Tafsir of Surah Ar-Rahman Ayat 37-78 (end)

{37. Then when the heaven is rent asunder, and it becomes Wardah like Dihan.

38. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

39. So, on that Day he will not be questioned about his sin, (neither) human nor Jinn.

40. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

41. The criminals will be known by their marks, and they will be seized by their foreheads and feet.

42. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

43. This is the Hell which the criminals denied.

44. They will go between it and Hamim An!

45. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

The Horrors of the Day of Resurrection

Allah said, “Then when the heaven is rent asunder,” on the Day of Resurrection; this meaning is clear in this and similar Ayat, such as, “And the heaven will be rent asunder, for that Day it (the heaven) will be frail and torn up.” (69:16), “And (remember) the Day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down, with a grand descending.” (25:25) and, “When the heaven is split asunder, and listens to and obeys its Lord – and it must do so.” (84:1-2) Allah’s statement, “and it becomes Wardah like Dihan.” This means they will melt just as sediment and silver are melted when heated. And they will be coloured, just as dies stain something, sometimes red, sometimes yellow, or blue, or green. This demonstrates the extent of the horrors of the Mighty Day of Resurrection. As-Suddi said, “It will be as rosy color and as filth oil.” Mujahid said “like Dihan”, “Like the colours of dyes.” (At-Tabari 23:50)

Allah said; “So on that Day he will not be questioned about his sins, (neither) human nor Jinn.” this is similar to His saying; “That will be a Day when they shall not speak, and they will not be permitted to put forth any excuse.” (77:35-36) This is the case at the time, then all the creatures will be questioned about their deeds. Allah said; “So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.” (15:92-93) Qatadah said, “On that they will be questioned and then their mouths will be sealed and their hands and feet will reveal what they used to do.” (At-Tabari 23:52) Allah the Exalted said, “The criminals will be known by their marks,” i.e., by special marks that distinguish them. Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, “They will be known by their dark faces and their blue eyes.” (At-Tabari 23:52)

I say that this contrasts to the marks that will distinguish the believers, such as the light that will appear on the parts of the body that they used to wash while performing ablution. Allah said, “and they will be seized by their foreheads and feet.” meaning, the angels of punishment will bend their heads down to their feet and throw them like this into the Hellfire. Al-Amash said that Ibn Abbas said, “He will be taken by his forehead and his feet and be broken just as a stick is broken to be thrown into an oven.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:704) Allah said, “This is the Hell which the criminals denied.” meaning, ‘this is the Fire that you used to deny existed that it; now you see it before your eyes!’ While being chastised, criticized, disgraced and belittled, this will be said to the disbelievers. “They will go between it and Hamim An!” meaning, they will sometimes be punished with fire and they will sometimes be given Hamim which is a drink like molten copper tearing their intestines and internal organs, “When the iron collars will be rounded over their necks, and the chains, they shall be dragged along, in the Hamim, then they will be burned in the Fire.” (40:71-72) Allah said “An” meaning hot, due to the fierce and intense heat that is impossible to bear. Ibn Abbas said; “They will go between it and Hamim An!” “That has reached the ultimate temperature and boiling fiercely.” (At-Tabari 23:54) Similar was said by Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Ath-Thawri and As-Suddi. (At-Tabari 23:54-55) Qatadah also commented, “Its boiling started when Allah created the heavens and the earth!” (At-Tabari 23:54) Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi said, “The (disobedient) servant will be seized by the forehead and stirred in that boiling water until his flesh melts and only the bones and the eyes in his head remain. This is the meaning of Allah’s statement, “In the Hamim, then they will be burned in the Fire.”(40:72) And Al-Hamim Al-An means hot.” There is another report from Al-Qurazi; “Hamim An” that it means “prepared.” This is also the view of Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 23:55)

And saying that it means “prepared” does not contradict the first report from Al-Qurazi which says that it means hot, for Allah said: “They will be given to drink from a spring, Aniyah.” (88:5) which means severe unbearable heat, and His saying; “not to wait for it to be prepared”(33:53) which means properly cooking and preparing it. So His saying; “Hamim An.” Hamim, that is very hot. Surely, punishing the disobedient criminals as well as favoring those who had Taqwa, is from Allah’s grace, mercy, justice, compassion and kindness for His creatures. His warnings against His torment and punishment, such as mentioned in these Ayat, should encourage all creatures to abandon the Shirk and disobedience they engage in, and this is why Allah reminded them of this favour; “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

{46. But for him who fears the standing before his Lord, there will be two Gardens.

47. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

48. With Afnan.

49. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

50. In them (both) will be two springs flowing (free).

51. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

52. In them (both) will be every kind of fruit in pairs.

53. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

The Delight of Those Who have Taqwa in Paradise

Allah the Exalted said, “But for him who fears the standing before his Lord,” on the Day of Resurrection, “And restrained himself from the desires.” (79:40), and does not indulge nor prefer this worldly life. He who knows that the Hereafter is better and more lasting, so he fulfills what his Lord ordered him and stays away from His prohibitions, then he will earn two gardens from his Lord on the Day of Resurrection. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah bin Qays said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“There are two gardens made of silver – their vessels and all that they contain. And there are two gardens made of gold – their vessels and all that they contain. And nothing stands between the people in the Adn Garden and looking at their Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored, but the covering of pride before His Face.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:491)

The Group, with the exception of Abu Dawud, collected this via the Hadith of Abdul-Aziz. (Muslim 1:163)

This Ayah is general and applies to both humans and Jinns, providing proof that those among the Jinns who believe and have Taqwa will enter Paradise, for Allah is reminding the Ath-Thaqalayn of this favour, as He says; “But for him who fears the standing before his Lord, there will be two Gardens. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny” Then He describes these two gardens, by saying, “With Afnan.” their trees have beautiful young branches that hold and produce every type of ripened beautiful fruit, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny” Ata’ Al-Khurasani and several others said that Afnan means spreading branches of trees that reach the branches of other trees, “In them (both) will be two springs flowing.” free to water these trees and branches that produce all kinds of fruits, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that one of these springs is called Tasnim, and the other called As-Salsabil. (Al-Qurtubi 17:178) Atiyah said that the water of one of these springs is from non-standing water and the other from wine that gives delight to those who drink it. (Al-Qurtubi 17:178) Allah’s statement, “In them (both) will be every kind of fruit in pairs.”, of every type and kind of fruit, that which they knew before, and better, and that which they did not know before. Therein, there are delights that no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard and no heart has ever imagined, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

Ibrahim bin Al-Hakam bin Aban said that his father narrated from Ikrimah that Ibn Abbas said, “There is not a fruit that exists in this life, sweet or bitter, but it exists in Paradise, even the colocynth.” (Al-Qurtubi 17:179) Ibn Abbas also said, “There is nothing in the world that is in the Hereafter except in name.” Meaning there is such an enormous difference and contrast between the two in enjoyment and value.

{54. Reclining upon the couches lined with Istabraq, and the fruits of the two Gardens will be near at hand.

55. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

56. Wherein both will be Qasirat At-Tarf, whom never deflowered a human before nor Jinn.

57. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

58. They are like Yaqut and Marjan.

59. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

60. Is there any reward for good other than good?

61. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

Allah said, “Reclining”, in reference to the residents of Paradise, who will recline or sit cross-legged; “upon the couches lined with Istabraq,” which is thick silk brocade, according to Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah. (At-Tabari 23:61) Abu Imran Al-Jawni said, “It is thick silk embroidered with gold.”

In this way, the honour of the outside is alluded to by mentioning the honor of the inside. Abu Ishaq narrated that Hubayrah bin Yarim said that Abdullah bin Masud said, “This is their interior, so what about it if you see their exterior?” (At-Tabari 23:62) Allah said, “and the fruits of the two Gardens will be near at hand.” close to the believers who will be able to take any of it they wish, whether they are reclining or otherwise, “The fruits in bunches whereof will be low and near at hand.” (69:23), “And the shade thereof is. close upon them, and the bunches of fruit thereof will hang low within their reach.” (76:14), meaning, these fruits descend from their branches to those who wish to have them, because they are close at hand,

“Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?” After Allah mentioned the couches, He then said, “Wherein will be”, meaning on these couches or beds, “Qasirat At-Tarf” chaste females, wives restraining their glances, desiring none except their husbands, seeing them as the most beautiful men in Paradise. This was said by Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, Ata’ Al-Khurasani and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 23:63) It was reported that one of these wives will say to her husband, “By Allah! I neither see anything in Paradise more handsome than you nor more beloved to me than you. So praise be to Allah Who made you for me and made me for you.” Allah said, “whom never deflowered a human before nor Jinn” meaning they are delightful virgins of comparable age who never had sexual intercourse with anyone, whether from mankind or Jinns, before their husbands. This is also a proof that the believers among the Jinns will enter Paradise. Artat bin Al-Mundhir said, “Damrah bin Habib was asked if the Jinns will enter Paradise and he said, `Yes, and they will get married. The Jinns will have Jinn women and the humans will have female humans.”’ (At-Tabari 23:65) Allah’s statement, “whom never deflowered a human before nor Jinn. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny” Then Allah describes these women for the proposed: “they are like Yaqut and Marjan.” Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Ibn Zayd and others said, “They are as pure as rubies and white as Marjan.” So here they described Marjan as pearls. (At-Tabari 23:66-67)

Imam Muslim recorded that Muhammad bin Sirin said, “Some people either boasted or just wondered who are more in Paradise, men or women. Abu Hurayrah said, ‘Has not Abu Al-Qasim (Muhammad) said,

“Verily, the first group that will enter Paradise will look like the moon when it is full, and the next batch will be as radiant as the radiant star in the sky. Each one of them will marry two wives. The marrow of the bones of their shins will be seen through the flesh. None will be unmarried in Paradise.” (Muslim 4:2178)

This Hadith was recorded in the Two Sahihs. (Fath Al-Bari 6:367)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“A morning or an evening journey in Allah’s cause is better than the world and whatever is on its surface. And a place in Paradise as small as that occupied by the whip of one of you, is better than the world and whatever is on its surface. If one of the women of the people of Paradise looks directly at the earth, she will fill what is between Paradise and earth with a good scent and all of it will become delightful. Verily, the veil over her head is better than this life and all that is on its surface.” (Ahmad 3:141)

Al-Bukhari also collected a similar narration. (Fath Al-Bari 6:19)

Allah the Exalted said, “Is there any reward for good other than good?” Allah declares that in the Hereafter, all that is good and righteous is the only befitting reward for those who do good deeds in this life, “For those who have done good is best (reward) and even more.” (10:26)

All of these are tremendous blessings that cannot be earned merely by good deeds, but by Allah’s favour and bounty, after all of these He says; “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

{62. And below these two, there are two other Gardens.

63. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

64. Mudhammatan.

65. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

66. In them (both) will be two springs Naddakhatan.

67. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

68. In them (both) will be fruits, and date palms and pomegranates.

69. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

70. Therein (Gardens) will be Khayrat Hisan;

71. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

72. Hur (beautiful, fair females) guarded in pavilions;

73. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

74. Whom never deflowered a human before nor Jinn.

75. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

76. Reclining on green Rafraf and rich beautiful Abqariy.

77. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

78. Blessed be the Name of your Lord, Dhil-Jalali wal-Ikram.}

These two gardens are lower, in virtue and in status than the two before them, as supported in the Qur’an. Allah said “And below these two, there are two other Gardens.” We previously mentioned the Hadith stating that there are two gardens made of gold, their vessels and all they contain, and there are two gardens made of silver, their vessels and all they contain. The first two are for the near believers “Muqarribin” and the latter two are for those on the right “Ashab Al-Yamin”. (Fath Al-Bari 8:491) Abu Musa commented, “There are two gardens made of gold for the Muqarribin and two gardens made of silver for Ashab Al-Yamin.”

There are several proofs that the former two gardens in Paradise are better in grade than the latter. Allah mentioned the former two gardens before the latter two, thus indicating their significance, then He said, “And below these two, there are two other Gardens.” And this is an obvious form of honoring the first two gardens over the latter two. Allah described the former gardens: “With Afnan”, which are the extending branches, as we explained, or various types of delights. But He said about the latter two gardens, “Mudhammatan”, being dark, because of the intense irrigation. (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:715) Ibn Abbas said, “Mudhammatan means, they have become dark green because of extensive water irrigation.” Muhammad bin Kab said: “Mudhammatan” “Full of greenery.” There is no doubt that the former two gardens are better, their branches are fresh, youthful and intermingling.

Allah said about the former two gardens, while He said about the springs of the latter two gardens, “Naddakhatan”; Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas: “It means gushing. And the free flowing is stronger than gushing.” (Ad-Dur Al-Manthur 7:716) Ad-Dahhak said that, “gushing forth” means, they are full of water and constantly gushing. Allah said about the former two gardens, “In them (both) will be every kind of fruit in pairs” but He said about the latter two gardens, “In them (both) will be fruits, and date palms and pomegranates.” There is no doubt that the first description is better and refers to more of a variety and more types of fruit. Allah said about the latter two gardens, Allah then said; “Therein will be Khayrat Hisan” meaning, there are various types of good and delightful things in these two gardens in Paradise, according to Qatadah. It was also said that Khayrat is plural of Khayrah and it is a righteous, well-mannered, beautiful woman, according to the majority of scholars, and it is also reported from Umm Salamah as a Hadith from the Prophet (At-Tabari 23:75). There is another Hadith saying that Al-Hur Al-Ayn will sing, “We are Al-Khayrat Al-Hisan, we were created for honourable husbands.’‘ (At-Tabarani in Al-Awsat 7:257) Allah said: “Hur (beautiful, fair females) guarded in pavilions” but He said about the first two gardens, “Wherein both will be Qasirat At-Tarf,”

There is no doubt that the chaste wives that restrain their glances themselves, are better than those guarded in pavilions even though both are secluded. About Allah’s saying: “in pavilions” Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah bin Qays said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, in Paradise, the believer will have a tent from a hollow pearl, the width thereof is sixty miles. In each corner of it there are wives for the believer that do not see the other wives, and the believer will visit them all.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:491)

In another narration the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said that this tent is thirty miles wide. (Fath Al-Bari 6:366) Muslim recorded this Hadith and in his narration, the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily in Paradise, the believer will have a tent made of a hollow pearl the length thereof being sixty miles. In it, the believer will have wives who do not see each other, and the believer will visit them all.”

Allah the Exalted said, “Whom never were deflowered by a human before nor Jinn.” We explained this meaning before. Allah added in the description of the first group of the believers’ wives, “they are like Yaqut (rubies) and Marjan (pearls). Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny” Allah said, “Reclining on green Rafraf and rich beautiful Abqariy.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas: “Rafraf means cushions.” Mujahid, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others also said that Rafraf means cushions. Al-Ala’ bin Badr said: “The Rafraf are arrayed hanging over the couches.” Allah’s statement, “and rich beautiful Abqariy.” Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said that Abqariy means rich carpets.

Allah said, “Blessed be the Name of your Lord (Allah) Dhil-Jalal wal-Ikram,” Allah states that He is Worthy of being honored and always obeyed, revered and thus worshipped, appreciated and never unappreciated, and remembered and never forgotten. Abdullah bin Abbas said that, “Dhil-Jalal wal-Ikram” means, the Owner of greatness and pride. (At-Tabari 23:86) In a Hadith, the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, among the acts of venerating Allah, are honoring the elderly Muslims, the one in authority, and carrier (memorizer) of the Qur’an who avoids extremism and laziness with it.” (Abu Dawud 5:174)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Rabiah bin Amir said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, say,

“Persist (in invoking Allah) with, “Ya Dhal-Jalal wal-Ikram (O Owner of greatness and honour).” (Ahmad 4:177)

An-Nasa’i also collected this Hadith. (An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:479) Muslim and the Four Sunan compilers recorded that A’ishah said, “When the Messenger of Allah would (say the) Salam (completing prayer), he would only sit as long as it takes him to say, “O Allah! You are As-Salam, and peace comes from You. Blessed be You Ya Dhal-Jalal wal-Ikram.” (Muslim 414)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ar-Rahman, all praise is due to Allah and all favors come from Him.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 391-408

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Tafsir Of Surah Ar-Rahman Ayat 1-36

Surah Ar-Rahman

(The Beneficent)

Chapter 55

Which was Revealed in Makkah

Introduction to Surah Ar-Rahman

Imam Ahmad recorded that Zirr said that a man said [to Ibn Mas’ud] : “How is this recited? “Ma’in Ghayri Yasin or Asin” [Surah Muhammad] He asked him, “Are you that proficient in reciting the whole Qur’an?” He replied, “I recite the Mufassal section in one Rakah.” So he said, “Woe to you! Do you recite the Qur’an in haste, as if it is poetry? I know that the Prophet used to recite two Surahs from the beginning of the Mufassal section (in one Rakah).” And Ibn Masud considered Surah Ar-Rahman to be the beginning of the Mufassal section. (Ahmad 1:412)

Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Jabir said, “The Messenger of Allah went to his Companions and recited Surat Ar-Rahman from beginning to end for them, but they did not say anything. The Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“I recited it to the Jinns, on the night of the Jinns and their response was better than yours! Whenever I recited Allah’s statement: “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?” “They said, “None of Your favors do we deny, our Lord! All praise is due to you.”

At-Tirmidhi recorded it and he said, “This Hadith is Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:177) Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar also collected this Hadith. (Al-Hakim 2:473) Abu Jafar Ibn Jarir recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said that the Messenger of Allah recited Surat Ar-Rahman, or it was recited before him, and he said, “Why do I hear the Jinn giving a better response to their Lord than you?” They said, “Why is that, O Allah’s Messenger?” He said,

“Whenever I recited the statement of Allah the Exalted, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?” The Jinn responded by saying, “None of the favours of our Lord do we deny.”

Al-Hafiz Al-Bazzar also collected this Hadith. (Kashf Al-Astar 3:74)

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. Ar-Rahman!

2. He has taught the Qur’an.

3. He created man.

4. He taught him Al-Bayan.

5. The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.

6. And the Najm and the trees prostrating.

7. And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.

8. In order that you may not transgress the balance.

9.And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.

10. And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-An’am.

11. Therein are fruits, date palms producing Akmam.

12. And also corn, with (its) Asf, and Rayhan.

13. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

Ar-Rahman revealed and taught the Qur’an

Allah informs of His favours and His mercy for His creatures, for He revealed the Qur’an to His servants, He made memorising and understanding of it easy for those on whom He has bestowed His mercy, “Ar-Rahman! He has taught the Qur’an. He created man. He taught him Al-Bayan.” Al-Hasan said: “Eloquent speech.” This refers to Allah teaching the Qur’an, that is, teaching the servants how to recite it by making it easy for them to speak and pronounce letters with the various parts of the mouth, such as the alveolar bridge, the tongue and the lips.

