waiting}

The State of Those Who have Taqwa and the Delights

They will enjoy in Paradise When Allah describes the state of the doomed, He follows that with a description of the life of the blessed. For this reason the Qur’an is called Al-Mathani (i.e., oft-repeated). “Verily, those who have Taqwa” i.e., those who fear Allah and are dutiful towards Him in this world, (will be in place of security.” means, in the Hereafter, i.e., in Paradise, where they will be safe from death and the fear of leaving it, and from every kind of worry, grief, terror and exhaustion, and from the Shaytan and his wiles, and from all other troubles and disasters. “Among Gardens and Springs”. This is in direct contrast to the state of the doomed, who will have the tree of Zaqqum and boiling water. “Dressed in Sundus” means, the finest of silk, such as shirts and the like. (and Istabraq) means, silk which is woven with shiny threads, like a splendid garment which is worn over regular clothes.

“facing each other,” means, sitting on thrones where none of them will sit with his back to anyone else. “So (it will be). And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes,” This will be a gift in addition to the beautiful wives given to them.“(In beauty) they are like rubies and Marjan [coral].” (55:58) “Is there any reward for good other than good?” (55:60) “They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security” means, whatever kinds of fruit they ask for will be brought to them, and they will have the security of knowing that this supply will never come to an end or be withheld; these fruits will be brought to them whenever they want. “They will never taste death therein except the first death,” This is an exception which reinforces the negation. The meaning is that they will never taste death there. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“Death will be brought forth in the image of a fine ram. It will be made to stand between Paradise and Hell, then it will be slaughtered. It will be said, “O people of Paradise, it is eternal, no more death; and O people of Hell, it is eternal, no more death.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:282, Muslim 4:2188)

This Hadith was already quoted in our discussion of Surah Maryam.

Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

“It will be said to the people of Paradise, “It is granted to you that you will be healthy and will never fall ill, you will live and never die, you will enjoy a life of luxury and will never be miserable, you will be youthful and will never grow old.”

This was recorded by Muslim.

It was reported that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

“Whoever has Taqwa of Allah, he will enter Paradise and enjoy a life of luxury and he will never be miserable. He will live therein and never die, his clothes will never wear out and his youth will never fade.

“and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire,” means, along with this great and eternal blessing, He will also have saved them from the agonizing torment in the depths of Hell, so they will have achieved their desired aim and avoided the thing they feared. Allah says, “As a bounty from your Lord! That will be the supreme success!” meaning, that will be from His bounty and kindness towards them. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said:

“Work and strive hard, and know that no one will enter Paradise by virtue of his deeds.”

They said, “Not even you, O Messenger of Allah?” He said,

“Not even me, unless Allah showers me with His mercy and grace.” (Fath Al-Bari 11:300, Muslim 4:2170)

“Certainly, We have made this easy in your tongue, in order that they may remember.” means, `We have made this Qur’an, which We have sent down, easy, plain and clear, in your language which is the most eloquent, clear and beautiful of all languages.’“in order that they may remember.” means, in order that they may understand and know.

Despite the fact that it is so plain and clear, there are still people who disbelieve, who stubbornly go against it. Allah says to His Messenger , consoling him and promising him victory, and warning those who reject him that they will be destroyed. “Wait then; verily, they (too) are waiting.”meaning, ‘they will come to know who will be victorious and whose word will prevail in this world and in the Hereafter. For victory will be for you, O Muhammad, and for your brothers among the Prophets and Messengers, and for the believers who followed you,’ as Allah says: “Allah has decreed: “Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.” (58:21) “Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth, — the Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.” (40:51-52)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ad-Dukhan.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah and in Him is all strength and protection.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 669-698 (end)

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Surah Az-Zukhruf Ayat 36-89 (end)

{36. And whosoever Yashu (turns away blindly) from the remembrance of the Most Gracious, We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.

37. And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright!

38. Till, when (such a one) comes to Us, he says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts (or the east and west) a worst companion (indeed)!”

39. It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.

40. Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error?

41. And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.

42. Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.

43.So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.

44. And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people, and you will be questioned.

45. And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”}

 

The Shaytan is the Companion of the One Who turns away from Ar-Rahman

“And whosoever Yashu (turns away blindly)” means, whoever willfully ignores and turns away “from the remembrance of the Most Gracious,” Al-Asha (the root of Yash) refers to weakness of vision; what is meant here is weakness of insight. “We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.” This is like the Ayat: “And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him” (4:115), “So when they turned away, Allah turned their hearts away” (61:5), and “And We have assigned for them intimate companions, who have made fair seeming to them, what was before them and what was behind them” (41:25). Allah says here: “And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright! Until, when he comes to Us,” meaning, for this person who willfully neglects true guidance, We send to him a Shaytan to lead him astray and show him the path to Hell. When he comes before Allah on the Day of Resurrection, he will complain about the Shaytan who was appointed to accompany him. “He says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts — a worst companion (indeed)!” Some of them recited it; “Till, when they both come to Us.” referring to the companion Shaytan and the one whom he accompanies. Then Allah says: “It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.” means, ‘your being together in the Fire will not help you in the slightest, and you will both partake of the painful punishment.’ Allah says: “Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error?” means, ‘that is not up to you. All you have to do is convey the Message, but you do not have to guide them. Allah guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He is Wise and Just in doing so.’