Among Allah’s Signs: the Sun, the Moon, the Sky and the Earth

Allah said, “The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.” They move in their orbit in perfect succession, according to precise calculation that is never delayed nor disturbed, “It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.” (36:40), “(He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for calculating. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.” (6:96), Allah said, “And the Najm and the trees prostrating.” Ibn Jarir commented, “Scholars of Tafsir disagreed over the meaning of Allah’s statement, ‘And the Najm.’ They agreed, however, that the trees mentioned here are those that stand on trunks.” (At-Tabari 23:11)

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “An-Najm refers to the plants that lay on the ground.” (At-Tabari 23:11)

Similar was said by Said bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and Sufyan Ath-Thawri. (At-Tabari 23:11) This is what Ibn Jarir preferred, may Allah have mercy upon him. Mujahid said, “An-Najm (the star); the one that is in the sky.” (At-Tabari 23:12) Al-Hasan and Qatadah said similarly. (At-Tabari 23:12) This is the saying that is the most obvious, and Allah knows best, for Allah the Exalted said, “See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving creatures, and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah.” (22:18)

Allah’s statement, “And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.” meaning the justice, as He said in another Ayah, “Indeed, We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and sent down with them the Book and the balance that mankind may keep up equity.” (57:25) Allah said here, “In order that you may not transgress the balance.” meaning, He created the heavens and earth in justice and truth so that everything is founded on, and observing, justice and truth. Allah’s statement, “And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.” meaning, do not cheat in the weights and measures, but rather observe justice and fairness, “And weigh with the true and straight balance.” (26:182) Allah said, “And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-Ana’m.” Allah raised the heavens and put down, or laid, the earth and balanced it with firm mountains, so that it would be stable for its residents that live on it, i.e. the various types and kinds of creatures, different in species, shape, color and language. Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Al-An’am means the creatures. (At-Tabari 23:15-16)

“Therein are fruits,” of various colors, taste and scent, “and date palms producing Akmam.” Allah mentioned the date tree here specifically because of its benefit, both fresh and dry. Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn Abbas said said Al-Akmam, means sheathed fruit stalks. (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:693) Similar was said by more than one of the scholars of Tafsir, it refers to the stalks that the seeds grow in to become a cluster of dates, unripe green dates then they ripen and ripen more.

Allah said, “And also corn, with (its) Asf, and Rayhan.” Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said that in, “And also corn, with (its) Asf”, Asf means straw.” (At-Tabari 23:18) Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas, “Asf is green leaves cut from the stem, so it is called Asf when it dries out.” Similarly, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Malik said that Asf means straw.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and others said that Rayhan means leaves, (At-Tabari 23:19) while Al-Hasan said that it means sweet-scented plants. (Al-Baghawi 4:268) Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that Rayhan means green leaves.(At-Tabari 23:21)

The meanings here, and Allah knows best, are the various crops that produce straw, such as wheat and barley, and Rayhan are the leaves that grow on the stems.

Mankind is surrounded by Allah’s Favours

Allah said, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?” meaning, “O mankind and Jinn, which of the favours that Allah has given to you do you deny?” Mujahid and others said this, and itis apparent when one reads what comes after it . Meaning the favors that are obvious to you while you are surrounded by them, you cannot deny or reject them.

So we say, just as thebelievers among the Jinns said, “O Allah! None of Your favors do we deny. All praise is due toYou. ” Ibn Abbas used to say, “Nay, our Lord! ” meaning, “None of Your favors do we deny. ” (At-Tabari 23:23)

{14. He created man from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.

15. And the Jinn He created from a smokeless flame of fire.

16. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

17. The Lord of the two easts and the Lord of the two wests.

18. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

19. He has Maraj a the two seas meet ing together.

20. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.

21. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

22. Out of them both come out pearls and Al-Marjan.

23. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

24. And His are Al-Jawar Al-Munsha’at , in the seas like Alam.

25. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

The Creation of Humans and Jinns

Allah mentions that He created mankind from clay, like that used in pottery, and created the Jinns from the tip of the flame of a smokeless fire. This was said by Ad-Dahhak from Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 23:26) It was also said by Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 23:27) Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas, “From the best part of the fire, from its smokeless flame.” (At-Tabari 23:26) Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah said that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“The angels were created from light, the Jinns from a smokeless flame of fire, and Adam from what was described to you.” (Ahmad 6:168) 

Muslim also collected this Hadith. (Muslim 4:2294)

Allah’s statement: “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?” was explained above.

Allah is the Lord of the Two Easts and the Two Wests

Allah said, “(He is) the Lord of the two easts and the Lord of the two wests.” meaning the sunrise of summer and winter and the sunset of summer and winter. Allah said in another Ayah, “So, I swear by the Lord of all the points of sunrise and sunset in the east and the west.” (70:40), referring to the different places from which the sun rises and then sets on people every day. Allah said in another Ayah, “The Lord of the east and the west; none has the right to be worshipped but He. So take Him alone as a trustee.” (73:9), referring to the different places of sunrise and sunset and the benefits that this variation brings to the created, mankind and Jinns, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

Allah created Different Types of Water

Allah said, “He has Maraja the two seas”, or let them loose, according to Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 23:29) Allah’s statement, “meeting together.” Ibn Zayd said, “He prevents them from meeting by the dividing barrier He placed between them to separate them.” (At-Tabari 23:31) The two seas are the fresh and salty waters, the former coming from running rivers. We discussed this topic in Surat Al-Furqan when explaining Allah’s statement; “And it is He Who has let free the two seas: one palatable and sweet, and the other salty and bitter; and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them.” (25:53)

Allah said, “Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.” meaning, He has placed a barrier of land between these two types of waters, so that they do not transgress upon each other, which would spoil the characteristics they were created with.

Allah said, “Out of them both come out pearls and Al-Marjan.” pearls are well-known. As for Marjan they say it means small pearls. Mujahid, Qatadah, Abu Ruzayn, Ad-Dahhak said it, and it has also been reported from Ali. (At-Tabari 23:33) It was also said that it means large, precious pearls, this was mentioned by Ibn Jarir from some of the Salaf. (At-Tabari 23:34)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn Abbas who said, “When it rains, the oysters in the sea open their mouths. What falls in them, the drops, turns into pearls.” (At-Tabari 23:35) Its chain of narrators is Sahih.

Since this type of adornment is a favor from Allah to the people of earth, He reminded them of it, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?” Allah said, “And His are Al-Jawar Al-Munsha’at”, meaning the ships that float, (in the seas), Mujahid said, “Whatever ship hoists a sail, it is from Munsha’at, if it does not hoist a sail, it is not from the Munsha’at.” (At-Tabari 23:37)

Qatadah said, “Al-Munsha’at means created.” Others said that it is Al-Munshi’at meaning, “launched.” “like Alam.” This means, they are like mountains with their great size, and it also refers to the trade and commercial services they make possible, transporting cargo from one area to another and from one province to another. Ships provide various benefits for people, including transporting different types of goods they need. Therefore, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

{26. Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.

27. And the Face of your Lord Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram will remain forever.

28. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

29. Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth begs of Him. Every day He is (engaged) in some affair!

30. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

Allah is the Ever Living, Free of all Need

Allah states that all the residents of earth will perish and die. The residents of the heavens will die, except whomever Allah wills. Only Allah’s Honorable Face will remain, because our Lord, the Exalted, the Blessed, is the Ever Living Who never dies. Qatadah said, “First, Allah mentioned His creatures and then He said that all of this will perish.” And in the reported supplication: ‘O You the Ever Living Who sustains all that exists! O You Who created the heavens and the earth without precedence. O You, Who Owns the glory and the honor, none has the right to be worshipped except You. We seek refuge with Your mercy. Grant Us success in all of our matters. Please, do not abandon us to rely on ourselves even for an instant nor on any of Your creation.” Ash-Shabi said, “When you have recited, “Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.” do not stop, continue reading, “And the Face of your Lord Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram will remain forever.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:698) This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement, “Everything will perish save His Face.” (28:88) In this Ayah, Allah describes His Noble Face as being Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram, indicating that He is Worthy of being revered, and thus, never defied; and obeyed, and thus, never disobeyed, “And keep yourself patiently with those who call on their Lord morning and afternoon, seeking His Face.” (18:28), And as He said about those giving charity: “We feed you seeking Allah’s Face only.” (76:9)

Ibn Abbas commented on the meaning of Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram, by saying, “Owner of greatness and pride.” (At-Tabari 23:86)

After Allah stated that all of the inhabitants of the earth will die and end up in the Hereafter when He, Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram, will judge them by His fair judgement, He said, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

Allah said, “Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth begs of Him. Every day He is (engaged) in some affair.” In this Ayah, Allah affirms that He is Rich, Free of all wants for anyone else and that all creatures stand in need of Him, in all conditions and situations. They all seek His help willingly or unwillingly. Everyday, He is engaged in some affair. Al-Amash reported from Mujahid, from Ubayd bin Umayr, “Every day He is (engaged) in some affair.” He said, “Of His affairs is that He answers the supplicant, or gives to the one requesting, or removing adversity, or cures the one seeking to be cured.” (At-Tabari 23:39)

{31. We shall attend to you, O Thaqalan!

32. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

33. O assembly of Jinn and men! If you are able to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass beyond (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allah)!

34. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?

35. There will be sent against you both, Shuwaz of fire and Nuhas, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.

36. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?}

A Warning for Humans and Jinn

Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah, “We shall attend to you,” means, ‘We shall judge you,’ while Al-Bukhari said that it means, “We shall recompense you. Surely, nothing will busy Allah from attending to anything else.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:487) This type of speech pattern is common in the Arabic language. For example, one would say, “I will attend to you,” even when one is not busy with anything else. Allah’s saying; “O you Thaqalan!” refers to the humans and the Jinns, as in the Hadith; “Everyone will be able to hear it, except the Thaqalayn.” (Fath Al-Bari 3:244) In another narration that explains it, the Prophet said,

“…except mankind and the Jinns.”

Allah said, “Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny”, then, “O assembly of Jinn and men! If you are able to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass beyond (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allah)!” meaning, ‘you will never be able to escape Allah’s orders and decrees, because it encompasses you. You will never be able to avoid or avert His rule and judgement over you, you are surrounded by it wherever you may be.’

This is also about the Gathering when the angels, comprising seven lines in every direction, will surround the creatures. None of the creatures will be able to escape on that Day, “except with authority” meaning, except with the commandment from Allah, “On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee?” No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.” (75:10-12), “And those who earned evil deeds, the recompense of an evil deed is the like thereof, and humiliating disgrace will cover them. No defender will they have from Allah. Their faces will be covered as it were with pieces from the darkness of night. They are the dwellers of Fire, they will abide therein forever.” (10:27)

Allah’s statement,“There will be sent against you both, Shuwaz of fire and Nuhas, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas that Shuwaz is the flame of fire. (At-Tabari 23:45) Abu Salih said, “It is the flame above the fire below the smoke.” Ad-Dahhak said, “Shuwaz of fire” “A flood of fire.” Allah said; “and Nuhas” Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas; “The smoke of the fire.” (At-Tabari 23:47) Similar was reported from Abu Salih, Said bin Jubayr and Abu Sinan. (At-Tabari 23:47) Ibn Jarir said that the Arabs used to call the smoke of the fire, Nuhas and Nihas. But he said that the scholars of Qur’anic recitation said that in this Ayah, the word recited is Nuhas. (At-Tabari 23:48) Mujahid said, “Molten brass poured over their heads.” (At-Tabari 23:48) Qatadah held the same view. (At-Tabari 23:48) Ad-Dahhak said,”Nuhas is liquid copper.” The Ayah means, ‘if you, mankind and the Jinns, try to escape on the Day of Resurrection, then the angels, including those among them who guard Hellfire, will bring you back by directing smoke of fire and molten brass on you.’ Allah’s statement, “and you will not be able to defend yourselves. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny?”

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abrdiged) Vol 9 Pages 375-391

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Tafsir of Surah Al-Qamar Ayat 1-55 (end)

Surah Al-Qamar

(The Moon)

Chapter 54

Which was revealed in Makkah

 

The Hadith of Abu Waqid preceded, in which it is mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, would recite Surah Qaf (chapter 53) and Surah Al-Qamar, (chapter 54), during (the Id Prayers of) Al-Adha and Al-Fitr. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to recite these two Surahs during major gatherings and occasions because they contain Allah’s promises and warnings, and information about the origin of creation, Resurrection, Tawhid, the affirmation of Prophethood, and so forth among the great objectives.

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.

2. And if they see an Ayah, they turn away and say: “This is magic, Mustamir.”

3. They denied and followed their own lusts. And every matter will be settled.

4. And indeed there has come to them news wherein there is Muzdajar.

5.Perfect wisdom, but warners benefit them not.}

The Hour draws near; the cleaving of the Moon

Allah informs about the approach of the Last Hour and the imminent end and demise of the world, “The Event ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it.” (16:1), “Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.” (21:1)

Hadiths about the Last Hour

There are several Hadiths with this meaning. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Anas said that one day, when the sun was about to set, the Messenger of Allah gave a speech to his Companions, saying, “By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Not much of this world is left compared to what has already passed of it, except as much as what is left in this day of yours compared to what has already passed of it.” Anas said, “We could only see a small part of the setting sun at the time.” (Majma Az-Zawaid 10:31)

Another Hadith that supports and explains the above Hadith is recorded by Imam Ahmad that Abdullah bin Umar said, “We were sitting with the Prophet while the sun was rising above Quayqaan, [A hill in Makkah near the Hijr of the Kabah] after Asr. He said,

“What remains of your time, compared to what has passed, is as long as what remains of this day compared to what has passed of it.” (Ahmad 2:115)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa’d said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say,

“I was sent like this with the Last Hour.”

and he pointed with his middle and index finger. (Ahmad 5:338) The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. (Fath Al-Bari 11:355 and Muslim 4:2268)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Wahb As-Suwa’i said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I was sent just before the Last Hour, like the distance between this and this; the latter almost overtook the former.”

Al-Amash joined between his index and middle fingers while narrating this Hadith.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Awzai said that Ismail bin Ubaydullah said, “Anas bin Malik went to Al-Walid bin Abdul-Malik who asked him about what he heard from the Messenger of Allah about the Last Hour. Anas said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah say, “You and the Last Hour are as close as these two (fingers).”‘ Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith. (Ahmad 3:223) There is proof to support these Hadiths in the Sahih listing, Al-Hashir (literally the Gatherer), among the names of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him; he is the first to be gathered, and all people will be gathered thereafter (for the Day of Judgement). (Fath Al-Bari 6:641) Allah’s statement, “and the moon has been cleft asunder.” It occurred during the time of Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, according to the authentic Mutawatir Hadiths the scholars agree that the moon was cleft asunder during the lifetime of the Prophet, and it was among the clear miracles that Allah gave him.

Hadiths mentioning that the Moon was split

The Narration of Anas bin Malik

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “The people of Makkah asked the Prophet for a miracle and the moon was split into two parts in Makkah. Allah said, “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.” (Ahmad 3:165) Muslim also collected this Hadith. (Muslim 4:2159) Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “The people of Makkah asked the Messenger of Allah to produce a miracle, and he showed them the splitting of the moon into two parts, until they saw (the mount of) Hira’ between them.” (Fath Al-Bari 7:221 and 8:484 and Muslim 4:2159) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs with various chains of narration.

The Narration of Jubayr bin Mutim

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mutim said, “The moon was split into two pieces during the time of Allah’s Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, a part of the moon was over one mountain and another part over another mountain. So they said, ‘Muhammad has taken us by his magic.’ They then said, ‘If he was able to take us by magic, he will not be able to do so with all people.”’ (Ahmad 4:81) Only Imam Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bayhaqi used another chain of narration in a similar Hadith he collected in Ad-Dala’il. (Dalail An-Nubuwwah 2:268)

The Narration of Abdullah bin Abbas

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “The moon was split during the time of the Prophet .” (Fath Al-Bari 8:484) Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. (Fath Al-Bari 7:221 and Muslim 4:2159) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s saying: “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder. And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: “This is magic, Mustamir.” “This occurred before the Hijrah; the moon was split and they saw it in two parts.” (At-Tabari 22:569)

The Narration of Abdullah bin Umar

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Abdullah bin Umar commented on Allah’s statement: “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.” “This occurred during the time of Allah’s Messenger; the moon was split in two parts. A part of it was before the mount and a part on the other side. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“O Allah! Be witness.” (Dalail An-Nubuwwah 2:267)

This is the narration that Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected. (Muslim 4:2158-2159 and Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:175) At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

The Narration of Abdullah bin Masud

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Masud said, “The moon was split in two parts during the time of Allah’s Messenger, and they saw its two parts. Allah’s Messenger said, “Be witnesses.” (Ahmad 1:377) Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. (Fath Al-Bari 8:483 and Muslim 4:2158)

Ibn Jarir recorded that Abdullah (Ibn Masud) said, “I saw the mountain between the two parts of the moon when it was split.” (At-Tabarani 22:567) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah said, “The moon was split during the time of Allah’s Messenger and I saw the mount between its two parts. (Ahmad 1:413)

The Stubbornness of the idolators

Allah said, “And if they see an Ayah”, if they see proof, evidence and a sign, “they turn away”, they do not believe in it. Rather, they turn away from it, abandoning it behind their backs, “and say: “This is magic, Mustamir.” They say, ‘the sign that we saw was magic, which was cast on us.’ Mustamir, means, ‘will soon go away’, according to Mujahid, Qatadah (At-Tabari 22:570) and several others. The Quraysh said that the cleaving of the moon was false and will soon diminish and fade away, “They denied and followed their own lusts.”, they rejected the truth when it came to them, following the ignorance and foolishness that their lusts and desires called them to. Allah’s statement, “And every matter will be settled.” means, the good deeds will take their doers to all that is good and righteous, and similarly evil deeds will take their doers to all that is evil, according to Qatadah, (At-Tabari 22:52) while Ibn Jurayj said, “will settle according to its people.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:673) Mujahid commented on the meaning of, “And every matter will be settled.” by saying, “On the Day of Resurrection.” Allah’s statement, “And indeed there has come to them news”; in this Qur’an, there has come to them the news of the earlier nations that disbelieved in their Messengers and the torment, punishment and affliction that befell them, “wherein there is Muzdajar”, wherein there are warnings and lessons to stop them from idolatry and persisting in denial, “Perfect wisdom,” in that Allah guides whomever He wills and misguides whomever He wills, “but warners benefit them not.” but the preaching of warnings does not benefit those upon whom Allah has written misery and sealed their hearts. Who can guide such people after Allah This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statements, “Say: “With Allah is the perfect proof and argument; had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.” (6:149) and, “But neither Ayat nor warners benefit those who believe not.” (10:101)

{6. So withdraw from them. The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.

7. They will come forth, with humbled eyes from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad,

8. Hastening towards the caller. The disbelievers will say: “This is a hard Day.”}

The terrible End the Disbelievers will meet on the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted says, ‘O Muhammad, turn away from these people who, when they witness a miracle, they deny it and say that this is continuous magic.’ Turn away from them and wait until, “The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.” to the Recompense and the afflictions, horrors and tremendous hardships that it brings forth, (with humbled eyes), their eyes will be covered with disgrace, “they will come forth from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad.” They will gather towards the area of Reckoning in such haste and crowds, in response to the caller, as if they were crowds of locusts spreading all about. Allah said, “Hastening” meaning hurriedly, “towards the caller.” without being able to hesitate or slow down, “The disbelievers will say: “This is a hard Day.”, meaning, ‘this is a hard, terrible, horrifying and distressful Day,’ “Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day – far from easy for the disbelievers.” (74:9-10)

{9. The people of Nuh denied (their Messenger) before them. They rejected Our servant and said: “A madman!” Wazdujir.

10. Then he invoked his Lord (saying): “I have been overcome, so help (me)!”

11. So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir.

12. And We caused springs to gush forth from the earth. So, the waters met for a matter predestined.

13. And We carried him on a (ship) made of planks and nails (Dusur)

14. Floating under Our Eyes, a reward for him who had been rejected!

15.And indeed, We have left this as a sign. Then is there any that will remember?

16. Then how (terrible) was My torment and My warnings?

17. And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there anyone who will remember?}

The Story of the People of Nuh and the Lesson from it

Allah the Exalted said, (denied) ‘before your people, O Muhammad,’ “the people of Nuh. They rejected Our servant” means, they denied him categorically and accused him of madness, (At-Tabari 22:576) “and said: “A madman!” Wazdujir.” Mujahid said about Wazdujir: “He was driven out accused on account of madness.” It was also said that Wazdujir means, he was rebuked, deterred, threatened and warned by his people saying: “If you do not stop O Nuh, you will be among those who will be stoned.” (26:116) This was said by Ibn Zayd, (At-Tabari 22:577) and it is sound. “Then he invoked his Lord (saying): “I have been overcome, so help (me)!” meaning, ‘I am weak and cannot overcome or resist my people, so help Your religion!’ Allah the Exalted said, “So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir.”

As-Suddi said about Munhamir, “It means abundant.”(Al-Qurtubi 17:131) “And We caused springs to gush forth from the earth.” means, from every part of the earth, and even ovens in which fire was burning — water and springs gushed forth, “So, the waters met”, means, of the heaven and the earth, “for a matter predestined.” Ibn Jurayj reported from Ibn Abbas: “So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir”, Torrential rain, the only water that fell from the sky before that day and ever since was from clouds. But the sky’s gates were opened on them that day, and therefore, the water that came down was not from clouds. So both the waters “of the earth and the heaven” met according to a matter ordained.” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:675) Allah said, “And We carried him on a (ship) made of planks and nails (Dusur)”, Ibn Abbas, Said bin Jubayr, Al-Qurazi, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Dusur means nails. (At-Tabari 22:580 and Al-Qurtubi 17:132) Ibn Jarir preferred this view. Allah’s statement, “Floating under Our Eyes”, means, ‘by Our command and under Our protection and observation,’ “a reward for him who had been rejected!” meaning, as recompense for them because of their disbelief in Allah and as reward for Nuh, peace be upon him.

Allah the Exalted said, “And indeed, We have left this as a sign.” Qatadah said, “Allah left the ship of Nuh intact until the first generation of this Ummah were able to see it.” (At-Tabari 22:582)

However, it appears that the meaning here is that Allah kept ships as a sign. For instance, Allah the Exalted said, “And a sign for them is that We bore their offspring in the laden ship. And We have created for them of the like thereunto, on which they ride.” (36:41-42), “Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the boat. That We might make it an admonition for you and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.” (69:11-12)

Allah’s statement here, “Then is there any that will remember?” means, ‘is there any that will receive admonition and reminder. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said, “The Prophet recited to me, “Then is there any that will remember?” (Fath Al-Bari 8:485)

Al-Bukhari collected a similar Hadith from Abdullah that he said, “I recited to the Prophet “Then is there any that will remember?” and the Prophet said, (Fath Al-Bari 8:484)

“Then is there any that will remember?”

Allah’s statement, “Then how (terrible) was My torment and My warnings?” means, ‘how terrible was My torment that I inflicted on those who disbelieved in Me and denied My Messengers, who did not heed to My warnings How was My help that I extended to My Messengers and the revenge exerted on their behalf,’ “And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember”; meaning, ‘We have made the Qur’an easy to recite and comprehend for those who seek these traits, to remind mankind,’ as Allah said, “(This is) a Book which We have sent down to you, full of blessings, that they may ponder over its Ayat, and that men of understanding may remember.” (38:29), “So We have made this (the Qur’an) easy in your own tongue, only that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa and warn with it the most quarrelsome people.” (19:97) Allah said, “Then is there any that will remember?”, meaning, ‘is there anyone who will remember through this Qur’an, which We made easy to memorize and easy to understand’ Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi commented on this Ayah, “Is there anyone who will avoid evil?” (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur 7:676)

{18. Ad denied; then how was My torment and My warnings

19. Verily, We sent against them a violently cold (Sarsar) wind on a day of calamity, continuous.

20. Plucking out men as if they were uprooted stems of date palms.

21. Then, how was My torment and My warnings?

22. And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember?}

The Story of Ad

Allah states that Ad, the People of Hud, denied their Messenger, just as the people of Nuh did. So, Allah sent on them, “against them a violently cold (Sarsar) wind“, means, a bitterly cold and furious wind, “on a day of calamity”, against them, according to Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and As-Suddi, (At-Tabari 22:587) “continuous”, upon them because the calamity, torment and destruction that they suffered in this life on that day continued with that of the Hereafter, “Plucking out men as if they were uprooted stems of date palms.” The wind would pluck one of them and raise him high, until he could no longer be seen, and then violently send him down on his head to the ground. His head would be smashed and only his body would be left, headless, “as if they were uprooted stems of date palms. Then, how was My torment and My warnings? And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember?”

{23. Thamud denied the warnings.

24. And they said: “A man, alone among us – shall we follow him? Truly, then we should be in error and distress!”

25. “Is it that the Reminder is sent to him alone from among us? Nay, he is an insolent liar!”

26. Tomorrow they will come to know who is the liar, the insolent one!

27. Verily, We are sending the she-camel as a test for them. So watch them, and be patient!

28. And inform them that the water is to be shared between (her and) them, each one’s right to drink being established (by turns).

29. But they called their comrade and he took (a sword) and killed (her).

30. Then, how was My torment and My warnings?

31. Verily, We sent against them a single Sayhah, and they became like straw Al-Muhtazir.

32. And indeed, We have made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember}

The Story of Thamud

Allah states here that the people of Thamud denied their Messenger Salih, “And they said: “A man, alone among us — shall we follow him Truly, then we should be in error and distress!” They said, ‘We would have earned failure and loss if we all submitted to a man from among us.’ They were amazed that the Reminder was sent to him alone among them, and therefore, accused him of being a liar, “Nay, he is an insolent liar!”, means, he has tresspassed the limits in his lies. Allah the Exalted responded, “Tomorrow they will come to know who is the liar, the insolent one!”, thus warning and threatening them and delivering a sure promise to them, “Verily, We are sending the she-camel as a test for them.” To test and try the people of Thamud, Allah sent to them a superb, pregnant female camel that emerged from solid rock, according to their request, so that it would become a proof against them from Allah, the Exalted. Thereafter, they were supposed to believe in what was brought to them by Salih, peace be upon him. Allah ordered His servant and Messenger Salih, “So watch them, and be patient!” Allah commanded, ‘await, O Salih, and see what will become of them and be patient; verily the better end will be yours and you will have success in this life and the Hereafter,’ “And inform them that the water is to be shared between them” one day for her to drink and one day for them to drink, “He said: “Here is a she-camel: it has a right to drink, and you have a right to drink (water) on a day, known.” (26:155) Allah’s statement, “each one’s right to drink being established.” Mujahid said, “When she did not drink, they would drink the water, and when she drank, they would drink her milk.” (At-Tabari 22:592)

Allah the Exalted said; “But they called their comrade and he took and killed.” According to the Scholars of Tafsir, his name was Qudar bin Salif; he was the evilest among them, “When the most wicked man among them went forth (to kill the she-camel).” (91:12) Allah said here, “and he took” meaning to harm, “and killed (her). Then, how was My torment and My warnings”, ‘I tormented them, so how was the torment I sent on them because of their disbelief in Me and denying My Messenger’ “Verily, We sent against them a single Sayhah, and they became like straw Al-Muhtazir.” They all perished and none of them remained. They were no more, they died out, just as plants and grass dry and die out. As-Suddi said that they became like the dry grass in the desert when it becomes burned and the wind scatters it all about. Ibn Zayd said, “The Arabs used to erect fences made of dried bushes, around their camels and cattle, so Allah said, “like straw Al-Muhtazir.”

{33. The people of Lut denied the warnings.

34. Verily, We sent against them Hasib (a violent storm of stones), except the family of Lut, them We saved in the last hour of the night,

35. As a favor from Us. Thus do We reward him who gives thanks.

36. And he indeed had warned them of Our punishment, but they doubted the warnings!

37. And they indeed sought to shame his guests. So, We blinded their eyes (saying), “Then taste you My torment and My warnings.”

38. And verily, an abiding torment seized them early in the morning.

39. Then taste you My torment and My warnings.

40. And indeed, We have made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember}

The Story of the People of the Prophet Lut

Allah the Exalted states that the people of Lut defied and denied their Messenger and committed sodomy, the awful immoral sin that no people in the history of mankind had committed before. This is why Allah destroyed them with a type of torment that He never inflicted upon any nation before them. Allah the Exalted commanded Jibril, peace be upon him, to raise their cities to the sky and then turn them upside down over them, followed by stones made of marked Sijjil. So He said here: “Verily, We sent against them Hasib (a violent storm of stones) except the family of Lut, them We saved in the last hour of the night.”

They left the city in the last part of the night and were saved from the torment that struck their people, none of whom believed in Lut. And even Lut’s wife suffered the same end as her people. Allah’s Prophet Lut left Sodom with his daughters in safety, unharmed. Allah said, “Thus do We reward him who gives thanks. And he indeed had warned them of Our punishment,” meaning, before the torment struck his people, he warned them of Allah’s torment and punishment. They did not heed the warning, nor listen to Lut, but instead doubted and disputed the warning. “And they indeed sought to shame his guests” that is the night the angels Jibril, Mika’il and Israfil came to him in the shape of handsome young men, as a test from Allah for Lut’s people. Lut hosted his guests, while his wife, the evil old one, sent a message to her people informing them of Lut’s guests. They came to him in haste from every direction, and Lut had to close the door in their faces. They came during the night and tried to break the door; Lut tried to fend them off, while shielding his guests from them, saying, “These are my daughters, if you must act (so).” (15:71), in reference to their women, “They said: “Surely, you know that we have neither any desire nor need of your daughters!” (11:79), meaning, ‘we do not have any desire for women,’ “and indeed you know well what we want!” (11:79)

When the situation became serious and they insisted on coming in, Jibril went out to them and struck their eyes with the tip of his wing, causing them to lose their sight. They went back feeling for the walls to guide them, threatening Lut with what would befall him in the morning. Allah the Exalted said, “And verily, an abiding torment seized them early in the morning.” meaning, a torment that they had no way of escaping or avoiding, “Then taste you My torment and My warnings. And indeed, We have made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember”

{41. And indeed, warnings came to the people of Firawn.

42. (They) denied all Our signs, so We seized them with a punishment of the Almighty, All-Capable.

43. Are your disbelievers better than these? Or have you immunity in the Divine Scriptures?

44. Or say they: “We are a great multitude, victorious”

45. Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.

46. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time, and the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.}

The Story of Firawn and His People

Allah the Exalted narrates to us the story of Firawn and his people. A Messenger came to them from Allah, Musa supported by his brother Harun. Their Messengers delivered good news if they believe, and a warning if they rejected the Message. Allah supported Musa and Harun with tremendous miracles and great signs, but Firawn and his people rejected all of them. Allah took them the way the All-Mighty, the All-Capable would; He destroyed them all leaving none surviving to tell the story of what happened to them.

Advising and Threatening the Quraysh

Allah said, “Are your disbelievers?” meaning, ‘O idolators of the Quraysh,’ “better than these” meaning better than the nations that were mentioned here, who were destroyed on account of their disbelief in the Messengers and rejecting the Scriptures. ‘Are you better than these’ “Or have you immunity in the Divine Scriptures?”, ‘do you have immunity from Allah that the torment and punishment will not touch you?’ Allah said about the Quraysh, “Or say they: “We are a great multitude, victorious” stating that they believed they will support each other and their great gathering will avail them against those who intend to harm them. Allah the Exalted responded, “Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.” affirming that their gathering shall scatter, and they shall be defeated. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, while in a dome-shaped tent on the day of the battle of Badr, said,

“O Allah! I ask you for the fulfillment of Your covenant and promise. O Allah! If You wish (to destroy the believers), You will never be worshipped on the earth after today.”

Abu Bakr caught him by the hand and said, ‘This is sufficient, O Allah’s Messenger! You have sufficiently asked and petitioned Allah.’ The Prophet was clad in his armour at that time and went out, saying,

“Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:485-486)

Al-Bukhari also recorded that Yusuf bin Mahak said, “I was with the Mother of the faithful, A’ishah, when she said, ‘When I was still a young playful girl in Makkah, this Ayah was revealed to Muhammad, “Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.” This is the abridged narration that Al-Bukhari collected, but he also collected a longer narration of it in the Book of the Virtues of the Qur’an. (Fath Al-Bari 8:486 and 8:655) Muslim did not collect this Hadith.

{47. Verily, the criminals are in error and will burn.

48. The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire (it will be said to them): “Taste you the touch of Hell!”

49. Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.

50. And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.

51. And indeed, We have destroyed your likes; then is there any that will remember

52. And everything they have done is noted in Az-Zubur.

53. And everything, small and large, is written down.

54. Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers.

55.In a seat of truth, near the Muqtadir King.}

The Destination of the Criminals

Allah the Exalted states that the criminals are misguided away from the truth and engulfed in confusion, because of the doubts and uncertainty they are in. This description befits every disbeliever and innovator of all types and forms of sects. Allah the Exalted said, “The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire”, meaning, just as they were consumed in doubt, suspicion and hesitation, they ended up in the Fire. And just as they were misguided, they will end up being dragged on their faces, unaware of where they will be taken. They will be admonished and criticized, “Taste you the touch of Hell!”

Everything was created with Qadar

Allah’s statement, “Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.” is similar to several other Ayat, “He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements (Faqaddarahu Taqdir).” (25:2) and, “Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High. Who has created (everything), and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (Qaddara) and then guided.” (87:1-3), i.e., He measured out the total sum (Qadar) of everything and then guided the creation to it. The Imams of the Sunnah relied on this honorable Ayah as evidence that Allah created the creation with destined limits before they were created. He knew everything that will occur before it occurred and recorded everything that will occur, before they occurred. They used this Ayah and similar Ayat and Hadiths to refute the Qadariyyah sect, who started their sect during the latter time of the Companions. I mentioned this subject in detail in my explanation on the chapter on faith of Sahih Al-Bukhari. I will mention here some Hadiths pertaining to this honorable Ayah.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “The idolators of the Quraysh came to the Messenger of Allah arguing with him and discounting the Qadar. This Ayah was revealed, “The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire: “Taste you the touch of Hell!” Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.”(Ahmad 1:444) Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. (Muslim 4:2046, Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:176 and Ibn Majah 1:32)  Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Zurarah said that his father said that the Prophet recited this Ayah, “Taste you the touch of Hell!” Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.” and then said,

“These Ayat were revealed about some members of my Ummah. They will come before the end of time and deny Al-Qadar.” (At-Tabarani 5:276)

Ata’ bin Abi Rabah said, “I went to Ibn Abbas and found him drawing water from the well of Zamzam. The bottom of his clothes were wet with the water of Zamzam and I said to him, ‘They talked about Al-Qadar (some denied it).’ He asked, ‘Have they done this?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘By Allah! This Ayah was revealed only about them, “Taste you the touch of Hell!” Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.” They are the worst members of this Ummah. Do not visit those who fall ill among them or pray the Funeral prayer for those among them who die. If I saw one of them, I would pluck out his eyes with these two fingers of mine.” (Ibn Abi Hakim 18715 Juz Al-Hasan bin Arafah 46)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Nafi said, “Abdullah bin Umar had a friend in the area of Ash-Sham who used to write to him. Abdullah bin Umar wrote to him, ‘I was told that you started talking about Al-Qadar. Therefore, do not dare write to me any more. I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say,

“There will be some members of my Ummah who will deny Al-Qadar.” (Ahmad 2:90)

Abu Dawud collected this Hadith from Ahmad bin Hanbal. (Abu Dawud 5:20) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Every thing is predetermined, even laziness and intelligence.” (Ahmad 2:110)

Muslim collected this Hadith using a chain of narration through Imam Malik. (Muslim 4:2045) There is also an authentic Hadith in which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Seek the help of Allah and do not succumb to feebleness. And when an affliction strikes you, say, “Allah has decreed this, and He does as He wills.” Do not say, “Had I done this or that, this or that would have happened, because “if” opens the door wide for the work of Ash-Shaytan.” (Muslim 4:2052)

In a Hadith from Abbas, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to him,

“Know that if the Ummah were to all gather their strength to cause you some benefit that Allah has not decreed for you, they will never be able to bring you that benefit. And if they gather their strength to bring a harm to you that Allah has not written on you, they will never be able to harm you. The pens have gone dry and the Books of Record have been closed.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:219)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ubadah bin Al-Walid bin Ubadah said that his father said to him, “I went to Ubadah when he was ill, and I thought that he was going to die. So I said, ‘O my father, advise us and make the best effort in this regard.’ He said, ‘Help me sit up,’ and when he was helped up, he said, ‘O my son! Know that you will not taste the delight of Faith or earn true knowledge in Allah until you believe in Al-Qadar, the good and the not so good parts of it.’ I asked, ‘O my father! How can I know (or believe in) Al-Qadar, the good and the not so good parts of it?’ He said, ‘When you know that what has missed you, would never have come to you and what has befallen you would never have missed you. O my son! I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say,

“The first thing Allah created was the Pen, right after that commanded it, Record!’ and the Pen recorded everything that will occur until the Day of Resurrection.”

O my son! If you die not having this belief, you will enter the Hellfire.”’ (Ahmad 5:317) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it and said: “Hasan Sahih Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 6:368)

It is confirmed in Sahih Muslim from Abdullah bin Amr that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, Allah recorded the measurements for the creatures fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.”

Ibn Wahb added, “And His Throne was over the water.” (11:7) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it, and he said: “Hasan, Sahih Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 6:370)

A Warning to beware of Allah’s Threats

Allah said, “And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.” This is information about the execution of His will in His creation, just as He informed us the execution of His decree in them, “And Our commandment is but one” meaning, ‘We only command a thing once, without needing to repeat the command; and whatever We command comes to existence faster than the blinking of an eye without any delay, not even for an instant.’ Allah said, “And indeed, We have destroyed your likes”, i.e. the earlier nations who denied their Messengers, “then is there any that will remember” meaning, is there any that will receive admonition by remembering the humiliation and torment that Allah decreed for them “And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire, as was done in the past with the people of their kind.” (34:54) Allah’s statement, “And everything they have done is noted in Az-Zubur.” meaning, everything they did is recorded in the Books of Record entrusted to the angels, peace be upon them, “And everything, small and large,” meaning, of their actions, “is written down.” everything that they do is recorded and written in their Record of deeds, which leave nothing, whether large or small, but it is recorded and counted. Imam Ahmad recorded that A’ishah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“O A’ishah! Beware of small sins, because there is someone assigned by Allah who records them.” (Ahmad 6:151)

An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah also collected this Hadith. (Tuhfat Al-Ashraf 12:250 and Ibn Majah 2:1417)

The Good End for Those with Taqwa

Allah said, “Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers”, unlike the end that the miserable are facing, loss, confusion and being dragged in the Fire on their faces, as well as being disgraced, punished and threatened. Allah said, “In a seat of truth,” in the Dwelling of Allah’s honor, encompassed by His pleasure, favours, bounties, generosity and compassion, “near the Muqtadir King.” meaning with the Magnificent King Who created everything and measured its destiny; He is able to grant them whatever they wish and ask for.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, the just will be with Allah on podiums of light, to the right of Ar-Rahman, and both of His Hands are right. They are those who are just and fair in their judgement and with their families and those whom they are responsible for.” (Ahmad 2:160)

Muslim and An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith. (Muslim 3:1458 and An-Nasai 8:221)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Al-Qamar.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and success and immunity from error come from Him.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Vol 9) Abridged Pages 344-374

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Tafsir of Surah Najm Ayat 31-62 (end)

{31. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.