Allah’s Vengeance upon the Enemies of His Messenger will surely come to pass

Allah further says: “And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.” means, ‘We will inevitably wreak vengeance upon them and punish them, even if you pass away.’ “Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.” means, ‘We are able to do both,’ but Allah will not take His Messenger (in death) until He gives him the joy of seeing his enemies brought low and gives him power and authority over them and their wealth. This was the view of As-Suddi and was the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 21:609)

Encouragement to adhere to the Qur’an

Allah then says; “So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.” means, hold fast to the Qur’an which has been sent down to your heart, for it is truth and what it leads to is truth that shows the way to the straight path that leads to Gardens of Delight and eternal, everlasting goodness. “And verily, this is a Dhikr for you and your people,” It was said that this means, ‘it is an honor for you and your people;’ this was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 21:610, 611)

This means that it is an honour for them in that it was revealed in their language, so they are the people who have the best understanding of it among mankind and hence are obliged to be the most steadfast in adhering to its commandments. This is how the best of them were, the first immigrants and those who emulated them and followed them. It was also said that the meaning of the phrase; “And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people,” was that ‘it was sent to remind you and your people.’ The fact that they are singled out does not exclude others. This is like the Ayat: “Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book in which there is Dhikrukum (your Reminder). Will you not then understand” (21:10) “And warn your tribe of near kindred” (26:214) “and you will be questioned.” means, ‘about this Qur’an, and how you acted upon it and what your response to it was.’ “And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious?” means, ‘all the Messengers called their people to the same as that to which you are calling mankind, namely the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and they forbade the worship of idols and false gods.’ This is like the Ayah: “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.” (16:36) Mujahid said that Abdullah bin Masud recited it: “And ask those whom We sent before you of Our Messengers.” (At-Tabari 21:611) This was narrated by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi from Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him. (At-Tabari 21:611, 612) Yet this appears to be an explanation rather than an alternate version of recitation. And Allah knows best.

{46. And indeed We did send Musa with Our Ayat to Firawn and his chiefs. He said: “Verily, I am a Messenger of the Lord of all that exists.”

47. But when he came to them with Our Ayat, behold, they laughed at them.

48. And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it, and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn.

49. And they said (to Musa): “O you sorcerer! Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has made a pact with you. Verily, We shall guide ourselves.”

50. But when We removed the torment from them, behold, they broke their covenant.}

Musa was sent with the Message of Tawhid to Firawn and His Chiefs

Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and how He sent him to Firawn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers, leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel. Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives. Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who had brought it. “And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it,” but despite that they would not give up their sin, misguidance, ignorance and confusion. Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa, saying, “O you sorcerer!…” meaning, expert or knowledgeable one — this was the view of Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 21:615) The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they thought. On each occasion, they promised Musa that if the torment was lifted from them, they would believe in him and let the Children of Israel go with him, but on each occasion they went back on their word. This is like the Ayat: “So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they broke their word!”‘ (7:133-135)

{51. And Firawn proclaimed among his people (saying): “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then”

52. “Am I not better than this one (Musa) who is despicable and can scarcely express himself clearly”

53. Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him”

54. Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.

55. So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.

56. And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.}

Firawn’s Address to His People and how Allah punished Him

Allah tells us how Firawn stubbornly persisted in his rebellion and disbelief. He assembled his people and addressed them in a vainglorious fashion, boasting of his dominion over Egypt. “Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me?” Qatadah said, “They had gardens and rivers of flowing water.” (At-Tabari 21:616) “See you not then” means, ‘do you not see my position of might and power’ — implying that Musa and his followers were poor and weak. This is like the Ayah: “Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud, saying: “I am your lord, most high.” So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.” (79:23-25) “Am I not better than this one who is despicable?” As-Suddi said, “He was saying, ‘indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable’.” (At-Tabari 21:616) Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Firawn — may the curse of Allah be upon him — was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of Resurrection. By describing Musa as despicable he meant — as Sufyan said — insignificant. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “He meant, weak.” Ibn Jarir said, “He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.” “and can scarcely express himself clearly” means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well. Firawn’s description of Musa as “despicable” is a lie; rather it is he who was despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms, and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright. “and can scarcely express himself clearly”. This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa’s tongue when he was a child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said: “You are granted your request, O Musa” (20:36). It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though Firawn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said: “Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him…?” meaning, adornments which are placed on the arms. This was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and others. (At-Tabari 21:619) “or angels sent along with him” meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that. Allah says: “Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.” meaning, he confused them and invited them to misguidance, and they responded to him. “Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.” Then Allah says: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said it means: “When they angered Us means, they provoked Our wrath.” (At-Tabari 21:622) Ad-Dahhak said, it means “They made Us angry.” This was also the view of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Said bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and other scholars of Tafsir. (At-Tabari 21:622)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Uqbah bin Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.”

Then he recited: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” (Ahmad 4:145, with a slight difference)

It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said, “I was with Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden death was mentioned. He said, ‘It is a relief for the believer and a source of regret for the disbeliever.’ Then he recited the Ayah: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:384)

Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah: “So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.” “And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.” Abu Mijlaz said, “Precedent for others who do the same as they did.” (Al-Qurtubi 16:102) He and Mujahid said, “An example, i.e., a lesson to those who come after them.” (At-Tabari 21:624) Allah is the One Who guides to the straight path, and unto Him is the final return.

{57. And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.

58.And say: “Are our gods better or is he?” They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.

59. He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.

60. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.

61. And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour. Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path.