32.Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam — verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness. He knows you well when He created you from the earth (Adam), and when you were fetuses in your mothers’ wombs. So, ascribe not purity to yourselves. He knows best him who has Taqwa.}

Allah knows Every Matter, whether Small or Big, and He rewards Each according to His or Her Deeds

Allah asserts that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is independent of the need for anyone. He is the authority over His creation and rules them with justice. He created the creation in truth, “that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.” He recompenses each according to his or her deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

Qualities of the Good-doers; Allah forgives the Small Faults

Allah stated that the gooddoers are those who avoid major sins and immoral sins. They sometimes commit minor sins, but they will be forgiven these minor sins and covered from exposure, as Allah mentioned in another Ayah; “If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance.” (4:31) Allah said here, “Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam”, Al-Lamam means, small faults and minor errors. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “I have not seen anything that resembles Al-Lamam better than the Hadith that Abu Hurayrah narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,

“Verily, Allah the Exalted has decreed for the Son of Adam his share of Zina and he will certainly earn his share. The Zina of the eye is by looking, the Zina of the tongue is by talking and the heart wishes and lusts, but the sexual organ either substantiates all this or not.” (Ahmad 2:276)

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. (Fath Al-Bari 11:28 and Muslim 4:2046) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Masud said, “The eyes commit Zina by looking, the lips by kissing, the hands by transgressing, the feet by walking, and the sexual organ either materializes all of this or not. When one commits sexual intercourse, he will be someone who committed Zina. Otherwise, it is Al-Lamam.” (At-Tabari 22:537) Masruq (At-Tabari 22:537) and Ash-Shabi also held the same view. Abdur-Rahman bin Nafi, who is also known as Ibn Lubabah At-Ta’ifi, said, “I asked Abu Hurayrah about Allah’s statement, “except the Lamam”, and he said, ‘It pertains to kissing, winking one’s eye, looking and embracing. When the sexual organ meets the sexual organ in intercourse then Ghusl is obligatory, and that is Zina.” (At-Tabari 22:537)

Encouraging Repentance and forbidding Claims of Purity for Oneself

Allah’s statement, “verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness.” asserts that His Mercy encompasses everything, and His forgiveness entails every type of sin, if one repents, “Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (39:53) Allah said, “He knows you well when He created you from the earth,” Allah says, ‘He was and still is the All-Knowing Whose knowledge encompasses your affairs, statements and all of the actions that will be committed by you, even when He created your father Adam from the earth and took his offspring from his loin, as small as ants. He then divided them into two groups, a group destined for Paradise and a group to Hellfire, “and when you were fetuses in your mothers’ wombs.” when He commanded the angel to record one’s provisions, age, actions and if he would be among the miserable or the happy. Allah said, “So, ascribe not purity to yourselves.” forbidding one from ascribing purity and praising himself and thinking highly of his actions, “He knows best him who has Taqwa.” Allah said in another Ayah, “Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves? Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with unjustly, even equal to the extent of a Fatil [thread of a date stone].” (4:49) In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata said, “I called my daughter, Barrah (the pious one), and Zaynab bint Abu Salamah said to me, ‘The Messenger of Allah forbade using this name. I was originally called Barrah and he said,

“Do not ascribe purity to yourselves; Allah knows best who the pious people among you are.”

They said, ‘What should we call her?’ He said,

“Call her Zaynab.” (Muslim 3:1687)

Imam Ahmad recorded a Hadith from Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah, from his father who said, “A man praised another man before the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Messenger of Allah said,

“Woe to you, you have cut off the neck of your friend! (He repeated this) If one of you must praise a friend of his, let him say, “I think that so-and-so is this and that; Allah knows best about him and I will never purify anyone before Allah,” if he knows his friend to be as he is describing him.” (Ahmad 5:46 and 5:41)

Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. (Fath Al-Bari 5:324)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Hammam bin Al-Harith said, “A man came before Uthman bin Affan and praised him. Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad started throwing sand in the face of that man, saying, ‘The Messenger of Allah ordered us to throw sand in their faces when we see those who praise.”’ (Ahmad 6:5) Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith. (Muslim 4:2297 and Abu Dawud 5:153)

{33. Did you observe him who turned away (from Islam).

34. And gave a little, then stopped

35. Is with him the knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees

36. Or is he not informed with what is in the Suhuf of Musa,

37. And of Ibrahim who fulfilled all that:

38. That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another.

39. And that man can have nothing but what he does.

40. And that his deeds will be seen.

41. Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.}

Chastising Those Who disobey Allah and stop giving Charity

Allah the Exalted chastises those who turn away from His obedience, “So he (the disbeliever) neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turned away!” (75:31-32), “And gave a little, then stopped” Ibn Abbas said, “Gave a little, then stopped giving.” (At-Tabari 22:541) Similar was said by Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Qatadah and several others. (At-Tabari 22:542) Ikrimah and Said said: “Like the case of a people who dig a well, during the course of which they find a rock preventing them from completing their work. So they say, ‘We are finished’ and they abandon the work.”

Allah’s statement, “Is with him the knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees?” means, does this person, who stopped giving for fear of poverty and ended his acts of charity have knowledge of the Unseen and thus knows that if he does not stop giving, his wealth will go away? No. Such a person has stopped giving in charity for righteous causes and did not keep relations with kith and kin because of his miserliness, being stingy and out of fear of poverty. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said in a Hadith,

“O Bilal, spend and fear not less provisions from the Owner of the Thone.” (At-Tabarani 10:191)

Allah the Exalted and Most honoured said, “And whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah’s cause), He will replace it. And He is the Best of providers.” (34:39)

The Meaning of ‘fulfilled’

Allah the Exalted said, “Or is he not informed with what is in the Suhuf of Musa. And of Ibrahim who fulfilled”, Said bin Jubayr and Ath-Thawri said it means: “Conveyed all that he was ordered to convey.” (At-Tabari 22:544) Ibn Abbas said about: “fulfilled” “He delivered all that Allah ordered him to deliver.” Said bin Jubayr said about: “fulfilled”, “What he was ordered.” (At-Tabari 22:544) Qatadah said about: “fulfilled”, “He obeyed Allah and delivered His Message to His creatures.” This is the view preferred by Ibn Jarir because it includes the statement before it and supports it. Allah said, “And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled. He said: “Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind.” (2:124) Therefore, Ibrahim fulfilled all the commands of his Lord, stayed away from all the prohibitions, and conveyed Allah’s Message in its entirety. Therefore, he is worthy of being made a leader for mankind in all of his affairs, statements and actions. Allah the Exalted said, “Then, We have sent the revelation to you (saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim, a Hanif, and he was not of the idolators.” (16:123)

None shall carry the Burden of Any Other on the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted explained what He has revealed in the Scripture of Ibrahim and Musa, “That no burdened person shall bear the burden of another.” Meaning, every soul shall carry its own injustices, whether disbelief or sin, and none else shall carry its burden of sin, as Allah states “And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.” (35:18) Allah said, “And that man can have nothing but what he does.” So just as no soul shall carry the burden of any other, the soul shall only benefit from the good that one earns for himself. As for the Hadith recorded by Muslim in the Sahih, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“When a person dies, his deeds will cease except in three cases: from a righteous son who invokes Allah for him, or an ongoing charity after his death, or knowledge that people benefit from.” (Muslim 3:1255)

These three things are, in reality, a result of one’s own deeds, efforts and actions. For example, a Hadith states,

“Verily, the best type of provision that one consumes is from what he himself has earned, and one’s offspring are among what he has earned.” (An-Nasai 7:241)

The ongoing charity that one leaves behind, like an endowment, for example, are among the traces of his own actions and deeds. Allah the Exalted said, “Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them) and their traces.” (36:12) The knowledge that one spreads among people which they are guided by is among his actions and deeds. A Hadith collected in the Sahih states,

“Whoever invites to guidance, he will earn as much reward as those who follow him, without decreasing anything out of their own rewards.” (Muslim 4:2060)

Allah said, “And that his deeds will be seen.” meaning, on the Day of Resurrection, “And say: “Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.” (9:105), Then Allah will remind you of your actions and recompense you for them in the best manner, good for good and evil for evil. Allah’s statement here, Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.”

{42. And that to your Lord is the End.

43. And that it is He Who makes laugh, and makes weep.

44. And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.

45. And that He creates the pairs, male and female,

46. From Nutfah when it is emitted.

47. And that upon Him is another bringing forth (Resurrection).

48. And that it is He Who Aghna and Aqna.

49. And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shira.

50. And that it is He Who destroyed the former Ad,

51. And Thamud. He spared none of them.

52. And the people of Nuh aforetime. Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.

53. And He destroyed the overthrown cities.

54. So, there covered them that which did cover.

55. Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt}

Some Attributes of the Lord, that He returns Man as He originated Him, and some of what He does with His Servants

Allah the Exalted said, “And that to your Lord is the End.” meaning, the return of everything on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Amr bin Maymun Al-Awdi said, “Once, Muadh bin Jabal stood up among us and said, ‘O Children of Awd! I am the emissary of Allah’s Messenger to you; know that the Return is to Allah, either to Paradise or the Fire.”’ (Al-Hakim 1:83) Allah’s statement, “And that it is He Who makes you laugh, and makes you weep.” means that He created in His creatures the ability to laugh or weep and the causes for each of these opposites, “And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.”

In a similar statement, Allah said, “Who has created death and life.” (67:2) Allah said, “And that He creates the pairs, male and female. From Nutfah when it is emitted.” as He said: “Does man think that he will be left neglected Was he not a Nutfah Then he became an Alaqah (something that clings); then (Allah) shaped and fashioned (him) in due proportion. And made of him two sexes, male and female. Is not He (Allah) able to give life to the dead?” (75:36-40)

Allah the Exalted said, “And that upon Him is another bringing forth.” meaning, just as He first originated creation, He is able to bring it back to life, resurrecting it for the Day of Judgement, “And that it is He Who Aghna (gives much) and Aqna (a little).” It is Allah Who gives wealth to His servants and this wealth remains with them. This means they are able to use it to their benefit, is this out of the completeness of His favor. Most of the statements of the scholars of Tafsir revolve around this meaning, such as those from Abu Salih, Ibn Jarir and others. (At-Tabari 22:548-549) Mujahid said that, “Aghna” meaning: He gives wealth. “Aqna” meaning: He gives servants. Similar was said by Qatadah. Ibn Abbas and Mujahid said; “Aghna” means: He granted; while, “Aqna” means: He gave contentment. “And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shira.” Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said about Ash-Shira that it is the bright star, named Mirzam Al-Jawza’ (Sirius), which a group of Arabs used to worship. (At-Tabari 22:551) “And that it is He Who destroyed the former Ad” the people of Hud. They are the descendants of Ad, son of Iram, son of Sam, son of Nuh. As Allah the Exalted said, “Saw you not how your Lord dealt with Ad? Of Iram, with the lofty pillars, the like of which were not created in the land” (89:6-8) The people of Ad were among the strongest, fiercest people and the most rebellious against Allah the Exalted and His Messenger. Allah destroyed them, “By a furious violent wind! Which Allah imposed in them for seven nights and eight days in succession.” (69:6-7) Allah’s statement, “And Thamud. He spared none”, declares that He destroyed them all and spared none of them, “And the people of Nuh aforetime.” before Ad and Thamud, “Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.” more unjust in disobeying Allah than those who came after them, “And He destroyed the overthrown cities.” meaning, the cities (of Sodom and Gomorrah) to which Prophet Lut was sent. Allah turned their cities upside down over them and sent on them stones of Sijjil. Allah’s statement that whatever has covered it, has covered it, is like the case with the stones of Sijjil that He sent on them, “And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned!” (26:173) Allah said, “Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt” meaning, ‘which of Allah’s favors for you, O man, do you doubt,’ according to Qatadah. (At-Tabari 22:556) Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah, “Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt”, is directed towards the Prophet saying: “O Muhammad!” However, the first ex- planation is better, and it is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred.

{56. This is a warner from the warners of old.

57. The Azifah draws near.

58. None besides Allah can avert it.

59. Do you then wonder at this recitation?

60. And you laugh at it and weep not,

61. While you are Samidun.

62. So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.}

A Warning and Exhortation, the Order to prostrate and to be humble

Allah said, “This is a warner” in reference to Muhammad, “from the warners of old.” means, just like the warners of old, he was sent as a Messenger as they were sent as Messengers. Allah the Exalted said, “Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers.” (46:9) Allah said; “The Azifah draws near.” that which is near, the Day of Resurrection, has drawn nearer, “None besides Allah can avert it.” no one besides Allah can prevent it from coming, nor does anyone know when it will come, except Him. The warner is eager to convey his knowledge of the imminence of a calamity, so that it does not befall those to whom he is a warner. As He said; “He is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.” (34:46) And in the Hadith:

“I am the naked warner” (Fath Al-Bari 11:323) meaning, I was in such a hurry to warn against the evil I saw coming, that I did not wear anything. In this case, one rushes to warn his people in such haste that he will be naked. This meaning befits the meaning of the Ayah, “the Azifah draws near”, in reference to the nearing Day of Resurrection. Allah said in the beginning of the Surah: “The Hour has drawn near.” (54:1) Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa’d said that the Messenger of Allah said,

“Beware of small sins! The example of the effect of small sin is that of people who settled near the bottom of a valley. One of them brought a piece of wood, and another brought another piece of wood, until they cooked their bread! Verily, small sins will destroy its companion, if one is held accountable for them.” (Ahmad 5:331)

Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators because they hear the Qur’an, yet they turn away from it in heedless play, “wonder” doubting that it is true. “And you laugh” in jest and mock at it, “and weep not,” just as those who believe in it weep, “And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.” (17:109)

Allah said; “While you are Samidun.” Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that his father narrated that Ibn Abbas said about Samidun, “Singing; in Yemenite dialect Ismid for us’ means ‘Sing for us.”’ Ikrimah said something similar. (At-Tabari 22:559) In another narration from Ibn Abbas, he said that, (Samidun) means, “Turning away.” (Abdur Razzaq 3:255) Similar was reported from Mujahid and Ikrimah.

Allah the Exalted ordered His servants to prostrate to Him, worship Him according to the way of His Messenger, and to fulfill the requirement of Tawhid and sincerity, “So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.” meaning, with submission, sincerity, and Tawhid. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Mamar said that Abdul-Warith said that Ayyub said that Ikrimah said that, Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet prostrated upon reciting An-Najm and the Muslims, idolators, Jinns and mankind who were present prostrated along with him.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:480) Only Muslim collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Muttalib bin Abi Wada’ah said, “While in Makkah, the Messenger of Allah once recited Surat An-Najm, then prostrated along with all those who were with him at the time. I raised my head, however, and I refused to prostrate.” Al-Muttalib had not embraced Islam yet, but ever since he became Muslim, he would never hear anyone recite this Surah until the end, without prostrating with whomever was prostrating after reciting it. (Ahmad 6:399) An-Nasa’i also collected this Hadith in the Book of Al-Bukhari, excluding prayer in his Sunan. (An-Nasai 2:160)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Najm.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 327-343

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Tafsir of Surah Najm Ayat 1-30

Surah Najm

(The Star)

Chapter 53

Which was revealed in Makkah

 

The First Surah in which a Prostration is revealed

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah [bin Masud] said, “Surat An-Najm was the first Surah in which a prostration was revealed. The Prophet (recited it in Makkah) and prostrated. Those who were with him did the same, except an old man who took a handful of soil and prostrated on it. Later on, I saw him killed as a disbeliever; he was Umayyah bin Khalaf.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:480) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in several places of his Sahih, as did Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, using various chains of narration through Abu Ishaq from Abdullah. (Fath Al-Bari 2:461)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. By the star when it goes down.

2. Your companion has neither gone astray nor has he erred.

3. Nor does he speak of desire.

4. It is only a revelation revealed.}

Allah swears the Messenger is True and His Words are a Revelation from Him

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Shabi and others stated that the Creator swears by whatever He wills among His creation, but the created only vow by the Creator. Allah said, “By the star when it goes down.” Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, “The star refers to Pleiades when it sets at Fajr.” (At-Tabari 22:495) Ad-Dahhak said “When the Shayatin are shot with it.” And this Ayah is like Allah’s saying; “So, I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily, that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. That is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of all that exists.” (56:75-80) Allah said; “Your companion has neither gone astray nor has erred.” This contains the subject of the oath. This part of the Ayah is the witness that the Messenger of Allah is sane and a follower of Truth. He is neither led astray, such as in the case of the ignorant who does not proceed on any path with knowledge, nor is he one who erred, such as in the case of the knowledgeable, who knows the Truth, yet deviates from it intentionally to something else. Therefore, Allah exonerated His Messenger and his Message from being similar to the misguided ways of the Christians and the erroneous paths of the Jews, such as knowing the Truth and hiding it, while abiding by falsehood. Rather, he, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on him, and his glorious Message that Allah has sent him with, are on the perfect straight path, following guidance and what is correct.

Muhammad was sent as a Mercy for all that exists; He does not speak of His Desire

Allah said, “Nor does he speak of desire”, asserting that nothing the Prophet utters is of his own desire or wish, “It is only a revelation revealed”, means, he only conveys to the people what he was commanded to convey, in its entirety without additions or deletions. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say,

“Verily, numbers similar to the two tribes, or one of them, Rabiah and Mudar, will enter Paradise on account of the intercession of one man, who is not a Prophet.”

A man asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! Is not Rabiah a subtribe of Mudar?” The Prophet said,

“I said what I said.” (Ahmad 5:257)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr said, “I used to record everything I heard from the Messenger of Allah so it would be preserved. The Quraysh discouraged me from this, saying, ‘You record everything you hear from the Messenger of Allah, even though he is human and sometimes speaks when he is angry.’ I stopped recording the Hadiths for a while, but later mentioned what they said to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said,

“Write! By He in Whose Hand is my soul, every word that comes out of me is the Truth.” (Ahmad 2:162)

Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith. (Abu Dawud 4:60)

{5. He has been taught by one mighty in power.

6. Dhu Mirrah then he Istawa.

7. While he was in the highest part of the horizon,

8. Then he approached and came closer,

9. And was at a distance of two bows’ length or less.

10. So (Allah) revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.

11. The heart lied not in what he saw.

12. Will you then dispute with him about what he saw?

13. And indeed he saw him at a second descent.

14. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha.

15. Near it is the Paradise of Abode.

16. When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!

17. The sight turned not aside, nor it transgressed beyond the limit.

18. Indeed he saw of the greatest Signs of his Lord.}

 

The Trustworthy Angel brought Allah’s Revelation to the Trustworthy Messenger

Allah the Exalted states that the Message His servant and Messenger Muhammad brought to people was taught to him by, “mighty in power”, he is Jibril, peace be upon him, “Verily, this is the Word a most honorable messenger, owner of power, with (Allah) the Lord of the Throne, obeyed (by the angels) and trustworthy.” (81:19-21) Allah said here, “Dhu Mirrah”, meaning, he is mighty in power, according to Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ibn Zayd. (At-Tabari 22:499) In an authentic Hadith from Abdullah bin Umar and Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet said, “Charity is not allowed for a rich person nor Dhu Mirrah (a strong person) of sound mind and body.” (Abu Dawud 2:286) Allah said; “then he Istawa (rose).” this refers to the angel Jibril, according to Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas, (At-Tabari 22:501) “While he was in the highest part of the horizon.” meaning, Jibril rose to the highest part of the horizon, according to Ikrimah and several others; Ikrimah said, “The highest horizon where the morning comes from.” Mujahid said, “It is (the place of) sunrise.” (Al-Qurtubi 17:88) Qatadah said, “That from which the day comes.” Ibn Zayd and several others said similarly.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said, “The Messenger of Allah saw Jibril in his original shape having six hundred wings, each wing filling the side of the horizon, with a colourful array, and pearls and rubies falling from each wing as much as only Allah knows.” (Ahmad 1:395) Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Abbas said, “The Prophet asked Jibril to appear himself to him in his original shape and Jibril said to him, ‘Invoke your Lord.’ The Prophet invoked his Lord the Exalted and Most Honored, and a great huge figure appeared to him from the east and kept rising and spreading. When the Prophet saw Jibril in his original shape, he was knocked unconscious. Jibril came down and revived the Prophet and wiped the saliva off of his cheeks.” (At-Tabari 22:503) Only Ahmad collected this Hadith.

Meaning of “at a distance of two bows’ length or less

Allah’s statement, “And was at a distance of two bows length or less.” means, Jibril came closer to Muhammad when Jibril was descending to him on earth. At that time, the distance between them became only two bow lengths, when the bows are extended to full length, according to Mujahid and Qatadah. It was said that the meaning here is the distance between the bow’s string and its wood center. Allah’s statement, (or less) indicates that the distance was as only as far described, not more. This type of usage is found in several instances in the Qur’an, such as, “Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness.” (2:74) The Ayah says that their hearts became not softer than rocks, but as hard and difficult as rocks, and more. There is a similar Ayah, “fear men as they fear Allah or even more.” (4:77), and Allah’s statement, “And We sent him to hundred thousand (people) or even more.” (37:147), indicating that they were not less than a hundred thousand, but that amount or more. Therefore, this verifies the facts mentioned, leaving no doubt or means of refute. Similarly, Allah said, “And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less.” We stated before that it was Jibril who came down near the Prophet , according to A’ishah, the Mother of the faithful, Abdullah bin Masud, Abu Dharr and Abu Hurayrah. (At-Tabari 22:504) We will mention their statements about this soon afterwards, Allah willing. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said about this Ayah, “And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less.” “Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I saw Jibril; he had six hundred wings.” (At-Tabari 22:503)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Talq bin Ghannam said that Za’idah said that Ash-Shaybani said, “I asked Zirr about the Ayah, “And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less. So (Allah) revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.” Zirr said, “Abdullah narrated to us that Muhammad saw Jibril having six hundred wings.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:476)

Allah’s statement, “So he revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.” means, Jibril conveyed to Allah’s servant Muhammad whatever he conveyed. Or, the meaning here could be: Allah revealed to His servant Muhammad whatever He revealed through Jibril. Both meanings are correct. Said bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement, “So He revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.” “Allah revealed to him, “Did He not find you an orphan.” (93:6), and, “And have We not raised high your fame” (94:4)” (Al-Qurtubi 17:52) Someone else said, “Allah revealed to the Prophet that the Prophets will not enter Paradise until he enters it first, and the nations will not enter it until his Ummah enters it first.”

Did the Prophet see His Lord during the Night of Isra?

Allah said next, “The heart lied not in what he saw. Will you then dispute with him about what he saw?” Muslim recorded from Ibn Abbas about: “The heart lied not in what he saw”, and, “And indeed he saw him at a second descent.”“He saw Allah twice in his heart.” (Muslim 1:158) Simak reported a similar from Ikrimah from Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 22:507) Abu Salih, As-Suddi and several others said similarly that the Prophet saw Allah twice in his heart. (At-Tabari 22:508)

Masruq said, “I went to A’ishah and asked her, ‘Did Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, see his Lord?’ She said, ‘You said something that caused my hair to rise!’ I said, ‘Behold!’ and recited this Ayah, “Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.” She said, ‘Where did your mind wander? It was Jibril. Whoever says to you that Muhammad saw his Lord, or hid any part of what he was commanded (i.e., Allah’s Message), or knew any of the five things which only Allah knows, “Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain…” (31:34), Then he invents a great lie against Allah! The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, only saw Jibril twice, in his original shape, once near Sidrat Al-Muntaha and another time in Ajyad (in Makkah) while Jibril had six hundred wings that covered the horizon.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:167) [The authentic narrations recorded by Muslim do not mention seeing Jibril at the Sidrah]

Muslim recorded that Abu Dharr said, “I asked the Messenger of Allah , ‘Have you seen your Lord?’ He said,

“How can I see Him since there was a light?”

In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I only saw a light.” (Muslim 1:161)

Allah’s statement, “And indeed he saw him at a second descent. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha. Near it is the Paradise of Abode.”

This is the second time the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, saw Jibril in that shape that Allah created him; it was during the Night of Isra. We mentioned the various hadiths about the Night of Isra in the beginning of Surah Al-Isra. Therefore, there is no need to repeat them here.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Masud commented: “And indeed he saw him at a second descent. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha.”  “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I saw Jibril while he had six hundred wings and a colorful array of pearls and rubies falling from the feathers of his wings.” (Ahmad 1:460)

This Hadith has a good, strong chain of narration. Ahmad also recorded that Abdullah [Ibn Masud] said, “The Messenger of Allah saw Jibril in his original shape while Jibril had six hundred wings, each wing covering the side of the horizon. From his wings, precious stones were dropping of which only Allah has knowledge.” (Ahmad 1:355) This Hadith has a good chain of narration.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I saw Jibril over Sidrat Al-Muntaha while he had six hundred wings.”

One of the subnarrators of the Hadith asked Asim about Jibril’s wings and Asim refused to elaborate. So some of his companions were asked and one of them said, “Each wing was covering what is between the east and the west.” (Ahmad 1:407) This Hadith has a good chain of narration.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Masud said that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“Jibril came to me wearing green with pearls hanging down.”

This Hadith has a good chain of narration.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Amir said that Masruq asked A’ishah, “O Mother of the faithful, has Muhammad seen his Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored” She said, “Glorious is Allah! My hair is standing on end because of what you said. Three matters, if one tells you about any of them, will have lied. Whoever tells you that Muhammad has seen his Lord, will have lied.” She then recited these two Ayat, “No vision can grasp Him, but He grasps all vision.” (6:103), and, “It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil.”(42:51) She went one, “And whoever tells you that Muhammad knew what the morrow will bring, will have uttered a lie.” She then recited, “Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs.”(31:34) A’ishah said, “And whoever tells you that Muhammad has hidden any part of the Message will have lied,” and she then recited this Ayah, “O Messenger proclaim which has been sent down to you from your Lord.” (5:67). She went one, “However, he saw Jibril twice in his original shape.” (Ahmad 6:49)

Imam Ahmad also recorded that Masruq said, “I asked A’ishah, ‘Did not Allah say, “And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.” (81:23), and, “And indeed he saw him at a second descent” She said, “I was the first among this Ummah to ask Allah’s Messenger about it. He said,

“That was Jibril.”

He only saw him twice in his actual and real figure. He saw Jibril descend from heaven to earth and was so huge that he covered the whole horizon between the sky and earth.” (Ahmad 6:241) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs via Ash-Shabi. (FathAl-Bari 8:472)

Angels, Light and colors covered Sidrat Al-Muntaha

Allah said, “When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!” We mentioned before, in the Hadiths about Al-Isra’ that the angels, Allah’s Light, and spectacular colors covered the Sidrah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said, “When the Messenger of Allah was taken on the Isra’ journey, he ascended to Sidrat Al-Muntaha, which is in the seventh heaven. There everything terminates that ascends from the earth and is held there, and terminates everything that descends from above it is held there, “When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!” He said, “Golden butterflies. The Messenger of Allah was given three things: He was given the five prayers, he was given the concluding verses of Surat Al-Baqarah (2:284-286), and remission of serious sins for those among his Ummah who do not associate anything with Allah.” (Ahmad 1:422) Muslim collected this Hadith. (Muslim 1:157)

Allah’s statement, “The sight turned not aside, nor it transgressed beyond the limit.” indicates that the Prophet’s sight did not turn right or left, according to Ibn Abbas, (At-Tabari 22:521) “nor it transgressed beyond the limit.” not exceeding what has been ordained for it. This is a tremendous quality that demonstrates the Prophet’s firm obedience to Allah, because he only did what was commanded and did ask beyond what he was given.

Allah’s statement, “Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.” is similar to another Ayah, “In order that We might show him of Our Ayat.” (17:1), meaning, signs that testify to Allah’s might and greatness. Relying on these two Ayat, some scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah said that the Prophet did not see Allah during the Isra’ journey, because Allah said, “Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.” They said that, had the Prophet seen his Lord, Allah would have conveyed this news and the Prophet would have narrated it to the people.

{19. Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-Uzza.

20. And Manat, the other third

21. Is it for you the males and for Him the females?

22. That indeed is a division most unfair!

23. They are but names which you have named – you and your fathers – for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!

24. Or shall man have what he wishes

25. But to Allah belongs the last (Hereafter) and the first (the world).

26. And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing, except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.}

Refuting Idolatry, Al-Lat and Al-Uzza

Allah the Exalted rebukes the idolators for worshipping idols and taking rivals to Him. They built houses for their idols to resemble the Kabah built by Prophet Ibrahim, Allah’s Khalil. “Have you then considered Al-Lat?” Al-Lat was a white stone with inscriptions on. There was a house built around Al-Lat in At-Ta’if with curtains, servants and a sacred courtyard around it. The people of At-Ta’if, the tribe of Thaqif and their allies, worshipped Al-Lat. They would boast to Arabs, except the Quraysh, that they had Al-Lat. Ibn Jarir said, “They derived Al-Lat’s name from Allah’s Name, and made it feminine. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It was reported that Al-Lat is pronounced Al-Lat because, according to Abdullah bin Abbas, Mujahid, and Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq (a kind of barley mash) with water for the pilgrims during the time of Jahiliyyah. When he died, they remained next to his grave and worshipped him.” (At-Tabari 22:523) Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said about Allah’s statement, “Al-Lat, and Al-Uzza.” “Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq for the pilgrims.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:478) Ibn Jarir said, “They also derived the name for their idol Al-Uzza from Allah’s Name Al-Aziz. Al-Uzza was a tree on which the idolators placed a monument and curtains, in the area of Nakhlah, between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The Quraysh revered Al-Uzza.” (At-Tabari 22:523) During the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan said, “We have Al-Uzza, but you do not have Al-Uzza.” Allah’s Messenger replied,

“Say, “Allah is Our Supporter, but you have no support.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:188)

Manat was another idol in the area of Mushallal near Qudayd, between Makkah and Al-Madinah. The tribes of Khuzaah, Aws and Khazraj used to revere Manat during the time of Jahiliyyah. They used to announce Hajj to the Kabah from next to Manat. Al-Bukhari collected a statement from A’ishah with this meaning. (Fath Al-Bari 8:479) There were other idols in the Arabian Peninsula that the Arabs revered just as they revered the Kabah, besides the three idols that Allah mentioned in His Glorious Book. Allah mentioned these three here because they were more famous than the others.

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated, “Al-Lat belonged to the tribe of Thaqif in the area of At-Ta’if. Banu Muattib were the custodians of Al-Lat and its servants.” (Ibn Hisham 1:87) I say that the Prophet sent Al-Mughirah bin Shubah and Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb to destroy Al-Lat. They carried out the Prophet’s command and built a Masjid in its place in the city of At-Ta’if.

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Manat used to be the idol of the Aws and Khazraj tribes and those who followed their religion in Yathrib (Al-Madinah). Manat was near the coast, close to the area of Mushallal in Qudayd. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, sent Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb or Ali bin Abi Talib to demolish it. Ibn Ishaq said that Dhul-Khalasah was the idol of the tribes of Daws, Khatham and Bajilah, and the Arabs who resided in the area of Tabalah. (Ibn Hisham 1:87) I say that Dhul-Khalasah was called the Southern Kabah, and the Kabah in Makkah was called the Northern Kabah. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, sent Jarir bin Abdullah Al-Bajali to Dhul-Khalasah and he destroyed it. Ibn Ishaq said that Fals was the idol of Tay’ and the neighboring tribes in the Mount of Tay’, such as Salma and Ajja. Ibn Hisham said that some scholars of knowledge told him that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, sent Ali bin Abi Talib to Fals and he destroyed it and found two swords in its treasure, which the Prophet then gave to Ali as war spoils. Muhammad bin Ishaq also said that the tribes of Himyar, and Yemen in general, had a house of worship in Sana’ called Riyam. He mentioned that there was a black dog in it and that the religious men who went with Tubba removed it, killed it and demolished the building. Ibn Ishaq said that Ruda’ was a structure of Bani Rabiah bin Kab bin Sad bin Zayd Manat bin Tamim, (Ibn Hisham 1:89) which Al-Mustawghir bin Rabiah bin Kab bin Sad demolished after Islam. In Sindad there was Dhul-Kabat, the idol of the tribes of Bakr and Taghlib, the sons of the Wa’il, and also the Iyad tribes.

Refuting the Idolators Who appoint Rivals to Allah and claim that the Angels were Females

Allah the Exalted said, “Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-Uzza. And Manat, the other third”, then Allah said, “Is it for you the males and for Him the females?” Allah asked the idolators, ‘do you choose female offspring for Allah and give preference to yourselves with the males If you made this division between yourselves and the created, it would be, “a division most unfair!” meaning, it would be an unfair and unjust division. ‘How is it then that you make this division between you and Allah, even though this would be foolish and unjust, if you made it between yourselves and others?’ Allah the Exalted refutes such innovated lies, falsehood and atheism they invented through worshipping the idols and calling them gods, “They are but names which you have named – you and your fathers” of your own desire, “for which Allah has sent down no authority.” meaning, proof, “They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire,” they have no proof, except their trust in their forefathers who took this false path in the past, as well as, their lusts and desires to become leaders, and thereby gain honor and reverence for their forefathers, “whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!”, meaning, Allah has sent them Messengers with the clear truth and unequivocal evidence. However, they did not adhere to or follow the guidance that came to them through the Prophets.

Wishful Thinking does not earn One Righteousness

Allah the Exalted said, “Or shall man have what he wishes”, asserting that not everyone gets the goodness that he wishes, “It will not be in accordance with desires (of Muslims), nor those of the People of Scripture.” (4:123) Allah says, not everyone who claims to be guided is truly guided, and not everyone gets what he wishes for himself. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“When one of you wishes for something, let him be careful with what he wishes for, because he does not know what part of his wish will be written for him.” (Ahmad 2:357) [There is a slight deficiency in the chain of narrators]

Only Ahmad collected this Hadith. Allah’s statement, “But to Allah belongs the last and the first.” meaning, all matters belong to Allah and He is the King and Owner of this world and the Hereafter, Who does what He will in both lives. Whatever He wills, occurs and whatever He does not will, never occurs.

No Interecession except with Allah’s Leave

Allah said, “And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.” As He said; “Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission?” (2:255) and, “Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.” (34:23) ‘If this is the case with the angels who are close to Him, how can you, O ignorant ones, hope for Allah to grant you the intercession of the idols and rivals you worship with Him without having His permission or any divine legislation permitting you to worship them’ Rather, Allah has forbidden idol worshipping by the tongues of all of His Messengers and He revealed this prohibition in all of His Books.

{27. Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.

28. But they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.

29. Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder and desires nothing but the life of this world.

30. That is what they could reach of knowledge. Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.}

Refuting the Claim of the Idolators that the Angels are Allah’s Daughters

Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators for calling the angels female names and claiming that they are Allah’s daughters. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah, “And they make females the angels, who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned!” (43:19) Allah’s statement here, “But they have no knowledge thereof.” meaning, they have no correct knowledge testifying to their statements. What they say is all lies, falsehood, fake and utter atheism, “They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.” meaning, conjecture is of no benefit and never takes the place of truth. In a Hadith recorded in the Sahih, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the most lying speech.” (Fath Al-Bari 5:441)

The Necessity of turning away from the People of Misguidance

Allah’s statement, “Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder”, means, stay away from those who turn away from the Truth and shun them, “and desires nothing but the life of this world.” meaning, whose aim and knowledge are concentrated on this life; this is the goal of those who have no goodness in them, “That is what they could reach of knowledge.” meaning, seeking this life and striving hard in its affairs is the best knowledge they have acquired.

There is also the reported supplication: “O Allah! Make not this life the greatest of our concerns nor the best knowledge that we can attain.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:476) Allah’s statement, “Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.” meaning, He is the Creator of all creatures and He knows whatever benefits His servants. Allah is the One Who guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and all of this indicates His power, knowledge and wisdom. Certainly, He is Just and never legislates or decrees unjustly.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 305-326

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Tafsir of Surah At-Tur Ayat 1-49 (end)

Surah At-Tur

(Mount Sanai)

Chapter 52

Which was Revealed in Makkah

 

The Virtues of Surat At-Tur

Malik narrated that Jubayr bin Mutim said, “I heard the Prophet reciting Surat At-Tur while praying Maghrib. Surely, I have never heard a more beautiful voice or recitation than his recitation.” (Al-Muwatta 1:78) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using a chain of narration that includes Malik. (Fath Al-Bari 2:289 and Muslim 1:338) Al-Bukhari recorded that Umm Salamah said, “I complained of being ill to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, and he said,

“Perform Tawaf (of the Kabah) behind the crowd, while you are riding.”

So, I performed Tawaf while the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was praying beside the House, reciting At-Tur.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:468)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

{1. By the Tur

2. And the Book inscribed

3. In parchment unrolled.

4. And by Al-Bayt Al-Mamur.

5. And the roof raised high.

6. And by the sea that is Masjur.

7. Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.

8. There is none that can avert it.

9. On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr,

10. And Tasir the mountains Sayr.

11. Then woe that Day to those who denied.

12. Those who were, in their falsehood, playing.

13. The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.

14. This is the Fire which you used to deny.

15. Is this magic or do you not see?

16. Enter therein and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same. You are only being requited for what you used to do.}

Allah swears that the Coming of Torment is Near

Allah swears by His creation, a testimony to His great ability, that His torment will surely befall His enemies; they will have no way of escaping it.

At-Tur is the mount that has trees, similar to the mount where Allah spoke to Musa, while Musa was on it, and the mount on which Allah started the prophethood of Isa. A mount that does not have trees is called Jabal, not Tur. Allah said, “And by the Book inscribed”, it is said that it means Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz, (the Preserved Tablet). It is also said that is refers to the divinely revealed inscribed Books that people recite, and this is why Allah said, “In parchment unrolled. And by Al-Bayt Al-Mamur.”

In the Two Sahihs it is confirmed that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said in the Hadith about Al-Isra’, after ascending to the seventh heaven:

“Then, I was taken to Al-Bayt Al-Mamur. It is visited every day by seventy thousand angels who will not come back to visit it again.” (Fath Al-Bari 6:349 and Muslim 1:150)

The angels worship Allah in Al-Bayt Al-Mamur and perform Tawaf around it just as the people of the earth perform Tawaf around the Kabah. Al-Bayt Al-Mamur is the Kabah of those who reside in the seventh heaven. During the Isra’ journey, the Prophet saw Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who was reclining with his back on Al-Bayt Al-Mamur. It was Ibrahim who built the Kabah on earth, and surely, the reward is compatible with the action.

Al-Bayt Al-Mamur is parallel to the Kabah; every heaven has its own house of worship, which is also the direction of prayer for its residents. The house that is located in the lower heaven, is called Bayt Al-Izzah. And Allah knows best.

The statement of Allah the Exalted, “And by the roof raised high.” Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Shubah, and Abu Al-Ahwas, all narrated from Simak, from Khalid bin Ararah, from Ali bin Abi Talib: “And by the roof raised high” “Meaning the heaven.” Sufyan added, “Then Ali recited, “And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs.” (21:32)’ (At-Tabri 22:257-258)

Similar was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Jurayj, Ibn Zayd and preferred by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 22:458)

The statement of Allah the Exalted, “And by the sea that is Masjur.” The majority say it refers to the oceans of the earth. Masjur, means, the sea will be kindled with fire on the Day of Resurrection just as Allah said in another Ayah, “And when the seas become as blazing fire.” (81:6) i.e. it will be kindled with fire and become a raging fire that surrounds the people in the gathering area, this was reported by Said bin Al-Musayyib from Ali bin Abi Talib. (At-Tabari 22:458)

It was also reported from Ibn Abbas, and it is the view of Said bin Jubayr, Mujahid, Abdullah bin Ubayd bin Umayr and others. Qatadah said, “Masjur is the ‘filled sea.”’ Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation saying, “The sea is not lit with fire now, so it is filled.”