62. And let not Shaytan hinder you. Verily, he (Shaytan) to you is a plain enemy.

63. And when Isa came with clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah, and in order to make clear to you some of that in which you differ. Therefore have Taqwa of Allah and obey me.”

64. “Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.”

65. But the sects from among themselves differed. So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day!}

The Contempt of the Quraysh for the son of Maryam, and His true Status with Allah

Allah tells us how the Quraysh persisted in their disbelief and stubborn arguments: “And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.” Several others narrated that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak said, “They laughed, i.e., they were astounded by that.” (Al-Qurtubi 16:103) Qatadah said, “They were repelled by that and they laughed.” (At-Tabari 21:627) Ibrahim An-Nakhai said, “They turned away.” (Al-Qurtubi 16:103)

The reason for this was mentioned by Muhammad bin Ishaq in As-Sirah. He said, “According to what I have heard, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, sat down one day with Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah in the Masjid, and An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came and sat down with them. There were also other men from the Quraysh in the gathering. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, spoke, then An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came up to him and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, spoke to him until he defeated him in argument. Then he recited to him and to them, “Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.” (21:98) Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, got up and went to sit with Abdullah bin Al-Zabari At-Tamimi. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said to him, ‘By Allah, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith could not match the son of Abd Al-Muttalib in argument. Muhammad claims that we and these gods that we worship are fuel for Hell.’ Abdullah bin Az-Zabari said, ‘By Allah, if I meet with him I will defeat him in argument. Ask Muhammad whether everyone that is worshipped instead of Allah will be in Hell with those who worshipped him, for we worship the angels, and the Jews worship Uzayr, and the Christians worship the Messiah Isa bin Maryam.’ Al-Walid and those who were sitting with him were amazed at what Abdullah bin Az-Zabari said, and they thought that he had come up with a good point. He said this to the Messenger of Allah , who said: “Everyone who likes to worship something other than Allah will be with the one whom he worshipped, for indeed they are worshipping the Shaytan and whomever told them to worship that person.” Then Allah revealed the words: “Verily, those for whom the good has preceded from Us, they will be removed far therefrom (Hell)” (21:101), meaning that Isa, Uzayr and rabbis and monks who were also worshipped, who spent their lives in devotion towards Allah. The misguided people who came after them took them as lords instead of Allah. Concerning the notion of worshipping the angels as daughters of Allah, the following words were revealed: “And they say: “The Most Gracious has begotten a son (or children).” Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.” (21:26) Concerning Isa bin Maryam, the fact that he is worshipped instead of Allah, and to the amazement of Al-Walid and the others who were present at the argument, the following was revealed: “And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.” meaning, they take this argument as a basis for rejecting your message. Then Allah mentions ‘Isa bin Maryam and says: “He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth. And he (Isa) shall be a known sign for the Hour.” meaning, the miracles and signs that happened at his hands, such as raising the dead and healing the sick, are sufficient as signs of the approach of the Hour. “Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path.”(Ibn Hisham 1:396-398)

Ibn Jarir mentioned that Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah: “And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.” “This means the Quraysh, when it was said to them: “Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.” (21:98) The Quraysh said to him: ‘What about Isa bin Maryam’ He said: “He is the servant and Messenger of Allah.” They said, ‘By Allah, he means that we should take him as a lord just as the Christians took Isa son of Maryam as a lord.’ Then Allah said: “They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.”(At-Tabari 21:625)“And say: “Are our gods better or is he?”. Qatadah said, “They were saying, ‘Our gods are better than him’.” Qatadah said; “Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him, recited it. “Are our gods better or is this (person)?” they mean Muhammad . “They quoted not the above example except for argument.” means, for the sake of stubborn argument, for they knew that he (Isa) was not included in the Ayah (21:98), because that would not make sense. The words, “Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell!” (21:98) are addressed to the Quraysh, for they used to worship idols and false gods — they did not worship the Messiah so why should he be included in what the Ayah says What they said was only for the sake of argument; they did not really believe in it.

Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said:

“No people go astray after having been guided, but they resort to (futile) argument.”

Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, recited this Ayah: “They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.” (Ahmad 5:256) It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih, we do not know it except from the Hadith of Hajjaj bin Dinar…” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:130) “He (Isa) was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him,” means, Isa, peace be upon him; he was no more than one of the servants of Allah whom Allah blessed with prophethood and messengership. “and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.” means, ‘a sign, proof and evidence of Our power to do whatever We will.’ “And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.” As-Suddi said, “They would have taken your place on (the earth). ” (At-Tabari 21:631) Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Qatadah said, “They would have succeeded one another just as you succeed one another.” (At-Tabari 21:630) This view is implied by the former veiw. Mujahid said, “They would have populated the earth instead of you.” (At-Tabari 21:630)