Allah’s statement; “Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.” contains the subject of the vow, indicating that His torment will surely strike the disbelievers, as Allah stated in another Ayah; “There is none that can avert it.” indicating that when Allah decides to send the torment upon them, none can prevent it or stop it from striking them.

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya recorded that Jafar bin Zayd Al-Abdi said, “One night, in Al-Madinah, Umar went out investigating the welfare of Muslims and passed by the house of a man who was standing in voluntary prayer. Umar stood quietly, listening to his recitation; the man was reciting, “By At-Tur”, until he reached the Ayah, “Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass. There is none that can avert it.” Umar said, ‘By the Lord of the Kabah, this is a true vow.’ Umar dismounted his donkey and sat next to a wall for a while. He then went back to his house and fell ill for a month. During his illness, the people would visit him, not knowing what caused his illness.” May Allah be pleased with Umar.

Describing the Day of Torment, the Day of Resurrection

Allah said; “On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr” Ibn Abbas and Qatadah said: “Shaking violently.” (At-Tabari 22:462) Also from Ibn Abbas, “Split.” Mujahid said: “Spin violently.” Ad-Dahhak commented on the Ayah, saying, “The earth will violently spin and move by the command of Allah, and its areas will violently move towards each other.” (At-Tabari 22:362) This was preferred by Ibn Jarir, because of the meaning of the word, Mawra, which denotes meanings of spinning and shaking. Allah said, “And Tasir the mountains will Sayr.” will fade away and become scattered particles of dust blown away by the wind, “Then woe that Day to those who denied”, woe to them that Day as a result of Allah’s torment, punishment and affliction that He will direct at them, “Those who were in their falsehood, playing.” meaning, they live in this life in falsehood and make the religion the subject of their mockery and jest, “The Day when they will be pushed down by force” meaning, they will be violently driven and shoved, “to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.” Mujahid, Ash-Shabi, Muhammad bin Kab, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and Ath-Thawri said that this Ayah means, “They will be violently shoved into the Fire.” (At-Tabari 22:464) Allah said, “This is the Fire, which you used to deny.” meaning, the angels of punishment will say these words to them, while admonishing and chastising them, “Is this magic or do you not see Enter therein?” meaning, enter the Fire, ‘which will encircle you from every direction,’ “and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same.”‘whether you endure its torment and afflictions or not, you will never avert it or be saved from it,’ “You are only being requited for what you used to do.” and surely, Allah is never unjust with anyone. Most certainly, Allah recompenses each according to their deeds.

{17. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.

18. Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them, and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.

19. “Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do.”

20. They will recline on thrones Masfufah. And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.}

Description of the Destination of the Happy

Allah the Exalted described the destination of the happy ones, “Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.” in contrast to the torment and punishment of the miserable; “Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them,” meaning, enjoying the various types of delight that Allah has granted them therein, such as various types of foods, drinks, clothes, dwelling places, mounts, and so forth, “and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.” He saved them from the torment of the Fire, which is a bounty itself. Added to this blessing is the fact that they were entered into Paradise, which has delights that no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, nor has a heart ever imagined. The statement of Allah the Exalted, “Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do” is similar to another of His statements, “Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!” (69:24) meaning this is the just reward for your deeds; surely, all this is a favor from Allah and a reward from Him. Allah the Exalted said, “They will recline (with ease) on thrones Masfufah.” Ath-Thawri reported from Husayn, from Mujahid, from Ibn Abbas: “Thrones in howdahs.” And the meaning of, (Masfufah) is they will be facing each other, “Facing one another on thrones.” (37:44) Allah said next, “And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.” We made for them righteous spouses, beautiful wives from Al-Hur Al-Ayn. We mentioned the description of Al-Hur Al-Ayn in several other places in this Tafsir, and therefore, it is not necessary to repeat their description here.

{21. And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything. Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.

22. And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.

23.There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup, free from any idle talk, and free from sin.

24. And there will go round boy-servants of theirs, to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.

25. And some of them draw near to others, questioning.

26. Saying: “A foretime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.”

27. “So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.”

28.”Verily, We used to invoke Him before. Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.”}

The Offspring of Righteous Believers will be elevated to Their Grades in Paradise 

In this Ayah, Allah the Exalted affirms His favor, generosity, graciousness, compassion and beneficence towards His creation. When the offspring of the righteous believers imitate their parents regarding faith, Allah will elevate the latter to the ranks of the former, even though the latter did not perform deeds as goodly as their parents. Allah will comfort the eyes of the parents by seeing their offspring elevated to their grades. Surely, Allah will gather them together in the best manner, and He will not decrease the reward or the grades of those higher in rank for joining them together, hence His statement, “to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.” Ath-Thawri reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Verily, Allah elevates the ranks of the believers’ offspring to rank of their parents, even though the latter have not performed as well as the former, so that the eyes of the parents are comforted.” Ibn Abbas then recited this Ayah, “And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, – to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.” (Tafsir Ath-Thawri 283)

Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement from Sufyan Ath-Thawri from Ibn Abbas. (At-Tabari 22:467) Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, “And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring.” saying, “They are the offspring of the believers who died on the faith. If the ranks of their parents are higher than their ranks, they will be joined with their parents. No part of the reward their parents received for their good deeds will be reduced for them.”

Certainly, it is Allah’s grace and favour that He grants the children this blessing because of the good deeds of their parents. He also grants His favour to parents on account of their offspring invoking Allah for them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, Allah shall elevate the grade of a righteous servant in Paradise, who will ask, “O Lord! How did I earn this?” Allah will reply, “Through your son’s invoking Me to forgive you.” (Ahmad 2:509)

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration, but it was not recorded in the Sahih this way. However, there is a witnessing narration for it in Sahih Muslim, from the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“When the Son of Adam dies, his record of deeds will cease except in three cases: an ongoing charity, knowledge that people are benefiting from and a righteous son who invokes Allah for him.” (Muslim 3:1255)

Allah is Just with the Sinners

Allah the Exalted said, “Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.” After Allah mentioned His favour of elevating the offspring to the ranks of their parents, even though the deeds of the former did not qualify them, He affirmed His fairness in that, He does not punish anyone for the mistakes of others, “Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.” Therefore, every person will be responsible for his actions. No sin committed by others shall ever be added to one’s load, even if committed by his or her parents or offspring. Allah the Exalted said, “Every person is a pledge for what he has earned, except those on the Right. In Gardens, they will ask one another about the criminals.” (74:38-41)

Description of the Khamr of Paradise and the Delight of its Dwellers

Allah said, “And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.” meaning, `We shall provide them with various types and kinds of fruits and meat, whatever they wish for and desire,’ “There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup,” meaning, of wine, according to Ad-Dahhak, “free from any Laghw, and free from Ta’thim” meaning, when they drink, they do not say any idle, vain words or utter dirty, sinful speech like the drunken people in this life do. Ibn Abbas said that Laghw means ‘falsehood’ while Ta’thim means ‘lying’. (At-Tabari 22:474) Mujahid said, “They do not curse each other nor sin.” Qatadah said, “These were the consequences of drinking in this life, and Shaytan helped in this regard. Allah purified the wine of the Hereafter from the ills and harm caused by the wine of this life.” (At-Tabari 22:474) Therefore, Allah has purified the wine of the Hereafter from causing headaches, stomachaches and intoxication like the wine of this life. Allah stated that wine of the Hereafter shall not cause those who drink it to utter false, vain words that carry no benefit, full of foolishness and evil. Allah also described the wine of the Hereafter as beautiful in appearance, tasty and fruitful, “White, delicious to the drinkers. Neither will they have Ghawl from that nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.” (37:46-47) and, “Wherefrom they will get neither nay aching of the head nor any intoxication.” (56:19) Allah the Exalted said here, “There they shall pass from hand to hand a (wine) cup, free from any Laghw, and free from sin.” Allah said, “And there will go round boy-servants of theirs to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.” This is a description of the servants and aids, the believers will have in Paradise. Their servants will be beautiful, graceful in appearance, clean and neat as well-preserved pearls, “Immortal boys will go around them with cups, and jugs, and a glass of flowing wine.” (56:17-18) Allah the Exalted said, “And some of them draw near to others, questioning.” meaning, the believers will draw near to each other talking and remembering their actions and conditions in this life, just as people in this life talk while drinking, especially when they become intoxicated, “Saying: “Aforetime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.” meaning, ‘in the life of world and in the midst of our families, we were afraid of our Lord and fearful of His torment and punishment,’ “So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.” meaning, ‘He has granted us a favor and saved us from what we feared,’ “Verily, We used to invoke Him before.” meaning, ‘we used to invoke Him with submission and humility, and He accepted our invocation and gave us what we wished,’ “Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.”

{29. Therefore, remind. By the grace of Allah, you are neither a Kahin nor a madman. 

30. Or do they say: “A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!”

31. Say: “Wait! I am with you among those who wait!”

32. Or do their minds command them this or are they people transgressing all bounds?

33. Or do they say: “He has forged it”? Nay! They believe not!

34. Let them then produce a recitation like unto it if they are truthful.}

Absolving the Prophet of the False Accusations the Idolators made against Him

Allah the Exalted commands His Messenger to convey His Message to His servants and remind them of His revelation that has been sent down to him. Next, Allah refutes the false accusations that the liars and sinners accused the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, of, “Therefore, remind. By the grace of Allah, you are neither a Kahin nor a madman.” Allah says, ‘by the grace of Allah, you, O Muhammad, are not a Kahin, as the ignorant Quraysh idolators claim.’ A Kahin is the soothsayer who receives information from the Jinns that the Jinns are able to eavesdrop on news from heaven, “nor a madman” whom Shaytan has possessed with insanity. Allah the Exalted said, while chastising the pagans for uttering false statements about the Prophet, “Or do they say: “A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!” They said, ‘We await a disaster to strike him, for example, death. We will be patient with him until death comes to him and we, thus, get rid of his bother and from his Message.’ Allah the Exalted said, “Say: “Wait! I am with you among those who wait!” ‘wait and I too will wait with you, and you will come to know to whom the good end and triumph shall be granted in this life and the Hereafter.’ Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Abdullah bin Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that Ibn Abbas said, “When the Quraysh gathered in the Dar An-Nadwah “their meeting place” to discuss the matter of the Prophet, one of them said, Jail him in chains. Then we will wait and in time, a calamity will strike him; he will die just as the poets before him died, such as Zuhayr and An-Nabighah, for he is a poet just like them.’ Allah the Exalted said in response to their statement, “Or do they say: “A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!” (At-Tabari 22:479)

Allah the Exalted said, “Or do their minds command them this?”, ‘do their minds command them to tell these lies against you (O Muhammad), even though they know in their hearts that they are untrue and false,’ “or are they people transgressing all bounds” ‘surely, they are misguided, stubborn and unjust people, and this is why they say what they say about you (O Muhammad). ‘ Allah the Exalted said, “Or do they say: “He has forged it” They said, ‘he has forged this Qur’an and brought it from his own.’ Allah the Exalted responded to them, “Nay! They believe not!”, meaning, their disbelief drives them to utter these statements, “Let them then produce a recitation like unto it if they are truthful.” meaning, if they are truthful in their statement that Muhammad has forged this Qur’an and brought it of his own, then let them produce something similar to what he has brought forth, as in this Qur’an! And even if they combine their strength to that of the people of the earth, Jinns and mankind alike, they will never produce something like the Qur’an, or ten Surahs like it, or even one Surah!

{35. Or were they created by nothing? Or were they themselves the creators?

36. Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm belief.

37. Or are with them the treasures of your Lord? Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like?

38. Or have they a stairway (to heaven), by means of which they listen? Then let their listener produce some manifest proof.

39. Or has He only daughters and you have sons?

40. Or is it that you ask a wage from them so that they are burdened with a load of debt?

41. Or that the Unseen is with them, and they write it down?

42. Or do they intend a plot? But those who disbelieve are themselves plotted against!

43. Or have they a god other than Allah? Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners.}

Affirming Tawhid and annulling the Plots of the Idolators. This is the position where Tawhid of Allah’s Lordship and Divinity are affirmed

Allah the Exalted said, (Or were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators) Allah asks them, were they created without a maker or did they create themselves Neither is true. Allah is the One Who created them and brought them into existence after they were nothing. Al-Bukhari recorded that Jubayr bin Mutim said, “I heard the Prophet recite Surat At-Tur in Al-Maghrib prayer and when he reached this Ayah, “Or were they created by nothing? Or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm belief. Or are with them the treasures of your Lord? Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like?”, I felt my heart would fly away.” (Fath Al-Bari 8:469)

This Hadith is collected in the Two Sahihs using various chains of narration. (Fath Al-Bari 2:289) Jubayr bin Mutim went to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, after the battle of Badr to ransom the captured idolators. At that time, he was still an idolator. Hearing the Prophet recite this Ayah was one of the reasons that he later embraced Islam. Allah the Exalted said, “Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief.” meaning, Allah is censuring the idolators for their idolatry, while asking them if they created the heavens and earth. They knew that Allah Alone is the Creator without partners with Him. However, they fell into idolatry because they had no firm belief, “Or are with them the treasures of your Lord Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like” meanings, do they have the authority to do whatever they will in His kingdom Do they hold the keys to His treasures in their hands “or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like” meanings, are they the tyrants who would hold the creation to account? Never, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored is the Only King and Owner of the existence and He does what He wills.

Allah the Exalted said, “Or have they a stairway, by means of which they listen.” meaning, do they have a stairway to heaven “to the place where the angels are”, “Then let their listener produce some manifest proof.” meaning, let their listener produce evidence to the truth of their actions and statements. They will never be able to do so and therefore, they have nothing and have no evidence for their stance. Allah admonishes them regarding their claim that He has daughters and that the angels are females! The pagans chose for themselves male offspring and preferred them instead of females, and when one of them would be brought the good news of a daughter being born, his face would turn dark on account of his suppressed anger! Yet, they made the angels Allah’s daughters and worshipped them besides Allah, “Or has He only daughters and you have sons?” Allah sends a strong warning and stern admonition to them in this Ayah and a sure promise. Allah said, “Or is it that you ask a wage from them?” meaning, ‘as a remuneration for your preaching Allah’s Message to them Nay, you, do not ask them for a wage,’ “so that they are burdened with a load of debt”, meaning, for in this situation, one will complain of the least bothersome thing and feel it difficult and burdensome for him, “Or that the Unseen is with them, and they write it down?” means, they do not have knowledge of the Unseen, for none in the heavens or earth knows the Unseen except Allah, “Or do they intend a plot But those who disbelieve are themselves plotted against!” Allah the Exalted is asking, ‘Do these people who utter such statements about the Messenger and his religion seek to deceive the people and plot against the Messenger and his Companions If they do, then let them know that their plots will only harm them. Therefore, they are being plotted against rather than being the plotters!’ “Or have they a god other than Allah Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).” This Ayah contains harsh refutation directed at the idolators for worshipping the idols and calling upon rivals along with Allah. Allah next glorifies His Most Honorable Self from what they ascribe to Him, their lies and idolatry, “Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).”

{44. And if they were to see a piece of the heaven falling down, they would say: “Clouds gathered in heaps!”

45. So leave them alone till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting (with horror).

46. The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all, nor will they be helped.

47. And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment before this; but most of them know not.

48. So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes; and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.

49. And in the nighttime also glorify His praises and at the setting of the stars.}

The Stubbornness of the Idolators; Their Punishment

Allah the Exalted reaffirms the stubbornness of the idolators and their ignorance of what goes around them, “And if they were to see a piece of the heaven falling down,” meaning, on them as punishment, they would not believe it is coming their way, saying that, these are layers of clouds on top of each other. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat, “And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to keep on ascending thereto (all day long), they would surely say (in the evening): “Our eyes have been dazzled. Nay, we are a people bewitched.” (15:14-15) Allah the Exalted said, “So leave them alone”, ‘O Muhammad,’ “till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting.” on the Day of Resurrection, “The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all,” meaning, on the Day of Resurrection, their deceit and plots they planned in this life shall not help them in the least, “nor will they be helped.” Allah the Exalted said, “And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment before this” meaning, that of being the torment in this world. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah, “And verily, We will make them taste of the near torment prior to the supreme torment (in the Hereafter), in order that they may return.” (32:21) Allah said; “but most of them know not.” meaning, ‘We will torment them in the life of the world and test them with various hardships, so that they might go back and repent. However, they do not understand what is happening to them or why, because when the torment is removed, they revert to committing the worst of what they used to do before.’

Ordering the Prophet to have Patience and to glorify Allah

Allah the Exalted said, “So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes” meaning, ‘be patient in the face of their annoyance and do not be concerned about it, for you are under Our Eyes and Protection, and We will surely protect you from the people,’ “and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.” Ad-Dahhak said, “Meaning to stand for the Salah (and say): “Glorious are You and with Your praise, Hallowed be Your Name, Exalted be Your majesty, and there is no God (worthy of worship) except You.” (At-Tabari 22:489)

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Umar used to recite this supplication when he began Salah. (Muslim 1:299)

Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded this Hadith from Abu Said and other Companions, who stated that the Prophet used to say that. (Ahmad 3:50) Abu Al-Jawza’ commented on the Ayah; “and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.” “From your sleep, from your bed.” (Al-Qurtubi 17:79) And this is the view chosen by Ibn Jarir. (At-Tabari 22:488) Suporting this view is the Hadith that Imam Ahmad recorded that Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Whoever gets up at night and says: ‘La ilaha illallah, He is One without partners. For Him is the kingdom and all praise is due to Him. He has power over all things. Glory be to Allah, and all praise is due to Allah, and La illaha illallah and Allah is Greater. There is neither might nor power except Allah.’ And then says, ‘O Lord! Forgive me.’ Or invokes (Allah), he will be responded to it, and if he intends and performs ablution and prays, his prayer will be accepted.” (Ahmad 5:313)

Al-Bukhari and the Sunan compilers also recorded this Hadith. (Fath Al-Bari 3:47)

Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid commented on the Ayah, “and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.” saying, “From every gathering you sit in.” Ath-Thawri said that Abu Ishaq narrated that Abu Al-Ahwas said that, “and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.” “When a person wants to stand from a gathering, he says: ‘Glory be to You, O Allah, and with Your praise.”’ (Al-Qurtubi 17:78)

Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, said,

“Whoever sits in a gathering in which he speaks idle excessively, but says before he stands up to depart that gathering, ‘Glory be to You O Allah, and with Your praise, I testify that there is no God (worthy of worship) except You, I seek Your forgiveness, and I repent to You.’ Then, Allah will forgive him what he has said in that gathering.”

This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and this is his wording, and it was also recorded by An-Nasa’i in [Amal] Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:392 and An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:105) At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” It was also recorded by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, “Its chain meets the criteria of Muslim.” (Al-Hakim 1:536)

Allah the Exalted said; “And in the night time also glorify His praises”, meaning remember and worship Allah by reciting the Qur’an and praying at night. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah, “And in some of the night, offer Tahajjud in it as an additional (prayer) for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.” (17:79) Allah said; “and at the setting of the stars.” is in reference to the two voluntary Rakahs before the Dawn prayer, according to a Hadith from Ibn Abbas. These two Rakahs are an established Sunnah performed before the stars are about to set. (At-Tabari 22:379) It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs from A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, “The Prophet was never more regular and particular in offering any voluntary prayer than the two (Sunnah) Rakahs of the Fajr prayer.” (Fath Al-Bari 3:55 and Muslim 1:501) In another narration collected by Muslim, [the Prophet said],

“(Two (Sunnah) Rakahs before Fajr are better than this life and all that in it.” (Muslim 1:501)

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat At-Tur, all praise and gratitude is due to Allah.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Vol 9 Pages 279-304

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The Thirtieth Juz’

Contents

The thirtieth juz’ of the Quran includes the last 36 Surahs of the Qur’an, starting from Surah An-Naba’ and continuing until the last Surah of the Quran, Surah An-Nas.

Revelation

Most of these short Surahs were revealed at the beginning of the Makkan period, when the Muslim community was small in number. Surah Al-Intifar (The Cleaving), Surah Mutaffifin (Those Who Deal in Fraud), Surah Al-Bayinnah (The Clear Evidence) and the Al-Mu’awwidhatayn – Surah Al-Falaq (The Daybreak) and An-Nas (Mankind) – were revealed later in Madinah.

From the many Virtues of these Surahs

Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Whoever wishes to look at the Day of Judgement as if he is seeing it with his own eyes, then let him read, ‘When the sun is wound round.’ (Surah At-Takwir) and; ‘When the heaven is cleft asunder.’ (Surah Al-Intifar) and; ‘When the heaven is split asunder.’ (Surah Al-Inshiqaq).”

Imam Ahmad recorded from An-Nu’man bin Bashir that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, recited Surat Al-A’la and Surat Al-Ghashiyah in the two ‘Id prayers. If the ‘Id prayer fell on Friday, he would recite them in both prayers (‘Id and Salat Al-Jumu’ah). Muslim also recorded this in his Sahih.

Malik and Shubah narrated from ‘Adi bin Thabit, who narrated that Al-Bara’ bin Azib said, “The Prophet used to recite in one of his Rakahs while traveling At-Tin wa-Zaytun’ (Surat At-Tin), and I have never heard anyone with a nicer voice or recitation than him.” The Group has recorded this Hadith in their books.

Ahmad also recorded that Ibn Umar said, “I watched the Prophet twenty-four or twenty-five times reciting in the two Rakahs before the Morning prayer and the two Rakahs after the Sunset prayer, ‘Say: “O Al-Kafirun!”’ (Surah Al-Kafirun) and ‘Say: “He is Allah One.” (Surah Al-Ihklas)

An-Nasa’i recorded from Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah that Ibn Abbas said to him, “O Ibn Utbah! Do you know the last Surah of the Qur’an that was revealed” He answered, “Yes, it was ‘When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.’ (Surah An-Nasr)”. He (Ibn Abbas) said, “You have spoken truthfully.”

Al-Bukhari reported from Amrah bint Abdur-Rahman, who used to stay in the apartment of A’ishah, the wife of the Prophet , that A’ishah said, “The Prophet sent a man as the commander of a war expedition and he used to lead his companions in prayer with recitation (of the Qur’an). And he would complete his recitation with the recitation of ‘Say: He is Allah, One.’ (Surah Al-Ihklas) So when they returned they mentioned that to the Prophet and he said, “Ask him why does he do that.” So they asked him and he said, ‘Because it is the description of Ar-Rahman and I love to recite it. So the Prophet said, “Inform him that Allah the Most High loves him.” This is how Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in his Book of Tawhid.

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded on the authority of Uqbah bin Amir that the Messenger of Allah said, ‘Do you not see that there have been Ayat revealed to me tonight the like of which has not been seen before?’ They are ‘Say: “I seek refuge with, the Lord of Al-Falaq.” (Surah Al-Falaq) and ‘Say: “I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.” (Surah An-Nas) This Hadith was recorded by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i.

Select Quotations

“Truly, Hell is a place of ambush – A dwelling place for the Taghun (transgressors and wrongdoers) they will abide therein for ages. Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink. Except boiling water, and dirty wound discharges – an exact recompense (according to their crimes). For verily they used no to look for a reckoning.” (Surah An-Naba 78:21-27)

“Let man look at his food, We pour fourth water in abundance, And We split the earth in clefts. And We cause the grain to grow, and grapes and clover plants, And olives and date palms, And gardens dense with many trees, And fruits and herbage. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.”(Surah ‘Abasa 80:24-32)

“O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous?”(Surah Al-Intifar 82:6)

“Verily, those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise); That is the great success.” (Surah Al-Buruj 85:11)

“As for man, when his Lord tries him by giving him honour and bounties, then he says: ‘My Lord had honoured me!’ But when he tries him by straitening his means of life, he says, ‘My Lord has humiliated me!’ Nay! But you treat no the orphans with kindness and generosity. And urge not one another on the feeding of the poor And you devour the inheritance – all with greed. And you love wealth with much love.” (Surah Al-Fajr 89:15-20)

“Indeed he succeeds who purifies his own self, And indeed he fails who corrupts his own self.” (Surah Ash-Shams 91:9)

“Certainly, your efforts and deeds are diverse, As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, And believes in Al-Husna (the best/reward from Allah) We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And denies Al-Husna, We will make smooth for him the path for evil.” (Surah Al-Lail 92:4-10)

“Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, with every hardship is relief. So when you have finished (your occupation), devote yourself to Allah’s worship. And to your Lord (Alone) turn (all your) intentions and hopes.” (Surah Ash-Sharh 94:5-8)

“When the earth is shaken with its (final) earthquake, And when the earth throws out its burdens. And man will say: ‘What is the matter with it?’ That Day it will declare its information (about all that happened over it of good and evil) Because your Lord will inspire it.” (Surah Az-Zalzalah 99:1-4)

“By the time, verily man is in loss. Except those who believe and righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth and recommend one another to patience.” (Surah Al-Asr 103:1-3)

Main Themes

This entire juz’ has a special place in the hearts of all Muslims. It is called Juz’ Amma, a name which reflects the first word of the first ayah of this section (78:1), and contains short Surahs which are memorised by many of us.

These early Makkan Surahs were revealed at a time when Muslim community was small in number, and in need of confirmation and support. The passages remind the believers of Allah’s Mercy, and the promise that in the end, good will prevail over evil. They enjoin us to look at Allah’s Signs in His Creation: our food, water and plants (80:24-32); our bodies fashioned us perfectly in due proportion (82:7); the heaven holding stars (85:1);  the sky which gives rain (86:11); mountains and how they are rooted (89:19); the bright sun and the moon that follows it (91:1-2); His is the Dominion of the heavens and earth (85:9), will we not then take heed?

The Qur’an is described as a revelation of spiritual guidance. Believers are advised to patiently persevere, and remain strong in what they believe. Judgement Day will be a terrifying experience: when ‘hearts will shake with fear and anxiety’ (79:8); ‘that Day shall a man flee from his brother, and from his mother and his father, and from his wife and his children’ (80:34-36); ‘the seas become as a blazing Fire’ (81:6); ‘when the graves are turned upside down’ (82:4); ‘the heaven is split asunder’ (84:1) and ‘mankind will be like moths scattered about’ (101:4).

Those who believe in the Message and do righteous deeds, such as prayer, fasting and giving charity, will be rewarded with Paradise which is described as a place where the believers recline on ‘thrones’ (83:23); drinking (non-intoxicating) wine that smells of musk (83:26); in ‘gardens under which rivers flow’ (85:11);  ’cups set at hand, and cushions set in rows, and rich carpets (all) spread out’ (88:14-16).

Those who disbelieve in the Message are given the threat of torment and punishment. Hell in described in frightening detail as a place of ‘ambush’ (78:21); where the disbelievers in the Fire will ‘taste its burning’ (84:12); there they will neither die nor live (88:13); and be made to ‘drink from a boiling spring’ (88:5); and eat from a ‘poisonous thorny plant’ (88:6); the Fire will ‘leap up over their hearts’ (104:7) and ‘will be shut over them’ (90:20).

May Allah make us of those who are saved from the Hellfire and its torments, and of those who enter His Paradise swiftly. May He accept this study of His Glorious Qur’an as part of our worship of Him Alone, in all His Glory. Ameen.

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Tafsir of Surah Adh-Dhariyat Ayat 1-60 (end)

Surah Adh-Dhariyat 

(The Winnowing Winds)

Chapter 51

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

{1. By the scattering Dhariyat;

2. And the laden Hamilat;

3. And the steady Jariyat;

4. And the distributors of command,

5. Verily, that which you are promised is surely true.

6. And verily, Ad-Din is sure to occur.

7. By the heaven full of Hubuk,

8. Certainly, you have different ideas.

9. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.

10. Cursed be Al-Kharrasun

11. Who are under a cover of Sahun,

12. They ask: “When will be the Day of Ad-Din?”

13. (It will be) a Day when they will be Yuftanun in the Fire!

14.”Taste you your trial! This is what you used to ask to be hastened!”}

 

Affirming the News of the Resurrection

The Commander of the faithful, Ali bin Abi Talib may Allah be pleased with him, ascended the Minbar in Kufah and declared, “Any Ayah in the Book of Allah the Exalted and any Sunnah from Allah’s Messenger you ask me about today, I will explain them.” Ibn Al-Kawwa stood up and said, “O Leader of the faithful! What is the meaning of Allah’s statement, “By the scattering Dhariyat,’‘ and Ali said, “The wind.” The man asked, “And the laden Hamilat?” Ali said, “The clouds.” The man again asked, “And the steady Jariyat?” Ali said, “The ships.” The man asked, “And the distributors of command?” Ali said, it refers to “The angels.” (At-Tabari 22:389-392)

Some scholars said that Al-Jariyat Yusra refers to the stars that float in their orbits with ease. This would mean that the things mentioned were ascendant in their order, beginning with the lower, then mentioning the higher one after that, etc. The winds bring the clouds, the stars are above them and the angels who distribute by Allah’s order are above that, and they descend with Allah’s legislative orders and the decrees He determines.

These Ayat contain a vow from Allah that Resurrection shall come to pass. Allah’s statement, “Verily, that which you are promised is surely true.”, it is a truthful promise, “And verily, Ad-Din” the Recompense, “will occur”, it will surely come to pass. Then Allah the Exalted said, “By the heaven full of Hubuk,” Ibn Abbas said; “Full of beauty, grace, magnificence and perfection.” (At-Tabari 22:395-396) Mujahid, Ikrimah, Said bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Abu Salih, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Atiyah Al-Awfi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and others said similarly. (At-Tabari 22:396-397) Ad-Dahhak, Al-Minhal bin Amr and others said, “The meandering of the water, sand and plants when the wind passes over them; carving paths out of them, that is the Hubuk.” All of these sayings return to the same meaning, that of beauty and complexity. The sky is high above us, clear yet thick, firmly structured, spacious and graceful, beautified with stars such as the sun and orbiting planets such as the moon and the planets of the solar system.

The Differing Claims of the Idolators

Allah the Exalted said, “Certainly, you have different ideas.” Allah says, ‘you disbelievers who deny the Messengers have different and confused opinions that do not connect or conform to each other.’ Qatadah commented on the Ayah, “You have different ideas about the Qur’an. Some of you agree that it is true while some others deny this fact.” (Abdur Razzaq 4:242) Allah said, “So, verily you and those whom you worship cannot lead astray, except those who are predetermined to burn in Hell!” (37:161-163) Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and As-Suddi said: “Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.” “He who is misguided is led astray from it. ” Allah said; “Cursed be Al-Kharrasun”, Mujahid said; “The liars. This is similar to what is mentioned in (Surah) Abasa: “Be cursed man! How ungrateful he is!” (80:17) Al-Kharrasun are those who claim that they will never be brought back to life, doubting the coming of Resurrection.” (At-Tabari 22:400) Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas; “Cursed be Al-Kharrasun”, “Cursed be the doubters.” (At-Tabari 22:399) Muadh said similarly, may Allah be pleased with him. During one of his speeches he said, “Destroyed be the doubters.” Qatadah said, “Al-Kharrasun are the people of doubt and suspicion.” (At-Tabari 22:400)

Allah said; “Who are under a cover of Sahun,” Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and others said; “In disbelief and doubt, they are heedless and playful.” (At-Tabari 22:400-401) Allah said, “They ask: “When will be the Day of Ad-Din?” They utter this statement in denial, stubbornness, doubt and suspicion. Allah the Exalted replied, “(It will be) a Day when they will be Yuftanun in the Fire!” Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and several others said that Yuftanun means punished. (At-Tabari 22:402) Mujahid said: “Just as gold is forged in the fire.” (At-Tabari 22:402) A group of others also including Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Zayd bin Aslam, and Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, “They will be burnt.” “Taste you your trial!”, Mujahid said, “Your burning” while others said, “Your punishment.” “This is what you used to ask to be hastened!” This will be said admonishing, chastising, humiliating and belittling them. Allah knows best.

{15. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs,

16. Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them. Verily, they were before this doers of good.

17. They used to sleep but little by night.

18. And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.

19. And in their wealth there was the right of the Sa’il and the Mahrum.

20. And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.

21. And also in yourselves. Will you not then see?

22. And in the heaven is your provision, and that which you are promised.

23. Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth, it is the truth, just as you can speak.}

Qualities of Those Who have Taqwa and Their Reward

Allah the Exalted informs about those who have Taqwa, that on the Day of their Return they will be amidst gardens and springs. To the contrary the miserable ones will be amidst torment, punishment, fire and chains. Allah said, “Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them.” His statement; “Taking” describes the state of the people of Taqwa in the midst of gardens and springs. They will receive what their Lord gives them, meaning, delight, happiness and favors. Allah the Exalted and Most Honoured said, “Verily, they were before that”, in the life of the world, “gooddoers” As He said: “Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!” (69:24)

Allah the Exalted described the good acts that they performed, “They used to sleep but little at night.” The scholars of Tafsir have two opinions about this:

The First Opinion

The first is that, they used to spend a little part of every night awake. Ibn Abbas said, “Every night, they would worship Allah, even during a little part of the night.” (At-Tabari 22:407) Qatadah narrated that Mutarrif bin Abdullah said, “Hardly a night would pass by them that they did not pray to Allah the Exalted and Most Honoured, either in the beginning, or the middle of it.” (At-Tabari 22:407) Mujahid said, “Only a few nights, if any, would they sleep through the night until the morning without praying Tahajjud.” (At-Tabari 22:408) Qatadah said similarly. Anas bin Malik and Abu Al-Aliyah said, “They used to pray between Al-Maghrib and Al-Isha’.” (At-Tabari 22:407-408)

The Second Opinion

They used to spend a little part of the night in sleep. This was preferred by Ibn Jarir. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: “They used to sleep but little by night”, “They performed voluntary night prayer and would not sleep during the night except a little. They were active and would continue until they were seeking forgiveness right before dawn.” (At-Tabari 22:408-409)

Abdullah bin Salam said, “When the Messenger of Allah arrived at Al-Madinah, people quickly gathered around him and I was among them. When I saw his face, I knew that it was not the face of a liar. The first statement I heard from him was,

“O people! Feed with food, keep relations to kith and kin, spread the Salam, pray at night while people are asleep, and you will enter Paradise in peace.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:187)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Verily, there are lofty rooms in Paradise in which their outside can be seen from inside and their inside from the outside.”

Abu Musa Al-Ashari said, “Who are they for, O Allah’s Messenger?” He said, “For those who use soft speech, feed food and spend the night in voluntary prayer while people are asleep.” (Ahmad 2:173)

Allah said: “And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.” Mujahid and several others said: “They were performing Salah.” (At-Tabari 22:413) Others said that they would stand in prayer during the night and delayed asking Allah for forgiveness until the latter hours before dawn. As Allah, the Exalted the Blessed, said; “And those who seek forgiveness during the last hours of the night.” (3:17); This is because it is better if asking for forgiveness is done while praying.

It is confirmed in the Sahih collections as well as others, from several Companions, that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings fo Allah be upon him, said,

“Allah, the Most High, descends each night to the lowest heaven when the last third of the night remains. He says, “Is there anyone who is repenting so that I may accept his repentance Is there anyone seeking forgiveness, so that I may forgive him Is there anyone asking of Me, so that I may grant him his request” until Fajr begins.” (Fath Al-Bari 3:35)

Many of the scholars of Tafsir said that when the Prophet Yaqub said to his sons: “I will ask my Lord for forgiveness for you” (12:98), he delayed doing so until the hours before dawn.

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “And in their wealth there was the right of the Sa’il and the Mahrum.” After Allah mentioned their quality of performing prayer, He then mentioned their quality of spending in charity and acts of compassion and kindness, “And in their wealth there was the right”, a designated part which they dedicated to the Sa’il and Mahrum. The Sa’il is the poor who begs others, and he has a due right. As for the Mahrum, Ibn Abbas and Mujahid said, “He is the poor person who does not receive a stipend.” (At-Tabari 22:414) Meaning he does not receive a stipend from the Muslim treasury, nor does he have a means of income, nor a profession.

The Mother of the faithful, A’ishah may Allah be pleased with her, said about the Mahrum, “He is the displaced, the one who does not have a profession to easily earn an income from.” Qatadah and Az-Zuhri: “The Mahrum is the one who does not ask the people for anything.” (At-Tabari 22:416) Az-Zuhri added that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“The poor (Miskin) is not the one who goes round to the people and asks them for a mouthful or two or a date or two. But the poor is the one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, so that others may give him something in charity.” (An-Nasai 5:85)

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using another chain of narration. (Fath Al-Bari 3:399)

Allah’s Signs on the Earth and in Mankind

Allah the Exalted and the Blessed said next, “And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.” Allah says that there are signs on earth that testify to the might of the Creator and His boundless ability. These signs include what Allah placed on the earth, the various plants, animals, valleys, mountains, deserts, rivers and oceans. He also created mankind with different languages, colors, intentions and abilities, and a variety among them, differences in the power of understanding and comprehension, their deeds, and ultimately earning happiness or misery. Allah put every organ in their bodies in its rightful place where they most need it to be. So He said, “And also in yourselves. Will you not then see?” Qatadah commented, “He who thinks about his own creation will realize that he was created with flexible joints so that it is easy for him to perform acts of worship.” (Al-Qurtubi 17:40)

Allah the Exalted said next, “And in the heaven is your provision,” meaning, rain, “and that which you are promised.” meaning Paradise. This was said by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and several others. (At-Tabari 22:420)

Allah said: “Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth, it is the truth, just as you can speak.” Allah is swearing by His honorable Self, all of the matters of the Judgement, Resurrection, and Recompense that they have been promised shall certainly occur. Therefore, it is the truth, there being no doubt about it, so do not doubt its coming, just as you do not doubt that you can speak When he would talk to one of his friends, Muadh used to say: “What I am saying is as true as your being here.”

{24. Has the story reached you, of the honored guests of Ibrahim

25. When they came in to him and said: “Salaman!” He answered: “Salamun” and said: “You are a people unknown to me.”

26. Then he turned to his household, and brought out a roasted calf.

27. And placed it before them (saying): “Will you not eat?”

28. Then he conceived fear of them (when they ate not). They said: “Fear not.” And they gave him glad tidings of a son having knowledge.

29. Then his wife came forward with a loud voice; she smote her face, and said: “A barren old woman!”

30. They said: “Even so says your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.”}

 

The Guests of the Prophet Ibrahim

We mentioned this story before in Surah Hud and Al-Hijr. Allah said, “Has the story reached you, of the honored guests of Ibrahim?”, whom Ibrahim honoured and who, “they said: “Salaman!” He answered: “Salamun.” “When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or return it equally.” (4:86) So the Friend of Allah chose a better reply in return for their greeting, implementing Allah’s command: Reciprocating the greeting with the term Salamun is stronger than the greeting using the term Salaman.