Allah’s saying: “And he (Isa) shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.” The correct view concerning this phrase is that it refers to his descent before the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says: “And there is none of the People of the Scripture but must believe in him before his death” (4:159). — meaning before the death of Isa, peace be upon him — And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them (4:159). This meaning has the support from an alternate recitation of the Ayat “And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.” means, evidence that the Hour will surely come. Mujahid said: “And he shall be a sign for (the coming of) the Hour.” means, sign and “One of the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of Isa son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection.” (At-Tabari 21:632) Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Abu Malik, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. (At-Tabari 21:632) Many Mutawatir Hadiths report that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said that Isa will descend before the Day of Resurrection as a just ruler and fair judge. “Therefore have no doubt concerning it.” means, do not doubt that it will surely come to pass. “And follow Me.” means, ‘in what I tell you about it.’ “This is the straight path. And let not Shaytan hinder you.” means, from following the truth. “Verily, he (Satan) to you is a plain enemy. And when `Isa came with (Our) clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah…”, meaning prophethood: “and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) in which you differ.” Ibn Jarir said, “This means religious matters, not worldly matters.” (At-Tabari 21:635) What he said is good. “Therefore have Taqwa of Allah” means, ‘with regard to what I command you to do.’ “and obey me.” means, ‘in what I bring to you.’ “Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.” means, ‘you and I are enslaved to Him, in need of Him and we commonly share in the worship of Him Alone, associating none with Him.’ “This is the straight path” means, ‘what I have brought to you is the straight path, which is the worship of the Lord, may He exalted, Alone.’ “But the sects from among themselves differed.” means, they differed and became parties and factions, some who stated that he (Isa) was the servant and Messenger of Allah — which is true – while others claimed that he was the son of Allah or that he himself was Allah — glorified be Allah far above what they say. Allah says: “So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day!”

{66. Do they only wait for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not?

67. Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.

68. My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve,

69. (You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.

70. Enter Paradise, you and your wives, in happiness.

71. Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them; (there will be) therein all that their souls desire, and all that eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever.

72. This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.

73. Therein for you will be fruits in plenty, of which you will eat (as you desire).}

 

The Resurrection will come suddenly, and Enmity will arise between close Friends among the Disbelieve

Allah says, ‘do these idolaters who disbelieve in the Messengers wait’ “only for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not” means, for it is real and will inevitably come to pass, and these negligent people are unprepared for it. When it comes, it will catch them unawares, and on that Day they will feel the utmost regret when regret will not benefit them in the slightest and will not afford them any protection. “Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.” means, every friendship that exists for a purpose other than for the sake of Allah will turn to enmity on the Day of Resurrection, except for that which is for the sake of Allah, which will last forever. This is like the statement of Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to his people: “You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.” (29:25)

Good News for Those with Taqwa on the Day of Resurrection, and Their entry into Paradise

“My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.” Then He will give them the glad tidings: “(You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.” means, their hearts believed and they submitted inwardly and outwardly to the Laws of Allah.

Al-Mutamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said: “When the Day of Resurrection comes and the people are resurrected, there will be no one left who will not be filled with terror. Then a caller will cry out: “My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.” So all the people will be filled with hope, but this will be followed by the words: “(You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.” Then all of mankind will be filled with despair apart from the believers.” (At-Tabari 21:639)

“Enter Paradise,” means, they will be told to enter Paradise. “you and your wives,” means, your counterparts “in happiness (Tuhbarun).” means, in delight and joy. “Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them” means, fine vessels of gold containing food and drink, without spouts or handles. “(there will be) therein all that their souls could desire”. “Some of them recited: “that their souls desire,” “and all that eyes could delight in” means, of good food, delightful fragrances and beautiful scenes. “and you will therein” means, in Paradise “abide forever” means, you will never leave it or want to exchange it.

Then it will be said to them, as a reminder of the blessing and favour of Allah: “This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.” means, the righteous deeds which were the cause of your being included in the mercy of Allah. For no one will be admitted to Paradise by virtue of their deeds alone; that will be by the mercy and grace of Allah. But the varying ranks and degrees of Paradise will be attained according to one’s righteous deeds. “Therein for you will be fruits in plenty,” means, of all kinds. “of which you will eat.” means, whatever you choose and desire. When food and drink are mentioned, fruit is also mentioned to complete the picture of blessing and joy. And Allah knows best.

{74. Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever.

75. (The torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein.

76. We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.

77. And they will cry: “O Malik (keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord make an end of us.” He will say: “Verily, you shall abide forever.”

78. Indeed We have brought the truth to you, but most of you have a hatred for the truth.

79. Or have they plotted some plan? Then We too are planning.

80. Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel? Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.}

The Punishment of the Doomed

The description of the state of the blessed is followed by a description of the state of the doomed. “Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. It will not be lightened for them,” meaning, not even for one moment. “and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein,” means, they will despair of any goodness. “We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.” means, by their committing wrong actions after proof had been established against them and Messengers had been sent to them, but they rejected them and rebelled, so they are to be punished accordingly. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants. “And they will cry: “O Malik…” who is the keeper of Hell. Al-Bukhari said, “Hajjaj bin Minhal told us, Sufyan bin Uyaynah told us, from Amr bin Ata, from Safwan bin Yala that his father, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting on the Minbar: “And they will cry: “O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:431) meaning, ‘let Him destroy our souls and give us some respite from our predicament.’ But it will be as Allah says: “Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them” (35:36). “But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die (to be in rest) nor live (a good living).” (87:11-13). When they ask to be allowed to die, Malik will answer them: He will say: Verily, you shall abide forever. meaning, you will have no way out from it and no refuge. Then the reason why they are doomed will be given, which is their stubborn resistance to the truth. Allah says: “Indeed We have brought the truth to you,” meaning, ‘We have explained it to you clearly and in detail.’ “but most of you have a hatred for the truth.” means, ‘but your nature could not accept it and did not seek it; on the contrary, you followed and venerated falsehood, and you stood in the way of truth and refused it, and despised its followers.’ So they will blame themselves and will feel regret at the time when regret will not be of any benefit to them. Then Allah says: “Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.” Mujahid said, “They wanted to plot some evil, but We are also planning.” (At-Tabari 21:146) What Mujahid said is like the Ayah: “So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not.” (27:50). The idolators were trying their utmost to find ways of refuting the truth with falsehood, but Allah planned it so that the consequences of that would backfire on them. He said in refutation: “Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel” meaning, what they say secretly and openly. “Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.” means, ‘We know what they are doing, and the angels are also recording their deeds, major and minor.’