The three angels; Jibril, Mika’il and Israfil came to Ibrahim in the image of handsome young wonderfully graceful men. This is why Ibrahim said, “You are a people unknown to me.” Allah the Exalted said, “Then he turned to his household,” Ibrahim discretely went inside in haste, “and brought out a roasted calf.” from the best of his menu, And in another Ayah “And he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf.” (11:69) means roasted on hot coals “And placed it before them”, brought it close to them, “Saying, “Will you not eat?’ Ibrahim said this polite and kind statement to his guests, and surely, this Ayah indicates proper manners for honoring guests. For he brought the food to his guests quickly, while they were unaware that it was being prepared for them. He did not first mention this favour to them by saying, “We will make food for you.” Rather, he discretely had it prepared and placed before them. He prepared the best kind of food he had, a young, fat roasted calf. He did not place the food far from them and invite them to come close to it to eat. Rather, he placed it close to them and refrained from ordering them to eat. Instead he invited them using a kind and subtle invitation, “Will you not eat?” This statement is similar to one of us saying to a guest, “Would you be kind and generous to do such and such” Allah the Exalted said, “Then he conceived fear of them.” this Ayah is explained by Allah’s statement, “But when he saw their hands went not towards it, he mistrusted them, and felt a sense of fear of them. They said: “Fear not, we have been sent against the people of Lut.” And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed.” (11:70-71), meaning, she was glad that the people of Lut would be destroyed on account of their rebellion and transgression against Allah, the Exalted. This is when the angels delivered the good news to her of a son, Ishaq, and Yaqub after Ishaq, “She said: “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man? Verily, this is a strange thing!” They said, “Do you wonder at the decree of Allah? The mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, O family of the house. Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.” (11:72-73) Allah said here; “And they gave him glad tidings of a son having knowledge.” This news was as good to Ibrahim as it was to his wife, for this son would be theirs, and therefore, they both were getting some good news. Allah the Exalted said, “Then his wife came forward with a loud voice”, She screamed loudly, according to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Abu Salih, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, Ath-Thawri and As-Suddi. She said when she shouted, “Ah! Woe to me!” (25:28), then, “she smote her face,” meaning, she struck herself upon her forehead, according to Mujahid and Ibn Sabit. Ibn Abbas said that she smacked her face just as women do when confronted with an amazing thing, (At-Tabari 22:427) “and said: “A barren old woman!” meaning, “How can I give birth while I am an old woman? And even when I was young I was barren and could not have children,” “They said: “Even so says your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower”, ‘He is the All-Knower of the honor that you are worthy of and He is the most Wise in His statements and decisions.’

{31. (Ibrahim) said: “Then for what purpose you have come, O messengers”

32. They said: “We have been sent to a people who are criminals.”

33. “To send down upon them stones of clay.”

34. “Marked by your Lord for transgressors.”

35. So We brought out from therein the believers.

36. But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one.

37. And We have left there a sign for those who fear the painful torment.}

The Angels were sent to destroy the People of the Prophet Lut

Allah the Exalted said about Ibrahim, peace be upon him, “Then when the fear had gone away from (Ibrahim), and the glad tidings had reached him, he began to plead with Us for the people of Lut. Verily, Ibrahim was, without doubt forbearing, used to invoke Allah with humility, and was repentant. “O Ibrahim! Forsake this. Indeed, the commandment of your Lord has gone forth. Verily, there will come a torment for them which cannot be turned back.” (11:74-76) Allah said here, “(Ibrahim) said: “Then for what purpose you have come, O messengers?” meaning, ‘what is the mission that you were sent with,’ “They said: “We have been sent to a people who are criminals.” in reference to the people of Lut, “To send down upon them stones of baked clay, marked”, or written, “by your Lord for transgressors.” recorded with Allah to their names; each stone has the name of its companion. Allah said in Surat Al-Ankabut, “(Ibrahim) said: “But there is Lut in it.” They said: “We know better who is there. We will verily save him and his family except his wife: she will be of those who remain behind.”(29:32), and said here, “So We brought out from therein the believers.” They are: Lut and his family, except his wife, “But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one.” Allah the Exalted said, “And We have left there a sign for those who fear the painful torment.” meaning, ‘We left a proof of the punishment, torment and stones made of Sijjil (baked clay) that We sent on them; We made their dwelling place a putrid, evil, dead sea. This should provide a lesson for the believers,’ “for those who fear the painful torment.”

{38. And in Musa, when We sent him to Firawn with a manifest authority.

39. But (he) turned away along with his hosts, and said: “A sorcerer or a madman.”

40. So We took him and his armies, and dumped them into the sea (Yamm), for he was blameworthy.

41. And in Ad when We sent against them the barren wind;

42. It spared nothing that it reached, but blew it into broken spreads of rotten ruins.

43. And in Thamud, when they were told: “Enjoy yourselves for a while!”

44. But they insolently defied the command of their Lord, so the Saiqah overtook them while they were looking.

45. Then they were unable to rise up, nor could they help themselves.

46. (So were) the people of Nuh before them. Verily, they were a people who were rebellious.}

Lessons from the Destruction of Firawn, Ad, Thamud, and the People of Nuh

Allah the Exalted said, “And in Musa, when We sent him to Firawn with a manifest authority.” meaning, with clear proof and plain evidence, “But he turned away along with his hosts,” meaning, in rebellion and arrogance, Firawn turned away from the plain truth that Musa was sent with, “Bending his neck in pride, and leading (others) too (far) astray from the path of Allah.” (22:9 ), meaning turning away from truth in arrogance, “and said: “A sorcerer, or a madman.” meaning Firawn said to Musa, “With regards to the message that you brought me, you are either a magician or a madman.” Allah the Exalted replied, “So We took him and his armies, and dumped them”, meaning ‘We threw them,’ “into the Yamm”, into the sea, “for he was blameworthy.” meaning, Firawn was a denying sinner and a stubborn disbeliever worthy of blame. Allah the Exalted and Most Honoured said “And in Ad when We sent against them the barren wind” that destroys everything and produces nothing. This was said by Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and others. (At-Tabari 22:434) Allah’s statement, “It spared nothing that it reached,” meaning, everything that the wind could destroy, “but blew it into broken spreads of rotten ruins.” meaning, made it just like a rotten and destroyed. Said bin Al-Musayyib and others commented on: “when We sent against them the barren wind”, “Southerly winds.” (At-Tabari 22:433) However, there is a Hadith in the Sahih from Shubah bin Al-Hakam, from Mujahid, from Ibn Abbas, who said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“I have been made victorious with the Saba (easterly wind), and the people of Ad were destroyed with the Dabur (westerly wind).” (Fath Al-Bari 2:604)

Allah saying, “And in Thamud, when they were told: “Enjoy yourselves for a while!” is just as He said in another Ayah, “And as for Thamud, We guided them to the path of truth, but they preferred blindness to guidance; so the Saiqah of disgracing torment seized them.” (41:17) Allah said here, “And in Thamud, when they were told: “Enjoy yourselves for a while!” But they insolently defied the command of their Lord, so the Saiqah overtook them while they were looking.” Thamud were given a respite for three days, during which they await the torment. In the early morning of the fourth day, the torment overtook them, “Then they were unable to rise up,” they were unable to escape and run away from it, “nor could they help themselves.” nor could they save themselves from the torment that befell them. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “(So were) the people of Nuh before them.” meaning, ‘We destroyed the people of Nuh before these people (Firawn, Ad and Thamud).’ “Verily, they were a people who were revellious.” We mentioned these stories in details before in the Tafsir of several other Surahs.

{47. With Hands We constructed the heaven. Verily, We are able to expand the vastness of space thereof.

48. And We have made the earth a Firash; how excellent spreader (thereof) are We!

49. And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember.

50. So, flee to Allah. Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him.

51. And set not up any other god along with Allah. Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him.}

Proofs of Allah’s Oneness abound in the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth

Allah reminds us of the creating of the higher and lower worlds, “We constructed the heaven.” meaning, ‘We made it as a high roof, protected from falling,’ “with Hands”, meaning, with strength, according to Abdullah bin Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ath-Thawri and several others, (At-Tabari 22:438) “Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof.” means, ‘We made it vast and We brought its roof higher without pillars to support it, and thus it is hanging independently.’ “And We have made the earth a Firash”, meaning, ‘We have made it a resting place for the created,’ “how excellent a spreader (thereof) are We!”, meaning, ‘We spread it for its inhabitants,’ “And of everything We have created pairs,” meaning, all the created are in pairs, the heaven and earth, night and day, sun and moon, land and sea, light and darkness, faith and disbelief, death and life, misery and happiness, Paradise and Fire, in addition to the animals and plants. The statement of Allah the Exalted, “that you may remember.” and know that the Creator, Allah, is One without partners, “So, flee to Allah.” meaning, seek shelter with Him and trust in Him in all of your affairs, “Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him. And set not up any other god along with Allah.” do not associate any partners with Him, “Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him.”

{52. Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!”

53.Have they transmitted this saying to these? Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!

54. So turn away from them, you are not blameworthy.

55. And remind, for verily, the reminding profits the believers.

56. And I created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.

57. I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me.

58. Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.

59. And verily, for those who do wrong, there is a portion of torment like to the evil portion of torment (which came for) their likes (of old); so let them not ask Me to hasten on!

60. Then woe to those who disbelieve from their Day which they have been promised.}

All Messengers met the Same Type of Denial from Their Nations

Allah comforts His Prophet by saying to Him, ‘just as these idolators denied you, the disbelievers of old used the same words with their Messengers,’ “Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!” Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “Have they transmitted this saying to these”, meaning, have those of the past taught these words to the people of the present “Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!” They are tyrannical people whose hearts are the same. Therefore, the latter said the same as those before them have said. Allah the Exalted said, “So turn away from them,” meaning, ‘O Muhammad, turn away from the Quraysh idolators,’ “you are not blameworthy.” meaning, ‘We blame you not if you turn away from them,’ “And remind, for verily, the reminding profits the believers.” meaning, for only the believing hearts benefit from being reminded.

Allah Only created Mankind and Jinns to worship Him Alone

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, “And I created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.” meaning, ‘I, Allah, only created them so that I order them to worship Me, not that I need them.’ Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah, “…except that they should worship Me.” meaning, “So that they worship Me, willingly or unwillingly.”

Allah the Exalted said, “I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Masud said, “The Messenger of Allah taught the following:

“Verily, I am the Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.” (Ahmad 1:418)

Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also collected this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” (Abu Dawud 4:290) The meaning of this Ayah (51:56) is that, Allah the Exalted, the Blessed created the creatures so that they worship Him Alone without partners. Those who obey Him will be rewarded with the best rewards, while those who disobey Him will receive the worst punishment from Him. Allah stated that He does not need creatures, but rather, they are in need of Him in all conditions. He is alone their Creator and Provider.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Allah the Exalted said, “O Son of Adam! Busy yourself in worshipping Me, and I will fill your chest with riches and dissipate your meekness. Otherwise, I will fill your chest with distracting affairs and will not do away with your meekness.” (Ahmad 2:358)

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib.” (Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:166)

The statement of Allah the Exalted, “And verily, for those who do wrong, there is a portion”, indicates that they will receive their due share of the torment, “like the evil portion (which came for) their likes (of old); so let them not ask Me to hasten on!” let them not ask that the punishment is rushed to them, for it will surely come, “Then woe to those who disbelieve from their Day which they have been promised.” meaning, the Day of Resurrection.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Adh-Dhariyat; all praise is due to Allah and all the favours come from Him Alone.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abrdiged) Vol 9 Pages 252-278

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Beware, Beware!

Whoever ponders will find himself in a state of apprehension for the son of Adam will face great terrors during his life such as death, the grave, the barzakh, the Standing; the Bridge and the Balance, and the greatest of all: standing before Allah, Mighty and Magnificent, and the Fire. He will fear losing faith at the last minute and being condemned for eternity in the Fire. The true believer will never feel secure from all these matters, “No one feels secure from the Plan of Allah’s except the losing people.” (Suarh Al-Araf 7:99)

All of these matters should prevent the son of Adam from resting and relaxing. A person was seen in a dream saying,

How can the eye sleep in peace and serenity?
Yet in which of the Two Abodes will it dwell?
– There is no guarantee.

One of those on his death bed, a devout worshipper, was asked about his state to which he said,

None who enters the grave knows what lies awaiting
Save Allah, the One who to the graves is leading.

In this respect one of them said,

By Allah, were man to know for what he was created,
He would not be remiss nor would he sleep.
He was created for such a thing that be assured
Were hearts to see it neither stray nor would they sleep:
Death, then to the grave, then to be resurrected:
Rebuke dire and terrors appalling, (in this beweep!)
For the Day of Gathering have men exerted,
Praying and fasting in trepidation deep!
But we, when prohibited or commanded,
Are like the People of the Cave: awake yet asleep!

All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds.
Peace and blessings be upon our Master, Muhammad, his family and all his Companions.

This is the end of The Journey to Allah by Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali Pages 90-91

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The Twenty-ninth Juz’

Contents

The twenty-ninth  juz’ of the Quran begins with Surah Al-Mulk, and includes Surah Al-Qalam (The Pen), Surah Al-Haqqah (The Inevitable), Surah Al-Ma’arij (The ways of Ascent), Surah Nuh (Noah), Surah Al-Jinn (The Jin), Surah Al-Muzzammil (The One Wrapped in Garments), Surah Al-Muddaththir (The One Enveloped), Surah Al-Qiyamah (The Resurrection), Surah Al-Insan (Man) and Surah Mursalat (Those Sent Forth) in their entirety.

Revelation

Most of these short Surahs were revealed at the beginning of the Makkan period, when the Muslim community was small in number and in need of strengthening of faith.

From the Virtues of these Surahs

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah that Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, said: “Verily, there is a chapter in the Qur’an which contains thirty Ayat that will intercede on behalf of its reciter until he is forgiven. It is: “Blessed be He in Whose Hand is the dominion.” (Surah Al Mulk)

At-Tabarani and Al-Hafiz Ad-Diya’ Al-Maqdisi both recorded from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said: “There is a chapter of the Qur’an that will argue on behalf of its reciter until it causes him to enter into Paradise. It is: “Blessed be He in Whose Hand is the dominion.” (Surah Al Mulk)

Al-Bukhari recorded from Abdullah – that is Ibn Mas’ud — that he said, “While we were with the Messenger of Allah in a cave at Mina, ‘By the Mursalat.’ was revealed to him. He was reciting it and I was learning it from his mouth. Verily, his mouth was moist with it when a snake leaped out at us. The Prophet said, ‘Kill it!’ So we quickly went after it, but it got away. Then the Prophet said: ‘It was saved from your harm just as you all were saved from its harm.”’ (Surah Al-Mursulat)

In a report from Malik on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas, he narrated that Umm Al-Fadl (his mother) heard him (Ibn Abbas) reciting: ‘By the Mursalat’ so she said, “O my son! You reminded me with your recitation of this Surat. Verily, it is the last thing I heard from the Messenger of Allah. He recited it in the Maghrib prayer (i.e., before he died).” Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this report in the Two Sahihs by way of Malik. (Surah Al-Mursulat)

Select Quotations

“Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah) will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My Warning?” (Surah Al-Mulk 67:16-17)

“And verily, this (Qur’an) is a Reminder for the Muttaqun (pious). And verily, We know that there are some amongst you that deny (this Qur’an). And indeed it (this Qur’an) will be an anguish for the disbelievers (on the Day of Resurrection), And verily, it (this Qur’an) is an absolute Truth with certainty. So glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.” (69:48-52)

“Verily, man was created very impatient; Irritable when evil touches him. Except those who are devoted to Salat (prayers); Those who remain constant in their Salat (prayers); And those in whose wealth there is a recognised right.” (Surah Al-Ma’arij 70:19-24)

“And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with a complete devotion.  (He Alone is) Lord of the East and the West; there is no god but He. So take Him Alone as your Disposer of your Affairs. And be patience (O Muhammad) with what they say, and keep away from them in a good way.” (Surah Al-Muzzammil 73:8-11)

“And they give food inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him) to the Miskin (the poor), the orphan and the captive.” (Surah Al-Insan 76:8)

Main Themes

The last two juz’ of the Qur’an mark a break from the previous sections. Each surah is shorter in length, dates mostly from the Makkan period, prior to the migration to Madinah, and focuses on the internal spiritual life of believers. There is very little discussion of practical matters of daily living, interacting with the larger community, or legal rulings. Rather, the focus is on strengthening one’s internal Faith in Allah, the Almighty.

The first Surah of this section is called Surah Al-Mulk which translates as ‘The Dominion’, and as the hadith cited above states, the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, told us that it would intercede on behalf of its reciter until they are forgiven. May Allah make us of those people, Ameen. He, peace be upon him, also urged his followers to recite this Surah each night before sleeping. Its message emphasizes the power of Allah, who created and maintains all things. Without the blessings and provisions of Allah, we would have nothing. Unbelievers are warned about the penalties of the Fire, awaiting those who reject faith.

Surah Al-Qalam gives the parable of the People of the Garden who felt pride in their gardens. They said they would pick fruits in the morning without saying ‘InshaAllah’ and that they would prevent the poor people from taking any fruits. Allah brought a fire that blackened their crops, and they realised the error of their ways. Such is the punishment (in this life), but truly, the punishment of the Hereafter is greater (68:17-33).

Surah Al-Haqqah speaks the inevitable Day of Resurrection, and the punishments that befell those who rejected the Message that was sent to them. The people of ‘Ad were destroyed by a violent wind, Fir’aun (Pharoah), the people of Lut (Lot) and the people of Nuh (Noah) were all overwhelmed.

Surah Al-Ma’arij reminds us about the torment that no-one can avert. On that Day the sky will be like the boiling filth of oil, the mountains will be like flakes of wool and no friend will ask about the other (70:8-10).

Surah Nuh tells of how the Prophet Nuh (Noah) peace be upon him, warned his people that they should worship Allah alone before the coming of a painful torment. But when he called them they thrust their fingers in their ears, and covered themselves in their garments magnifying their pride (71:7) so they were destroyed. Allah created us from the dust of the earth, and placed the seven heavens above one another with the moon and the sun as lamps. Do you not think He can bring you forth again on the day of Resurrection?

Surah Al-Jinn tells us of the incident when a group of Jinn heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, reciting Qur’an and became believers.

Surah Al-Muzzammil contains the command for the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon, to stand in the night prayer reciting Qur’an in a slow and pleasant style. Be patient with what others say, and keep away from them in a good way (73:10).

Surah Al-Muddaththir contain some of the earliest verses revealed to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, after Surah Al-Alaq. He is called to arise and warn the people, to purify his garments, keep away from the idols and to be patient for the sake of his Lord. Those who deny the Message will be cast into the Fire (74:26).

In Surah Al-Qiyamah Allah reminds us of the Day of Reckoning when the sight will be dazed, and the sun and the moon will be joined togther. That Day there will be no refuge except with Allah. Man will be a witness against himself (75:14) and will be unable to make excuses.

Surah Al-Insan tells is how we were created Nutfah, mixed drops of male a female discharge, in order to try us. We were shown the way, whether we were grateful or ungrateful for it. The believers will be rewarded with Paradise, reclining on raised thrones in the shade with bunches of fruit and silver vessels, and the disbelievers will be recompensed with Hell with iron chains, iron collars and a blazing Fire.

In Surah Mursalat Allah testifies by the winds that blow violently and scatter clouds and rain, and by the Qur’an and the angels that bring the revelation, that the Promise of the Day of Judgement is true. That Day the stars will lose their light, the heavens will be cleft asunder, and the mountains will be blown away. Didn’t Allah destroy the people of civilisations past? Didn’t He create you from despised fluids? Then, woe to those who deny the Day of Resurrection.

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