{81. Say: “If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.”

82. Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).

83. So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense and play until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.

84. It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.

85. And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned.

86. And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession — except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.

87. And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away

88. And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”

89. So turn away from them, and say: Salam (peace!) But they will come to know.}

Allah has no Offspring

Allah says: “Say” — `O Muhammad’ — “If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.” meaning, ‘if this were so, then I would worship Him on that basis, because I am one of His servants; I obey all that He commands me and I am not too arrogant or proud to worship Him.’ This conditional phrase does not mean that what is described could happen nor that is possible as Allah says: “Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.” (39:4). Allah says here: “Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).” meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be the Creator of all things far above having any offspring, for He is Unique, One and Eternally Self-Sufficient. There is none equal to Him or like Him, and He does not have any offspring. “So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense” means, in their ignorance and misguidance, “and play” in their world, “until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.” which is the Day of Resurrection, i.e., then they will come to know what their end and destination will be on that Day.

The Uniqueness of the Lord

“It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth.” means, He is the God of those who are in the heavens and the God of those who are on earth; all of them worship Him and are humbled before Him. “And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.” This Ayah is like the Ayah: “And He is Allah in the heavens and on the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.” (6:3) which means, He is the One who is called Allah in the heavens and on the earth. “And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them,” means, He is their Creator and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling them with none to resist or oppose His rule. Blessed and exalted be He far above the notion of His having a child. He is eternally free of all faults and shortcomings, because He is the Lord, the Exalted, the Almighty, the Sovereign of all things, Who is in control of all affairs. “and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour,” means, no one knows when it will happen except Him. “and to Whom you (all) will be returned.” means, and each person will be requited for his deeds; if they are good, then he will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then he will be punished.

The Idols have no Power of Intercession

“And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power” means, the idols and false gods. “of intercession” means, they are not able to intercede for them. “except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.” This means, but the one who bears witness to the truth has knowledge and insight, so his intercession with Allah will avail, by His leave.

The Idolators admit that Allah Alone is the Creator

“And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away” means, ‘if you ask these idolators who associate others in worship with Allah,’ “who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” means, they will admit that He Alone is the Creator of all things and He has no partner in that. Yet despite that they still worship others alongside Him who have nothing and are able to do nothing. This is the utmost foolishness and stupidity. Allah says: “How then are they turned away?”

The Prophet’s Complaint to Allah

“And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!” means, Muhammad said this; he complained to his Lord about his people who did not believe in him, and said, `O Lord, these people do not believe.’ This is like the Ayah: “And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur’an.” (25:30). This is the view of Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid and Qatadah, and this is how Ibn Jarir interpreted it. (At-Tabari 21:656)

Al-Bukhari said: “Abdullah — meaning Ibn Masud, may Allah be pleased with him — recited (Ayah 88 of Az-Zukhruf): “And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord!” (Fath Al-Bari8:431) Mujahid said concerning the Ayah: “And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!” “Allah is stating what Muhammad said.” (At-Tabari 21:656) Qatadah said, “These are the words of your Prophet , when he complained about his people to his Lord.” (At-Tabari 21:656) “So turn away from them,” means, from the idolators. “and say Salam (peace!)” means, ‘do not respond to them in the same evil manner in which they address you; but try to soften their hearts and forgive them in word and deed.’ “But they will come to know.” This is a warning from Allah for them. His punishment, which cannot be warded off, struck them, and His religion and His word was supreme. Subsequently Jihad and striving were prescribed until the people entered the religion of Allah in crowds, and Islam spread throughout the east and the west. And Allah knows best.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Az-Zukhruf.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 636-668

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Surah Az-Zukhruf Ayat 1-35

Surah Az-Zukhruf

(Ornaments of Gold) 

Chapter 43

Which was revealed in Makkah

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

{1. Ha Mim.

2. By the manifest Book.

3. Verily, We have made it a Qur’an in Arabic that you may be able to understand.

4. And verily, it is in the Mother of the Book with Us, indeed exalted, full of wisdom.

5. Shall We then take away the Reminder from you, because you are a people excessive?

6. And how many a Prophet have We sent amongst the men of old.

7. And never came there a Prophet to them but they used to mock at him.

8. Then We destroyed men stronger (in power) than these and the example of the ancients has passed away.}

 

“Ha-Mim. By the manifest Book.” means, plain and clear in both wording and meaning, because it was revealed in the language of the Arabs, which is the most eloquent language for communication among people. Allah says: “a Qur’an in Arabic” meaning, in the language of the Arabs, eloquent and clear; “that you may be able to understand.” means, that you may understand it and ponder its meanings. This is like the Ayah: “In the plain Arabic language.” (26:195) “And verily, it is in the Mother of the Book with Us, indeed exalted, full of wisdom.” This explains the high status of the Qur’an among the hosts on high “the angels”, so that the people of earth will respect it, venerate it and obey it. “And verily, it” means, the Qur’an, “is in the Mother of the Book” meaning, Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet). This was the view of Ibn Abbas and Mujahid. (Ar-Razi 27:167) “with Us,” means, in Our presence. This was the view of Qatadah and others. (Al-Baghawi 4:133) “indeed exalted” means, occupying a position of honor and virtue. This was the view of Qatadah. (At-Tabari 21:567) “full of wisdom.” means, clear, with no confusion or deviation. All of this indicates its noble status and virtue, as Allah says elsewhere: “That (this) is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of the all that exists.” (56:77-80) “Nay, indeed it is an admonition. So whoever wills, let him pay attention to it. (It is) in Records held (greatly) in honor, exalted, purified, in the hands of scribes (angels), honorable and obedient.” (80:11-16) “Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur’an) from you, because you are a people excessive.” means, ‘do you think that We will forgive you and not punish you, when you do not do as you have been commanded?’ This was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Abu Salih, Mujahid and As-Suddi, and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 21:567, 568)

“Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur’an) from you?” Qatadah said, “By Allah, if this Qur’an had been taken away when the first generations of this Ummah rejected it, they would have been doomed, but Allah by His mercy persisted in sending it and calling them to it for twenty years, or for as long as He willed.” (At-Tabari 21:568) What Qatadah said is very good, and his point is that Allah, by His grace and mercy towards His creation, did not stop calling them to the truth and to the wise Reminder, i.e., the Qur’an, even though they were heedless and turned away from it. Indeed, He sent it so that those who were decreed to be guided might be guided by it, and so that proof might be established against those who were decreed to be.

Consolation to the Prophet for the Disbelief of Quraysh

Then Allah consoles His Prophet for the disbelief of his people, and commands him to bear it with patience. “And how many a Prophet have We sent amongst the men of old.” meaning, among the sects (communities) of old. “And never came there a Prophet to them but they used to mock at him.” means, they disbelieved him and mock at him. “Then We destroyed men stronger than these” means, ‘We destroyed those who disbelieved in the Messengers, and they were stronger in power than these who disbelieve in you, O Muhammad.’ This is like the Ayah: “Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what was the end of those before them They were more in number than them and mightier in strength?” (40:82). And there are many similar Ayat. “and the example of the ancients has passed away.” Mujahid said, “The way of their life.” (At-Tabari 21:571) Qatadah said, “Their punishment.” Others said, “Their lesson,” i.e., ‘We made them a lesson for those disbelievers who came after them, that they would suffer the same end as them,’ as in the Ayah at the end of this Surah: “And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.” (43:56); “this has been the way of Allah in dealing with His servants” (40:85). “and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.” (33:62)

{9. And indeed if you ask them: “Who has created the heavens and the earth?” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.”

10. Who has made for you the earth like a bed, and has made for you roads therein, in order that you may find your way?

11. And Who sends down water from the sky in due measure, then We revive a dead land therewith, and even so you will be brought forth.

12.And Who has created all the pairs and has appointed for you ships and cattle on which you ride,

13. In order that you may mount on their backs, and then may remember the favor of your Lord when you mount thereon, and say: “Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could have never had it.”

14. And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return!”}

The Idolators’ admission that Allah is the Sole Creator, and Further Evidence of that

Allah says: ‘If you, O Muhammad, were to ask these idolators who associate others with Allah and worship others besides Him,’ “Who has created the heavens and the earth” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.” In other words, they will admit that the Creator of all that is Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, yet they still worship others – idols and false gods – alongside Him. “Who has made for you the earth like a bed?” means, smooth, stable and firm, so that you can travel about in it, and stand on it and sleep and walk about, even though it is created above water, but He has strengthened it with the mountains, lest it should shake. “and has made for you roads therein,” means, paths between the mountains and the valleys. “in order that you may find your way.” means, in your journeys from city to city, region to region, land to land. “And Who sends down water from the sky in due measure,” means, according to what is sufficient for your crops, fruits and drinking water for yourselves and your cattle. “then We revive a dead land therewith,” means, a barren land, for when the water comes to it, it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth). By referring to the revival of the earth, Allah draws attention to how He will bring bodies back to life on the Day of Resurrection, after they have been dead. “and even so you will be brought forth.” Then Allah says: “And Who has created all the pairs” meaning, of everything that grows in the earth, all kinds of plants, crops, fruits, flowers, etc., and all different kinds of animals. “and has appointed for you ships” or vessels, “and cattle on which you ride.” means, He has subjugated them to you and made it easy for you to eat their meat, drink their milk and ride on their backs. Allah says: “In order that you may mount on their backs” meaning, sit comfortably and securely, “on their backs” means, on the backs of these kinds of animals. “and then may remember the favour of your Lord” means, whereby these animals are subjugated to you. “when you mount thereon, and say: “Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could have never had it.” means, if it were not for the fact that Allah has subjugated these things to us, we could never have done this by our own strength.’ Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said: “We could not have done this ourselves.” (At-Tabari 21:576, 577) “And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return.” means, ‘We will return to Him after our death, and our ultimate destination is with Him.’ In this Ayah, mention of earthly journeys draws attention to the journey of the Hereafter, just as elsewhere, mention of earthly provision draws attention to the importance of ensuring provision for the Hereafter, as Allah says: “And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is the Taqwa” (2:197). And mention of earthly garments is also used to draw attention to the raiment of the Hereafter: “and as an adornment; and the raiment of the Taqwa, that is better” (7:26).

{15. Yet, they assign to some of His servants a share with Him. Verily, man is indeed a manifest ingrate!

16. Or has He taken daughters out of what He has created, and He has selected for you sons

17. And if one of them is informed of the news of that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!

18. A creature who is brought up in adornments, and who in dispute cannot make itself clear

19. And they make females the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious. Did they witness their creation Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned!

20. And they said: “If it had been the will of the Most Gracious, we should not have worshipped them.” They have no knowledge whatsoever of that. They do nothing but lie!”}

Condemnation of the Idolators’ attribution of Offspring to Allah

Here Allah speaks of the lies and fabrications of the idolators, when they devoted some of their cattle to their false gods and some to Allah, as He described in Surah Al-Anam where He said: “And they assign to Allah share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: “This is for Allah” according to their claim, “and this is for our partners.” But the share of their partners reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their partners! Evil is the way they judge!” (6:136). Similarly, out of the two kinds of offspring, sons and daughters, they assigned to Him the worst and least valuable (in their eyes), i.e., daughters, as Allah says: “Is it for you the males and for Him the females That indeed is a division most unfair!” (53:21-22) And Allah says here: “Yet, they assign to some of His servants a share with Him. Verily, man is indeed a manifest ingrate!” Then He says: “Or has He taken daughters out of what He has created, and He has selected for you sons” This is a denunciation of them in the strongest terms, as He goes on to say: “And if one of them is informed of the news of that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!” means, if one of these people is given the news that there has been born to him one of those which he attributes to Allah, i.e., a daughter, he hates this news and it depresses and overwhelms him so much that he keeps away from people because he feels so ashamed. Allah says, so how can they dislike that so much and yet they attribute it to Allah “A creature who is brought up in adornments, and who in dispute cannot make itself clear” means, women are regarded as lacking something, which they make up for with jewellery and adornments from the time of childhood onwards, and when there is a dispute, they cannot speak up and defend themselves clearly, so how can this be attributed to Allah “And they make females the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious.” means, that is what they believe about them, but Allah denounces them for that and says: “Did they witness their creation?” meaning, did they see Allah creating them as females “Their testimony will be recorded,” means, concerning that, “and they will be questioned!” means, about that, on the Day of Resurrection. This is a stern warning and a serious threat. “And they said: “If it had been the will of the Most Gracious, we should not have worshipped them.” means, (they said:) ‘if Allah had willed, He would have prevented us from worshipping these idols which are images of the angels who are the daughters of Allah; He knows about this and He approves of it.’ By saying this, they combined several types of error: First: They attributed offspring to Allah – exalted and sanctified be He far above that. Second: They claimed that He chose daughters rather than sons, and they made the angels, who are the servants of the Most Gracious, female. Third: They worshipped them with no proof, evidence or permission from Allah. This was based on mere opinion, whims and desires, imitation of their elders and forefathers, and pure ignorance. They used Allah’s decree as an excuse, and this reasoning betrayed their ignorance. Fourth: Allah denounced them for this in the strongest terms, for from the time He first sent Messengers and revealed Books, the command was to worship Him Alone with no partner or associate, and it was forbidden to worship anything other than Him. Allah says: “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.” Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied.” (16:36) “And ask those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious?” (43:45) And Allah says in this Ayah, after mentioning this argument of theirs: “They have no knowledge whatsoever of that.” meaning, of the truth of what they say and the arguments they put forward. “They do nothing but lie!” means, they tell lies and fabricate untruths. “They have no knowledge whatsoever of that. They do nothing but lie!” Mujahid said, “They do not appreciate the power of Allah.” (At-Tabari 21:583)

{21. Or have We given them any Book before this (the Qur’an) to which they are holding fast?

22. Nay! They say: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we guide ourselves by their footsteps.”

23. And similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.”

24. He said: “Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following” They said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that with which you have been sent.”

25. So We took revenge on them, then see what was the end of those who denied.}

The Idolators have no Proof

Allah condemns the idolators for worshipping others instead of Allah with no evidence or proof for doing so. “Or have We given them any Book before this?” means, before their idolatry. “to which they are holding fast” means, with regard to what they are doing. This is not the case. This is like the Ayah: “Or have We revealed to them an authority (a Scripture), which speaks of that which they have been associating with Him” (30:35) meaning, that did not happen. Then Allah says: “Nay! They say: “we found our fathers following a certain way and religion (Ummah), and we guide ourselves by their footsteps.” meaning, they have no grounds for their belief in idolatry apart from the fact that they are imitating their fathers and forefathers who were following a certain Ummah or way, i.e., religion. The word Ummah is used in a similar manner elsewhere, where Allah says: “And verily, this your religion (Ummah) is one religion” (23:52), and they said; “and we by their footsteps” means, behind them “We guide ourselves” This is their claim with no evidence. Then Allah points out that what these people say was already said by those who were like them among the nations of the past who disbelieved in the Messengers. Their hearts and their words are similar. “Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!” Have they transmitted this saying to these? Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!” (51:52-53) And Allah says here: “And similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.” Then He says: “Say” – ‘O Muhammad, to these idolators -‘ “Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following?” They said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that with which you have been sent.” ‘Even if they were convinced of the truth of what you have brought to them, they will not follow it, because of their evil intentions and their arrogance towards the truth and its people.’ “So We took revenge on them” means, on the disbelieving nations, by inflicting various kinds of punishments, as Allah has described in the stories of those nations. “then see what was the end of those who denied” means, see what became of them, how they were destroyed and how Allah saved the believers.

{26. And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father and his people: “Verily, I am innocent of what you worship,”

27. “Except Him Who created me; and verily, He will guide me.”

28. And he made it a word lasting among his offspring, that they may turn back.

29. Nay, but I gave to these and their fathers to enjoy, till there came to them the truth, and a Messenger making things clear.

30. And when the truth came to them, they said: “This is magic, and we disbelieve therein.”

31. And they say: “Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns?”

32. Is it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord? It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world, and We raised some of them above others in ranks, so that some may employ others in their work. But the mercy of your Lord is better than what they amass.

33. And were it not that mankind would have become of one community, We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses, and elevators whereby they ascend,

34. And for their houses, doors, and thrones on which they could recline,

35. And adornments of gold. Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for those who have Taqwa.}

Ibrahim’s Declaration of Tawhid

Here Allah tells us about His servant, Messenger and close Friend, the leader of the monotheists and the father of all subsequent Prophets, from whom Quraysh were descended and claimed to have taken their religion. He disowned his father’s and his people’s worship of idols and said: “Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, except Him Who created me; and verily, He will guide me.” And he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,” The Word means the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and the denunciation of all gods apart from Him, i.e., La ilaha illallah. He left this word as an example to be followed by those of his progeny who were guided by Allah. “that they may turn back.” means, come back to this word. Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others commented on the Ayah: “And he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,” “This means, La ilaha illallah, and there are still those among his offspring who say it.” (At-Tabari 21:589) A similar view was narrated from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. Ibn Zayd said, “The word of Islam,” (Al-Qurtubi 21:77) which refers to the same thing suggested by the group.

How the People of Makkah turned away from the Messenger and opposed Him, and His Response

Allah further says: “Nay, but I gave to these” means, the idolators, “and their fathers” means, they lived a long life in their misguidance. “till there came to them the truth, and a Messenger making things clear.” means, his message is clear and his warning is clear. “And when the truth came to them, they said: “This is magic, and we disbelieve therein.” means, they were arrogant and stubborn, and they pushed him away out of disbelief, envy and transgression. “And they say” means, objecting to that which Allah has revealed to him, “Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns?” meaning, why was this Qur’an not revealed to some man who was great and prominent in their eyes, from the two towns, i.e., Makkah and At-Ta’if. This was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Ikrimah, Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 21:592, 593)

Several scholars of Tafsir stated that by this, the Quraysh meant Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah and Urwah bin Masud Ath-Thaqafi. The apparent meaning is that what they meant was a great man from either of the two towns. Allah responded to their rejection by saying: “Is it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord?” meaning, the matter has nothing to do with them; it is for Allah to decide. Allah knows best where to direct His Message, and He does not reveal it except to the one who is the purest in heart and soul, and of the noblest descent.

Then Allah points out that He differentiates among His creation in terms of what He gives them of wealth, provision, intellect, understanding and other visible and hidden strengths: “It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world…so that some may employ others in their work.” It was said that this means that some employ others in their work, because one needs the other, and vice versa. This was the view of As-Suddi and others. (At-Tabari 21:595) “But the mercy of your Lord is better than which they amass.” means, the mercy of Allah towards His creation is better for them than the wealth and conveniences of this world which they possess.

Wealth is not a Sign of Divine Pleasure

“And were it not that mankind would have become of one community,” means, ‘were it not for the fact that many ignorant people would think that Our giving them wealth was a sign that We love the person to whom We give it, and thus they would have agreed upon disbelief for the sake of wealth.’ This is the view of Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others. (At-Tabari 21:597) “We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses, and elevators” means, ladders and staircases of silver. This was the view of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others. (At-Tabari 21:600) “whereby they ascend,” means, go up. And their houses would have doors, i.e., locks on their doors, “and thrones on which they could recline,” means, all of that would be made of silver. “And adornments” means, and gold. This was the view of Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 21:601, 602) “Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world.” means, all that belongs to this transient world which is insignificant before Allah. He hastens their reward for good deeds in the form of luxuries in this world, so that when they reach the Hereafter, they will have no good merits with Allah for which they may be rewarded, as was reported in the Sahih Hadith. (Muslim 4:2162) It was reported in another Hadith:

“If this world were worth a gnat’s wing before Allah, He would not give a disbeliever a drink of water.” (At-Tirmidhi 6:611)

Al-Baghawi narrated its chain of narration. (Al-Baghawi 4:138) “And the Hereafter with your Lord is (only) for those who have Taqwa.” means, it is exclusively for them, and no one else will share it with them. When Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, visited the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in seclusion, when he was keeping away from his wives, and he saw him resting on a rough mat which had left marks on his side, his eyes filled with tears and he said, “O Messenger of Allah, look at this Chosroes and this Caesar with all that they have, and you are the best of Allah’s creation. ” The Messenger of Allah was reclining, but he sat up and said:

“Are you in doubt, O son of Al-Khattab?”

Then he, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Those are people for whom the enjoyments are hastened in this world.” (Muslim 2:113)

According to another report:

“Does it not please you that this world is for them and the Hereafter is for us?” (Muslim 2:110)

In as the Two Sahihs and elsewhere, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Do not drink from vessels of gold and silver, and do not eat from plates of the same, for these things are for them in this world and for us in the Hereafter.” (Fath Al-Bari 9:465)

Allah has granted these things to them in this world because it is insignificant, as was reported by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah via Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sad, who said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“If this world were worth a gnat’s wing before Allah, He would never give a disbeliever a drink of water.”

At-Tirmidhi said: “Hasan Sahih.”

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 8 Pages 615-636

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